Gene Symbol: Agrp
Description: agouti related neuropeptide
Alias: agouti-related protein, agouti related protein
Species: rat
Products:     Agrp

Top Publications

  1. Lopez M, Seoane L, Tovar S, Garcia M, Nogueiras R, Dieguez C, et al. A possible role of neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein and leptin receptor isoforms in hypothalamic programming by perinatal feeding in the rat. Diabetologia. 2005;48:140-8 pubmed
  2. Ollmann M, Wilson B, Yang Y, Kerns J, Chen Y, Gantz I, et al. Antagonism of central melanocortin receptors in vitro and in vivo by agouti-related protein. Science. 1997;278:135-8 pubmed
    ..Ubiquitous expression of human AGRP complementary DNA in transgenic mice caused obesity without altering pigmentation...
  3. Mayfield D, Brown A, Page G, Garvey W, Shriver M, Argyropoulos G. A role for the Agouti-Related Protein promoter in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:568-73 pubmed
    ..The polymorphic site could affect the expression levels of hAGRP and the high expressing C/C genotype was significantly associated with high BMI and type 2 diabetes in Africans. ..
  4. Orozco Solis R, Matos R, Lopes de Souza S, Grit I, Kaeffer B, Manhaes de Castro R, et al. Perinatal nutrient restriction induces long-lasting alterations in the circadian expression pattern of genes regulating food intake and energy metabolism. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35:990-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..The programming of the circadian clock may contribute to the alterations in feeding and energy metabolism associated with malnutrition in early life, which might promote the development of metabolic disorders in adulthood. ..
  5. Lage R, Vazquez M, Varela L, Saha A, Vidal Puig A, Nogueiras R, et al. Ghrelin effects on neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamus depend on fatty acid metabolism actions on BSX but not on gender. FASEB J. 2010;24:2670-9 pubmed publisher
    The orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated by neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
  6. Stofkova A, Skurlova M, Kiss A, Zelezna B, Zorad S, Jurcovicova J. Activation of hypothalamic NPY, AgRP, MC4R, AND IL-6 mRNA levels in young Lewis rats with early-life diet-induced obesity. Endocr Regul. 2009;43:99-106 pubmed
    ..ARC, the SHF rats showed increased expression of mRNA for orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and anorexigenic pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6...
  7. Sanchez E, Singru P, Acharya R, Bodria M, Fekete C, Zavacki A, et al. Differential effects of refeeding on melanocortin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..IR) in the PVN and ARC 2 h after refeeding and hypothalamic TRH, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) mRNA levels 4, 12, and 24 h after refeeding were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to prolonged fasting...
  8. Shrestha Y, Wickwire K, Giraudo S. Role of AgRP on Ghrelin-induced feeding in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Regul Pept. 2006;133:68-73 pubmed
    ..the role of the melanocortin system as mediator of ghrelin's orexigenic actions, we explored the involvement of AgRP in Ghrelin's orexigenic effect by testing the effect on food intake after their co-administration in the PVN, ..
  9. Kas M, Bruijnzeel A, Haanstra J, Wiegant V, Adan R. Differential regulation of agouti-related protein and neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic neurons following a stressful event. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;35:159-64 pubmed
    ..Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are potent food-stimulating neuropeptides that are highly co-localised in arcuate nucleus neurons of the ..

More Information


  1. Korner J, Wardlaw S, Liu S, Conwell I, Leibel R, Chua S. Effects of leptin receptor mutation on Agrp gene expression in fed and fasted lean and obese (LA/N-faf) rats. Endocrinology. 2000;141:2465-71 pubmed
    ..Expression of Agrp is markedly increased in the hypothalamus of mice deficient in leptin (Lep(ob)/Lep(ob)) or its receptor (Lepr(db)/..
  2. Boersma G, Liang N, Lee R, Albertz J, Kastelein A, Moody L, et al. Failure to upregulate Agrp and Orexin in response to activity based anorexia in weight loss vulnerable rats characterized by passive stress coping and prenatal stress experience. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;67:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, agouti-related peptide (Agrp) and orexin (Hctr) expression were increased in all but the PNS passively coping ABA rats...
  3. Landmann E, Schellong K, Melchior K, Rodekamp E, Ziska T, Harder T, et al. Short-term regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortinergic system under fasting and defined glucose-refeeding conditions in rats: a laser capture microdissection (LMD)-based study. Neurosci Lett. 2012;515:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..established that under fasting conditions the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide agouti-related peptide (AGRP) is up-regulated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), while inconsistent data exist regarding fasting ..
