Gene Symbol: Adrb1
Description: adrenoceptor beta 1
Alias: B1AR, RATB1AR, beta-1 adrenergic receptor, adrenergic receptor, beta 1, adrenergic, beta-1-, receptor, beta 1-adrenergic receptor beta 1-AR, beta-1 adrenoceptor, beta-1 adrenoreceptor
Species: rat
Products:     Adrb1

Top Publications

  1. Bidasee K, Zheng H, Shao C, Parbhu S, Rozanski G, Patel K. Exercise training initiated after the onset of diabetes preserves myocardial function: effects on expression of beta-adrenoceptors. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:907-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate for the first time that ExT initiated after the onset of diabetes blunts primarily beta(1)-adrenoceptor expression loss, providing mechanistic insights for exercise-induced improvements in cardiac function. ..
  2. Hu L, Tang Y, Miller W, Cong M, Lau A, Lefkowitz R, et al. beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95. Inhibition of receptor internalization and facilitation of beta 1-adrenergic receptor interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:38659-66 pubmed
  3. Gardner L, Tavalin S, Goehring A, Scott J, Bahouth S. AKAP79-mediated targeting of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to the beta1-adrenergic receptor promotes recycling and functional resensitization of the receptor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33537-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, AKAP79 provides PKA to phosphorylate the beta(1)-AR and thereby dictate the recycling and resensitization itineraries of the beta(1)-AR. ..
  4. He J, Bellini M, Inuzuka H, Xu J, Xiong Y, Yang X, et al. Proteomic analysis of beta1-adrenergic receptor interactions with PDZ scaffold proteins. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2820-7 pubmed
  5. Qvigstad E, Moltzau L, Aronsen J, Nguyen C, Hougen K, Sjaastad I, et al. Natriuretic peptides increase beta1-adrenoceptor signalling in failing hearts through phosphodiesterase 3 inhibition. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:763-72 pubmed publisher
  6. Jiang X, Xu C, Wang Y, Gao L, Yan C, Li D, et al. ?2-adrenoceptor transfection enhances contractile reserve of isolated rat ventricular myocytes exposed to chronic isoprenaline stimulation by improving ?1-adrenoceptor responsiveness. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2012;32:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ?(2)-AR gene transfer in isolated ventricular myocytes under chronic ISO stimulation improves cellular contraction, and the beneficial effects might be mediated by improving ?(1)-adrenoceptor responsiveness. ..
  7. Frishman W. beta-Adrenergic blockers: a 50-year historical perspective. Am J Ther. 2008;15:565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the beta-adrenergic blockers have provided us with a great clinical legacy for now and in years to come. ..
  8. Cohen M, Wiley K, Bemis K. Analysis of the beta 1 and beta 2 adrenoceptor interactions of the partial agonist, clenbuterol (NAB365), in the rat jugular vein and atria. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1982;320:145-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, based on our analysis, the high agonist potency of clenbuterol results primarily from the high affinity toward beta adrenoceptors rather than efficient activation of the adrenoceptor as occurs with isoproterenol or salbutamol. ..
  9. Xu J, He J, Castleberry A, Balasubramanian S, Lau A, Hall R. Heterodimerization of alpha 2A- and beta 1-adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10770-7 pubmed
    ..These data reveal an interaction between beta(1)AR and alpha(2A)AR that is regulated by glycosylation and that may play a key role in cross-talk and mutual regulation between these receptors. ..

