Gene Symbol: Adrb3
Description: adrenoceptor beta 3
Alias: ADRB, beta-3 adrenergic receptor, adrenergic receptor, beta 3, adrenergic, beta-3-, receptor, beta-3 adrenoceptor, beta-3 adrenoreceptor
Species: rat
Products:     Adrb3

Top Publications

  1. Muzzin P, Revelli J, Kuhne F, Gocayne J, McCombie W, Venter J, et al. An adipose tissue-specific beta-adrenergic receptor. Molecular cloning and down-regulation in obesity. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:24053-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a change in the expression of this beta-adrenergic receptor subtype may play a role in obesity. ..
  2. Barbier J, Rannou Bekono F, Marchais J, Tanguy S, Carre F. Alterations of beta3-adrenoceptors expression and their myocardial functional effects in physiological model of chronic exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;300:69-75 pubmed
    ..Classical negative myocardial lusitropic and inotropic effects induced by a specific agonist of beta(3) AR were diminished in trained rats. ..
  3. Bachman E, Dhillon H, Zhang C, Cinti S, Bianco A, Kobilka B, et al. betaAR signaling required for diet-induced thermogenesis and obesity resistance. Science. 2002;297:843-5 pubmed
    ..These findings establish that betaARs are necessary for diet-induced thermogenesis and that this efferent pathway plays a critical role in the body's defense against diet-induced obesity. ..
  4. Granneman J, Lahners K, Chaudhry A. Molecular cloning and expression of the rat beta 3-adrenergic receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 1991;40:895-9 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis and nuclease protection assays of RNA from rat tissues indicate that the beta 3 receptor is abundantly expressed only in adipose tissues. ..
  5. Bidasee K, Zheng H, Shao C, Parbhu S, Rozanski G, Patel K. Exercise training initiated after the onset of diabetes preserves myocardial function: effects on expression of beta-adrenoceptors. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:907-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate for the first time that ExT initiated after the onset of diabetes blunts primarily beta(1)-adrenoceptor expression loss, providing mechanistic insights for exercise-induced improvements in cardiac function. ..
  6. Mahmoudian M. The complex of human Gs protein with the beta 3 adrenergic receptor: a computer-aided molecular modeling study. J Mol Graph. 1994;12:22-8, 34 pubmed
    Three-dimensional (3D) models of the human Gs protein, the human beta 3 adrenergic receptor and their complex are constructed using computer-aided molecular modeling techniques...
  7. Boivin B, Lavoie C, Vaniotis G, Baragli A, Villeneuve L, Ethier N, et al. Functional beta-adrenergic receptor signalling on nuclear membranes in adult rat and mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;71:69-78 pubmed
    ..These results highlight differential subcellular localization for betaAR subtypes and indicate that betaAR may have specific roles in regulating nuclear function in cardiomyocytes. ..
  8. Stangl K, Cascorbi I, Laule M, Stangl V, Meisel C, Wernecke K, et al. The beta3-adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg mutation is not associated with coronary artery disease. Metabolism. 2001;50:184-8 pubmed
  9. Kanno T, Yaguchi T, Nishizaki T. Noradrenaline stimulates ATP release from DRG neurons by targeting beta(3) adrenoceptors as a factor of neuropathic pain. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents a fresh regulatory pathway for neuropathic pain relevant to noradrenergic transmission in the DRG. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Hartung J, Ciszek B, Nackley A. ?2- and ?3-adrenergic receptors drive COMT-dependent pain by increasing production of nitric oxide and cytokines. Pain. 2014;155:1346-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they identify ?2- and ?3ARs, NO, and proinflammatory cytokines as potential therapeutic targets for pain patients with abnormalities in COMT physiology. ..
  2. Ling S, Nanhwan M, Qian J, Kodakandla M, Castillo A, Thomas B, et al. Modulation of microRNAs in hypertension-induced arterial remodeling through the ?1 and ?3-adrenoreceptor pathways. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;65:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation of dysregulated miRNAs by ?-blockers may substantially induce alterations of gene expression and prevent arterial dysfunction and remodeling. ..