  4. Kitamura T, Feng Y, Kitamura Y, Chua S, Xu A, Barsh G, et al. Forkhead protein FoxO1 mediates Agrp-dependent effects of leptin on food intake. Nat Med. 2006;12:534-40 pubmed
    ..nucleus of rodents results in a loss of the ability of leptin to curtail food intake and suppress expression of Agrp. Conversely, a transactivation-deficient FoxO1 mutant prevents induction of Agrp by fasting...
  5. de Rijke C, Jackson P, Garner K, van Rozen R, Douglas N, Kas M, et al. Functional analysis of the Ala67Thr polymorphism in agouti related protein associated with anorexia nervosa and leanness. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;70:308-16 pubmed
    b>AgRP is a neuropeptide that stimulates food intake through inhibition of central melanocortin receptors (MCRs)...
  6. Dunbar J, Lapanowski K, Barnes M, Rafols J. Hypothalamic agouti-related protein immunoreactivity in food-restricted, obese, and insulin-treated animals: evidence for glia cell localization. Exp Neurol. 2005;191:184-92 pubmed
    Agouti-related protein (AGRP) has been implicated in the regulation of metabolic balance. Overexpression of this peptide leads to obesity...
  7. Kim M, Rossi M, Abbott C, AlAhmed S, Smith D, Bloom S. Sustained orexigenic effect of Agouti related protein may be not mediated by the melanocortin 4 receptor. Peptides. 2002;23:1069-76 pubmed
    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Agouti related protein (AgRP), an endogenous melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4-R) antagonist, produces a prolonged increase in food intake...
  8. Tamura H, Kamegai J, Shimizu T, Ishii S, Sugihara H, Oikawa S. The effect of agouti-related protein on growth hormone secretion in adult male rats. Regul Pept. 2005;125:145-9 pubmed
    Agouti-related protein (AGRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are synthesized in the same neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus...
  9. Seeley R, Drazen D, Clegg D. The critical role of the melanocortin system in the control of energy balance. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:133-49 pubmed
    ..agonists such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) or antagonists such as agouti-related protein (AgRP)...
  10. Mul J, van Boxtel R, Bergen D, Brans M, Brakkee J, Toonen P, et al. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:612-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-..
  11. Korner J, Wissig S, Kim A, Conwell I, Wardlaw S. Effects of agouti-related protein on metabolism and hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:1116-21 pubmed
    ..system regulates feeding in part through interaction of the appetite stimulating peptide, agouti-related protein (AGRP), and the anorectic peptide, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, a peptide derived from the pro-opiomelanocortin (..
  12. Pourtau L, Leemburg S, Roux P, Leste Lasserre T, Costaglioli P, Garbay B, et al. Hormonal, hypothalamic and striatal responses to reduced body weight gain are attenuated in anorectic rats bearing small tumors. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that blunted hypothalamic AgRP mRNA expression, probably as a consequence of relatively high leptin and low ghrelin concentrations, and reduced ..
  13. Ross A, Johnson C, Bell L, Reilly L, Duncan J, Barrett P, et al. Divergent regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein by photoperiod in F344 rats with differential food intake and growth. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) (-39...
  14. Shimizu H, Arima H, Watanabe M, Goto M, Banno R, Sato I, et al. Glucocorticoids increase neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide gene expression via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling in the arcuate nucleus of rats. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..between glucocorticoids and AMPK signaling in the hypothalamus to regulate Npy as well as agouti-related peptide (Agrp) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus...
  15. Shi J, Yan J, Lei Q, Zhao J, Chen K, Yang D, et al. Intragastric administration of evodiamine suppresses NPY and AgRP gene expression in the hypothalamus and decreases food intake in rats. Brain Res. 2009;1247:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..body weight increase following rat growth, reduced orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-gene related protein (AgRP) mRNA levels and NPY peptide level in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, but it increases the ..
  16. Katsuki A, Sumida Y, Gabazza E, Murashima S, Tanaka T, Furuta M, et al. Plasma levels of agouti-related protein are increased in obese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:1921-4 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between peripheral blood levels of agouti-related protein (AGRP) and various parameters of obesity, we measured the plasma level of AGRP in 15 obese and 15 nonobese men and evaluated its relationship with ..
  17. Sousa Ferreira L, Alvaro A, Aveleira C, Santana M, Brandão I, Kügler S, et al. Proliferative hypothalamic neurospheres express NPY, AGRP, POMC, CART and Orexin-A and differentiate to functional neurons. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19745 pubmed publisher
    ..floating neurospheres and express the feeding-related neuropeptides Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP), Pro-OpioMelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript (CART) and Orexin-A/Hypocretin-1...
  18. Colldén G, Mangano C, Meister B. P2X2 purinoreceptor protein in hypothalamic neurons associated with the regulation of food intake. Neuroscience. 2010;171:62-78 pubmed publisher
    ..bodies in the arcuate nucleus contained the orexigenic peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP), and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)...