  3. Ristori C, Filippi L, Dal Monte M, Martini D, Cammalleri M, Fortunato P, et al. Role of the adrenergic system in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy: antiangiogenic effects of beta-adrenoreceptor blockade. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:155-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the relevance of these results to infant ROP is uncertain, the findings may help to establish potential pharmacologic targets based on ?3-AR pharmacology. ..
  4. Barbier J, Mouas C, Rannou Bekono F, Carre F. Existence of beta(3)-adrenoceptors in rat heart: functional implications. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34:796-8 pubmed
  5. Hamilton G, Proitsi P, Jehu L, Morgan A, Williams J, O Donovan M, et al. Candidate gene association study of insulin signaling genes and Alzheimer's disease: evidence for SOS2, PCK1, and PPARgamma as susceptibility loci. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:508-16 pubmed
    ..In particular, our data suggest that the effect of variants within these genes might be influenced by gender...
  6. Breit A, Lagacé M, Bouvier M. Hetero-oligomerization between beta2- and beta3-adrenergic receptors generates a beta-adrenergic signaling unit with distinct functional properties. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28756-65 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that hetero-oligomerization between beta(2)AR and beta(3)AR forms a beta-adrenergic signaling unit that possesses unique functional properties. ..
  7. Muñoz Valle J, Vazquez Del Mercado M, Ruiz Quezada S, Oregon Romero E, Navarro Hernandez R, Ramírez Barragán J, et al. Polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor and lipid profile in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus treated with chloroquine. Rheumatol Int. 2003;23:99-103 pubmed
    ..01), two of them taking chloroquine. Arg64/arg64 beta(3)-AR polymorphism may contribute to increased TG and VLDL-c in RA patients, independently of chloroquine treatment. ..
  8. Sakane N, Yoshida T, Yoshioka K, Nakamura Y, Umekawa T, Kogure A, et al. Beta 3-adrenoreceptor gene polymorphism: a newly identified risk factor for proliferative retinopathy in NIDDM patients. Diabetes. 1997;46:1633-6 pubmed
    ..55 (95% CI 1.25-5.16). We concluded that the beta 3-AR gene polymorphism is a newly identified risk factor for PDR. ..
  9. Hadri K, Courtalon A, Gauthereau X, Chambaut Guérin A, Pairault J, Feve B. Differential regulation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha of beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-adrenoreceptor gene expression in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24514-21 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a differential modulation by TNF-alpha of the three beta-adrenoreceptor subtypes in adipocytes, which may contribute to metabolic disorders induced by the cytokine in the adipocyte. ..
  10. Mannerås L, Cajander S, Lönn M, Stener Victorin E. Acupuncture and exercise restore adipose tissue expression of sympathetic markers and improve ovarian morphology in rats with dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In mesenteric adipose tissue, expression of beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA was higher in untreated PCOS rats than in controls...
  11. Lai E, Pettersson U, Verdugo A, Carlsson P, Bodin B, Källskog O, et al. Blood lipids affect rat islet blood flow regulation through ??-adrenoceptors. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307:E653-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are important for the coordination of islet blood flow and insulin release during hyperlipidemia, with a previously unknown role for ??-adrenoceptors. ..
  12. Lehman D, Hamlington J, Hunt K, Leach R, Arya R, Abboud H, et al. A novel missense mutation in ADRB3 increases risk for type 2 diabetes in a Mexican American family. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2006;22:331-6 pubmed
    The human beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) has been investigated as a candidate gene for diabetes-related traits in many studies...
  13. Kong Y, Zhang Y, Li N, Zhang L, Gao Y, Xue H, et al. [Association between beta3-adrenergic receptor and oxidative stress in chronic heart failure rats]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2010;38:435-9 pubmed
    ..Our results showed that myocardial upregulation of beta(3)-AR is associated with increased oxidative stress in this model and beta(3)-AR inhibitor may be a new therapeutic agent for heart failure treatment. ..
  14. Shimizu T, Yokotani K. Acute cold exposure-induced down-regulation of CIDEA, cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector A, in rat interscapular brown adipose tissue by sympathetically activated beta3-adrenoreceptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;387:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that acute cold exposure resulted in down-regulation of CIDEA in interscapular BAT by sympathetically activated beta(3)-adrenoreceptor-mediated mechanisms in rats. ..
  15. Mori A, Nakahara T, Sakamoto K, Ishii K. Role of ?3-adrenoceptors in regulation of retinal vascular tone in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011;384:603-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also indicate that the functional role of ?(3)-adrenoceptors may be more important than that in peripheral resistance vessels. ..
  16. Hamilton B, Doods H. Identification of potent agonists acting at an endogenous atypical beta3-adrenoceptor state that modulate lipolysis in rodent fat cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;580:55-62 pubmed
  17. Flacco N, Segura V, Perez Aso M, Estrada S, Seller J, Jiménez Altayó F, et al. Different ?-adrenoceptor subtypes coupling to cAMP or NO/cGMP pathways: implications in the relaxant response of rat conductance and resistance vessels. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;169:413-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In MRA, Adrb1 signalled through cAMP, Adrb3 through both cAMP and cGMP, but Adrb2, did not activate nucleotide formation; isoprenaline relaxation was ..
  18. Du Z, Wang L, Zhao Y, Cao J, Wang T, Liu P, et al. Sympathetic denervation-induced MSC mobilization in distraction osteogenesis associates with inhibition of MSC migration and osteogenesis by norepinephrine/adrb3. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105976 pubmed publisher
    ..can deplete norepinephrine (NE) in distraction-induced bone callus, down-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor (adrb3) in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and promote MSC migration from perivascular regions to bone-forming ..
  19. Rickenbacher A, Seiler R, Honegger U, Shaw S, Balsiger B. Role of beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-adrenoceptors in contractile hypersensitivity in a model of small bowel transplantation. Surgery. 2008;143:94-102 pubmed
    ..05). In rat ileum, adrenergic inhibition of contractility was dependent on muscular beta3-AR pathways, whereas posttransplant hypersensitivity was due to upregulated neuronal beta1- and beta2-AR mechanisms that were inactive before SBT. ..
  20. Cellek S, Thangiah R, Bassil A, Campbell C, Gray K, Stretton J, et al. Demonstration of functional neuronal beta3-adrenoceptors within the enteric nervous system. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:175-83 pubmed
    ..Therefore, beta(3)-AR could be a novel therapeutic target for functional gastrointestinal disorders. ..
  21. Babol K, Przybylowska K, Lukaszek M, Pertynski T, Blasiak J. An association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene and endometrial cancer and obesity. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2004;23:669-74 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of the Arg allele of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene may contribute to the susceptibility to endometrial cancer among obese/overweight individuals. ..
  22. Miki T, Liu J, Ohta K, Suzuki S, Kusaka T, Warita K, et al. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of ?3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;442:68-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life. ..
  23. Rouget C, Rekik M, Camparo P, Botto H, Rischmann P, Lluel P, et al. Modulation of nerve-evoked contractions by ?3-adrenoceptor agonism in human and rat isolated urinary bladder. Pharmacol Res. 2014;80:14-20 pubmed publisher
  24. Chen Z, Miao G, Liu M, Hao G, Liu Y, Fang X, et al. Age-related up-regulation of beta3-adrenergic receptor in heart-failure rats. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2010;30:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..beta3-AR protein levels increased significantly when heart failure worsened in aging rats. These results suggest that beta3-AR expression in age-related heart-failure rats and left ventricular function were highly correlated. ..
  25. Zhou L, Zhang P, Cheng Z, Hao W, Wang R, Fang Q, et al. Altered circadian rhythm of cardiac ?3-adrenoceptor activity following myocardial infarction in the rat. Basic Res Cardiol. 2011;106:37-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that circadian rhythms of myocardial ?3-AR activities are disturbed after MI and ?3-AR activation offers anti-arrhythmic protection. ..
  26. Bossard F, Silantieff E, Lavazais Blancou E, Robay A, Sagan C, Rozec B, et al. ?1, ?2, and ?3 adrenoceptors and Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 expression in human bronchi and their modifications in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, NHERF1 may be a new therapeutic target in patients with CF, to facilitate the trafficking of mutated CFTR to plasma membrane. ..
  27. Hristov K, Cui X, Brown S, Liu L, Kellett W, Petkov G. Stimulation of beta3-adrenoceptors relaxes rat urinary bladder smooth muscle via activation of the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that stimulation of beta3-AR relaxes rat UBSM by increasing the BK channel STOC frequency, which causes membrane hyperpolarization and thus relaxation. ..