  19. Argyropoulos G, Rankinen T, Neufeld D, Rice T, Province M, Leon A, et al. A polymorphism in the human agouti-related protein is associated with late-onset obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:4198-202 pubmed
    The mouse agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a powerful appetite effector that results in hyperphagia and the development of obesity when administered intracerebroventricularly or when overexpressed in transgenic mice...
  20. Gyte A, Pritchard L, Jones H, Brennand J, White A. Reduced expression of the KATP channel subunit, Kir6.2, is associated with decreased expression of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein in the hypothalami of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:941-51 pubmed
    ..The hypothalamic neuropeptides, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) are central to the regulation of food intake and have been implicated in glucose homeostasis...
  21. Bewick G, Dhillo W, Darch S, Murphy K, Gardiner J, Jethwa P, et al. Hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons coexpress the NOP1 receptor and nociceptin alters CART and AgRP release. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3526-34 pubmed
    ..cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), alphaMSH, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related protein (AgRP)...
  22. Dhillo W, Small C, Gardiner J, Bewick G, Whitworth E, Jethwa P, et al. Agouti-related protein has an inhibitory paracrine role in the rat adrenal gland. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;301:102-7 pubmed
    ..alpha-MSH stimulates corticosterone release from rat adrenal glomerulosa cells in vitro. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) an endogenous antagonist at the MC3-R and MC4-R, is expressed in the adrenal gland...
  23. Leibowitz S, Sepiashvili K, Akabayashi A, Karatayev O, Davydova Z, Alexander J, et al. Function of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein at weaning: relation to corticosterone, dietary carbohydrate and body weight. Brain Res. 2005;1036:180-91 pubmed
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP), potent stimulants of feeding, have been linked in adult rats to both corticosterone (CORT) and dietary carbohydrate...
  24. Trujillo M, Spuch C, Carro E, Senaris R. Hyperphagia and central mechanisms for leptin resistance during pregnancy. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In early gestation (G7), no change in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression was shown...
  25. Reizes O, Benoit S, Strader A, Clegg D, Akunuru S, Seeley R. Syndecan-3 modulates food intake by interacting with the melanocortin/AgRP pathway. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;994:66-73 pubmed
    ..hypothesis that syndecan-3 modulates melanocortin activity via syndecan-3 facilitation of agouti-related protein (AgRP), a competitive antagonist of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) at the melanocortin-3 and -4 ..
  26. Li Y, Plagemann A, Davidowa H. Increased inhibition by agouti-related peptide of ventromedial hypothalamic neurons in rats overweight due to early postnatal overfeeding. Neurosci Lett. 2002;330:33-6 pubmed
    ..Agouti-related peptide (AGRP) as an endogenous melanocortin receptor antagonist induces feeding. Overexpression leads to obesity...
  27. Fujimoto W, Shiuchi T, Miki T, Minokoshi Y, Takahashi Y, Takeuchi A, et al. Dmbx1 is essential in agouti-related protein action. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15514-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, Dmbx1 is essential for various actions of agouti-related protein and plays a role in normal regulation of energy homeostasis and behavior. ..
  28. Creemers J, Pritchard L, Gyte A, Le Rouzic P, Meulemans S, Wardlaw S, et al. Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83-132: interaction between AGRP83-132 and melanocortin receptors cannot be influenced by syndecan-3. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1621-31 pubmed
    Agouti-related protein (AGRP) plays a key role in energy homeostasis. The carboxyl-terminal domain of AGRP acts as an endogenous antagonist of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R)...
  29. Qu S, Yang Y, Li J, Zeng Q, Gantz I. Agouti-related protein is a mediator of diabetic hyperphagia. Regul Pept. 2001;98:69-75 pubmed
    To explore the role of agouti-related protein (AGRP) in diabetic hyperphagia changes in hypothalamic AGRP mRNA levels were examined in diabetic rats...
  30. Romanova I, Mikhrina A. [Participation of Agouti related peptide in machanisms of wakefulness-sleep cycle regulation]. Fiziol Cheloveka. 2013;39:24-30 pubmed
    Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is expresses in hypothalamic neurons in human and animals...
  31. Toshinai K, Yamaguchi H, Kageyama H, Matsuo T, Koshinaka K, Sasaki K, et al. Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide-2 regulates feeding behavior via the orexin system in the hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, VGF serves as a precursor of multiple bioactive peptides exerting a diverse set of neuroendocrine functions. ..
  32. Palou M, SANCHEZ J, Rodriguez A, Priego T, Pico C, Palou A. Induction of NPY/AgRP orexigenic peptide expression in rat hypothalamus is an early event in fasting: relationship with circulating leptin, insulin and glucose. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;23:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..intake and expenditure in mammals, presenting two interconnected populations of neurons producing orexigenic NPY/AgRP (neuropeptide Y; agouti related peptide) and anorexigenic POMC/CART (pro-opiomelanocortin; cocaine and amphetamine ..
  33. Taylor K, Lester E, Hudson B, Ritter S. Hypothalamic and hindbrain NPY, AGRP and NE increase consummatory feeding responses. Physiol Behav. 2007;90:744-50 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we administered neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP) and norepinephrine (NE), into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) or into the fourth cerebral ..
  34. Fraley G, Ritter S. Immunolesion of norepinephrine and epinephrine afferents to medial hypothalamus alters basal and 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the arcuate nucleus. Endocrinology. 2003;144:75-83 pubmed
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti gene-related protein (AGRP) are orexigenic peptides of special importance for control of food intake...
  35. Ghanbari Niaki A, Abednazari H, Tayebi S, Hossaini Kakhak A, Kraemer R. Treadmill training enhances rat agouti-related protein in plasma and reduces ghrelin levels in plasma and soleus muscle. Metabolism. 2009;58:1747-52 pubmed publisher
    Ghrelin and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are orexigenic peptides secreted from stomach mucosa and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, respectively...
  36. Szczepankiewicz D, Pruszyńska Oszmałek E, Kaczmarek P, Skrzypski M, Andrałojć K, Wojciechowicz T, et al. Changes of agouti-related protein in hypothalamus, placenta, and serum during pregnancy in the rat. J Endocrinol. 2009;202:35-41 pubmed publisher
    Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a homolog of the agouti protein and acts as an antagonist of peptides derived from propiomelanocortin through melanocortin receptors...
  37. Miyata T, Minai Y, Haga M. Association of the suckling-weaning transition with development of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus neurons in rat pups. Exp Anim. 2009;58:61-6 pubmed
    ..The alteration of milk consumption following monosodium glutamate treatment appears to cause failure of ARC neuron development and neuropeptide expression. ..
  38. Rocha M, Bing C, Williams G, Puerta M. Pregnancy-induced hyperphagia is associated with increased gene expression of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide in rats. Regul Pept. 2003;114:159-65 pubmed
    ..We examined hypothalamic gene expressions of Ob-Rb, NPY, AgRP, POMC, MC4-R, and preproorexins in pregnant Wistar rats at day 19 of gestation...
  39. Lu C, Zhu W, Shen C, Gao W. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38332 pubmed publisher
    ..rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to ..
  40. Caminos J, Bravo S, González C, Garcés M, Cepeda L, González A, et al. Food-intake-regulating-neuropeptides are expressed and regulated through pregnancy and following food restriction in rat placenta. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008;6:14 pubmed publisher
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related peptide (AgRP), cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and melanocortins, the products of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are hypothalamic peptides involved in feeding regulation and ..
  41. Morrison C, Morton G, Niswender K, Gelling R, Schwartz M. Leptin inhibits hypothalamic Npy and Agrp gene expression via a mechanism that requires phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase signaling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E1051-7 pubmed
    ..their role in leptin-mediated inhibition of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti-related peptide (Agrp) gene expression, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5/group) were either fed ad libitum or subjected to a 52-h fast...
  42. Morrison C, Xi X, White C, Ye J, Martin R. Amino acids inhibit Agrp gene expression via an mTOR-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E165-71 pubmed
    ..05) and hypothalamic Agouti-related protein (Agrp) gene expression (P = 0.002)...
  43. Aja S, Bi S, Knipp S, McFadden J, Ronnett G, Kuhajda F, et al. Intracerebroventricular C75 decreases meal frequency and reduces AgRP gene expression in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R148-54 pubmed
    ..C75 prevented the anticipated hypophagia-induced increases in mRNA for AgRP in the arcuate nucleus at 22 h and at 6 h when C75 begins to suppress feeding...
  44. Uchoa E, Silva L, de Castro M, Antunes Rodrigues J, Elias L. Glucocorticoids are required for meal-induced changes in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Neuropeptides. 2012;46:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Orexigenic peptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein (AgRP), and the anorexigenic peptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC), expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the ..
  45. Kinzig K, Hargrave S, Tao E. Central and peripheral effects of chronic food restriction and weight restoration in the rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypothalamic mRNA expression levels for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) revealed significantly less POMC mRNA expression in CR and PR rats, and significantly ..
  46. Scarlett J, Zhu X, Enriori P, Bowe D, Batra A, Levasseur P, et al. Regulation of agouti-related protein messenger ribonucleic acid transcription and peptide secretion by acute and chronic inflammation. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4837-45 pubmed publisher
    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic neuropeptide produced by neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) that is a key component of central neural circuits that control food intake and energy expenditure...