  28. Malek H, Shalaby A. The preventive effect of β3 adrenoceptor stimulation against experimentally induced reflux esophagitis. Acta Physiol Hung. 2015;102:94-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, there was a no significant increase in esophageal PGE2. It can be concluded that BRL 37344 has an anti-oxidant protective effect in rats with RE. ..
  29. Tillinger A, Myslivecek J, Novakova M, Krizanova O, Kvetnansky R. Gene expression of adrenoceptors in the hearts of cold-acclimated rats exposed to a novel stressor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A protective role of beta(2)-, beta(3)-AR, and alpha(1B)-AR in the process of heart adaptation to chronic stress exposure is proposed. ..
  30. Kullmann F, Downs T, ARTIM D, Limberg B, Shah M, Contract D, et al. Urothelial beta-3 adrenergic receptors in the rat bladder. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:144-50 pubmed publisher
  31. Liu N, Zhang X, Liang C, Yao D, Liu L, Zhao D, et al. [Dynamic changes of alpha-AR, beta1-AR and beta2-AR expression during hepatic fibrogenesis]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2009;17:653-6 pubmed
    ..564, 0.753 and 0.606, respectively. The expression of alpha -SMA is increased dramatically during the fibrosis, and is positively associated with the expression of alpha -AR, beta(1)-AR and beta(2)-AR. ..
  32. Morcillo S, Cardona F, Rojo Martinez G, Almaraz M, Esteva I, Ruiz de Adana M, et al. Effect of the combination of the variants -75G/A APOA1 and Trp64Arg ADRB3 on the risk of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;68:102-7 pubmed
    ..We searched for a possible interaction between two polymorphisms (Trp64Arg of ADRB3 gene and -75G/A of APOA1gene) and the risk for DM2 in a population from southern Spain...
  33. Guan Y, Gao L, Ma H, Li Q, Zhang H, Yuan F, et al. Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia decreases beta-adrenoceptor activity in right ventricular papillary muscle. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H1267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may be involved in the cardiac protective effect of CIHH. ..
  34. Rohrer D, Chruscinski A, Schauble E, Bernstein D, Kobilka B. Cardiovascular and metabolic alterations in mice lacking both beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16701-8 pubmed
  35. Clement K, Vaisse C, Manning B, Basdevant A, Guy Grand B, Ruiz J, et al. Genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor and an increased capacity to gain weight in patients with morbid obesity. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:352-4 pubmed
    ..02). People with the Trp64Arg mutation of the gene for the beta 3-adrenergic receptor may have an increased capacity to gain weight. ..
  36. Hoffstedt J, Poirier O, Thorne A, Lonnqvist F, Herrmann S, Cambien F, et al. Polymorphism of the human beta3-adrenoceptor gene forms a well-conserved haplotype that is associated with moderate obesity and altered receptor function. Diabetes. 1999;48:203-5 pubmed
  37. Lladó I, Rodriguez Cuenca S, Pujol E, Monjo M, Estrany M, Roca P, et al. Gender effects on adrenergic receptor expression and lipolysis in white adipose tissue of rats. Obes Res. 2002;10:296-305 pubmed
  38. Khan I, Hussein S, Oriowo M. Studies on the expression and function of beta-3-adrenoceptors in the colon of rats with acetic acid-induced colitis. Pharmacology. 2002;64:98-105 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the dysfunctional motility that is characteristic of ulcerative colitis, is not likely to be due to changes in beta(3)-adrenergic mechanisms in this model. ..
  39. Ringel J, Kreutz R, Distler A, Sharma A. The Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene is associated with hypertension in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13:1027-31 pubmed
    A missense mutation of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) resulting in a tryptophan/arginine exchange at position 64 (Trp64Arg polymorphism) has recently been associated with greater capacity to gain weight, a low resting ..
  40. Kawamura T, Egusa G, Okubo M, Imazu M, Yamakido M. Association of beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism with insulin resistance in Japanese-American men. Metabolism. 1999;48:1367-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, there is an association between the Trp64Arg variant of the beta3-AR gene and insulin resistance in Japanese-Americans with IGT. ..
  41. Zhao Q, Wu T, Jiang Z, Chen G, Lin Y, Wang L. Effect of beta-blockers on beta3-adrenoceptor expression in chronic heart failure. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2007;21:85-90 pubmed
    ..Carvedilol, rather than Metoprolol, diminishes beta(3)-adrenoceptor expression in the failing ventricles. ..
  42. Conley R, Li J, Ivarsson M, Hutson P. Effect of the beta3 adrenoceptor agonist CL 316243 on hypothalamic 5-HT synthesis and suppression of REM sleep in the rat. J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21:597-602 pubmed
    ..However, these effects are not maintained with repeated dosing. ..
  43. Fullhase C, Soler R, Westerling Andersson K, Andersson K. Beta3-adrenoceptors in the rat sacral spinal cord and their functional relevance in micturition under normal conditions and in a model of partial urethral obstruction. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:1382-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides their well-established peripheral site of action in the treatment of voiding dysfunction, ?3-AR selective agonists might exert relevant effects at a central nervous site of action. ..
  44. Deng Y, Wu W, Fang C, Huang Z, Wang J. [Regulation of resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of ventricular myocytes by beta(3)-adrenoceptor and its signaling pathway in rats with experimental heart failure]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1635-7 pubmed
    ..This effect is mediated through the PTX-NOS-NO pathway. ..
  45. Kumar M, Moore R, Scarpace P. Beta3-adrenergic regulation of leptin, food intake, and adiposity is impaired with age. Pflugers Arch. 1999;438:681-8 pubmed
  46. Moniotte S, Kobzik L, Feron O, Trochu J, Gauthier C, Balligand J. Upregulation of beta(3)-adrenoceptors and altered contractile response to inotropic amines in human failing myocardium. Circulation. 2001;103:1649-55 pubmed
    ..Opposite changes occur in beta(1)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor abundance in the failing left ventricle, with an imbalance between their inotropic influences that may underlie the functional degradation of the human failing heart. ..
  47. Silva I, Costa A, Moreira S, Ferreirinha F, Magalhães Cardoso M, Calejo I, et al. Inhibition of cholinergic neurotransmission by ?3-adrenoceptors depends on adenosine release and A1-receptor activation in human and rat urinary bladders. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F388-F403 pubmed publisher
  48. Scarpace P, Matheny M, Tumer N. Differential down-regulation of beta3-adrenergic receptor mRNA and signal transduction by cold exposure in brown adipose tissue of young and senescent rats. Pflugers Arch. 1999;437:479-83 pubmed
  49. Sun J, Fu L, Tang X, Han Y, Ma D, Cao J, et al. Testosterone modulation of cardiac ?-adrenergic signals in a rat model of heart failure. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;172:518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our findings suggest that testosterone may have beneficial effects for male heart failure patients with androgen deficiency and this protection involves modulation of the cardiac ?-adrenergic system. ..
  50. Barbero R, Badino P, Odore R, Galmozzi M, Cuniberti B, Zanatta R, et al. Mepartricin long-term administration regulates steroid hormone and adrenergic receptor concentrations in the prostate of aged rats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2006;29:289-97 pubmed
  51. Sharma V, Parsons H, Allard M, McNeill J. Metoprolol increases the expression of beta(3)-adrenoceptors in the diabetic heart: effects on nitric oxide signaling and forkhead transcription factor-3. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;595:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..beta-adrenoceptor signaling shifted from PKA to Akt-mediated signaling, associated with phosphorylation of FOXO-3 but not eNOS. ..
  52. Jimenez M, Leger B, Canola K, Lehr L, Arboit P, Seydoux J, et al. Beta(1)/beta(2)/beta(3)-adrenoceptor knockout mice are obese and cold-sensitive but have normal lipolytic responses to fasting. FEBS Lett. 2002;530:37-40 pubmed
    ..Hence, beta-adrenergic signalling is essential for the resistance to obesity and cold, but not for the lipolytic response to fasting. ..
  53. Higashi K, Ishikawa T, Ito T, Yonemura A, Shige H, Nakamura H. Association of a genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene with coronary heart disease among Japanese. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;232:728-30 pubmed
    ..This mutation was associated with coronary heart disease and obesity but was not with glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in Japanese nationals. ..