More Information


  1. Gonzalez S, Moreno Delgado D, Moreno E, Pérez Capote K, Franco R, Mallol J, et al. Circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D? receptors modulates melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001347 pubmed publisher
    ..The unanticipated heteromerization between adrenergic and dopamine D? receptors provides a feedback mechanism for the neuronal hormone system in the form of dopamine to control circadian inputs...
  2. Hulme J, Westenbroek R, Scheuer T, Catterall W. Phosphorylation of serine 1928 in the distal C-terminal domain of cardiac CaV1.2 channels during beta1-adrenergic regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16574-9 pubmed
    ..Our results correlate phosphorylation of S1928 with beta1-adrenergic functional up-regulation of cardiac calcium channels in the presence of BAPTA in intact ventricular myocytes. ..
  3. Busch L, Sterin Borda L, Borda E. Beta-adrenoceptor alterations coupled with secretory response and experimental periodontitis in rat submandibular glands. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:509-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We can speculate that inflammatory mediators from the experimental periodontitis could be involved in the mechanism underlying the activation of the sympathetic system. ..
  4. Abraham P, Xing G, Zhang L, Yu E, Post R, Gamble E, et al. beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor induced synaptic facilitation in rat basolateral amygdala. Brain Res. 2008;1209:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..1+/-4.1 % of control amplitude in the BLA. These data suggest that beta-adrenoceptor mediated synaptic facilitation in the amygdala is mediated by both beta1 and beta2-adrenoceptor activation. ..
  5. Lung H, Shan S, Tsang D, Leung K. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates the proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells via beta-adrenergic receptors. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;166:102-12 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results indicate that TNF-alpha-induced proliferation in C6 glioma cells might be via the induction and activation of beta-ARs. ..
  6. Flacco N, Segura V, Perez Aso M, Estrada S, Seller J, Jiménez Altayó F, et al. Different ?-adrenoceptor subtypes coupling to cAMP or NO/cGMP pathways: implications in the relaxant response of rat conductance and resistance vessels. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;169:413-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In MRA, Adrb1 signalled through cAMP, Adrb3 through both cAMP and cGMP, but Adrb2, did not activate nucleotide formation; ..
  7. Gao Y, Liu H, Zhao R, Zhi J. Autoantibody against cardiac beta1-adrenoceptor induces apoptosis in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2006;38:443-9 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that the autoantibody could induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis by excessive stimulation of beta1-adrenoceptor. ..
  8. Lahaye S, Gratas Delamarche A, Malardé L, Vincent S, Zguira M, Morel S, et al. Intense exercise training induces adaptation in expression and responsiveness of cardiac ?-adrenoceptors in diabetic rats. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:72 pubmed publisher
    ..This defect stems principally from the ?2-adrenoceptors protein expression reduction. Thus, these results demonstrate that intense exercise training induces specific effects on the ?-adrenergic system in diabetes. ..
  9. Rickenbacher A, Seiler R, Honegger U, Shaw S, Balsiger B. Role of beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-adrenoceptors in contractile hypersensitivity in a model of small bowel transplantation. Surgery. 2008;143:94-102 pubmed
    ..05). In rat ileum, adrenergic inhibition of contractility was dependent on muscular beta3-AR pathways, whereas posttransplant hypersensitivity was due to upregulated neuronal beta1- and beta2-AR mechanisms that were inactive before SBT. ..
  10. Li Y, Wang G, Lin K, Yin H, Zhou C, Liu T, et al. Rab1 GTPase promotes expression of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:1201-1209 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal that beta-ARs function in RPMVECs could be modulated by manipulating beta-ARs traffic from the ER to the Golgi body. We propose the ER-to-Golgi transport as a regulatory site for control of permeability of RPMVECs. ..
  11. Fu A, Li X, Zhao B. Role of beta1-adrenoceptor in the basolateral amygdala of rats with anxiety-like behavior. Brain Res. 2008;1211:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that the beta1-AR played an important role in anxiety-like behavior, and inhibition of the beta1-AR in the BLA could produce anxiolytic effect. ..
  12. Somvanshi R, Zou S, Qiu X, Kumar U. Somatostatin receptor-2 negatively regulates ?-adrenergic receptor mediated Ca(2+) dependent signaling pathways in H9c2 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1843:735-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results described here provide direct evidence in support of cardiac protective role of SSTR2 via modulation of Ca(2+) associated signaling pathways attributed to cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  13. Thackeray J, Parsa Nezhad M, Kenk M, Thorn S, Kolajova M, Beanlands R, et al. Reduced CGP12177 binding to cardiac ?-adrenoceptors in hyperglycemic high-fat-diet-fed, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nucl Med Biol. 2011;38:1059-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indirectly support the use of [(11)C]CGP12177 for assessment of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes. ..
  14. Jin W. Age-related increase of beta1-adrenergic receptor gene expression in rat liver: a potential mechanism contributing to increased beta-adrenergic receptor density and responsiveness during aging. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2010;30:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that an age-related increase of beta(1)AR gene expression contributes to increased betaAR density and beta adrenergic responsiveness in rat liver during aging. ..
  15. Stones R, Natali A, Billeter R, Harrison S, White E. Voluntary exercise-induced changes in beta2-adrenoceptor signalling in rat ventricular myocytes. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:1065-75 pubmed publisher
  16. Christ T, Galindo Tovar A, Thoms M, Ravens U, Kaumann A. Inotropy and L-type Ca2+ current, activated by beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptors, are differently controlled by phosphodiesterases 3 and 4 in rat heart. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156:62-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Both PDE3 and PDE4 reduce I(Ca-L) responses through beta(1)-adrenoceptors but the PDE3 component is unrelated to inotropy. PDE3 blunts both ventricular inotropic and I(Ca-L) responses through beta(2)-adrenoceptors. ..
  17. Wang Y, Zhou F, Xu C, Sun H. [Overexpression of ?(1)-adrenoceptor can not protect rat cardiomyocytes from injury induced by isoprenaline]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2010;62:505-10 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggest that the overexpression of ?(1)-AR has no significant protective effect on rat cardiomyocytes injured by ISO. ..
  18. Afzal F, Qvigstad E, Aronsen J, Moltzau L, Sjaastad I, Skomedal T, et al. Agents increasing cyclic GMP amplify 5-HT4-elicited positive inotropic response in failing rat cardiac ventricle. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011;384:543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cGMP from different sources is functionally compartmented, giving differential regulation of different G(s)-coupled receptors. ..
  19. Bateman R, Boychuk C, Philbin K, Mendelowitz D. ? adrenergic receptor modulation of neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. Neuroscience. 2012;210:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Likely physiological roles for this adrenergic receptor activation are coordination of parasympathetic-sympathetic activity and ? receptor-mediated increases in heart rate upon arousal. ..
  20. Jimenez M, Leger B, Canola K, Lehr L, Arboit P, Seydoux J, et al. Beta(1)/beta(2)/beta(3)-adrenoceptor knockout mice are obese and cold-sensitive but have normal lipolytic responses to fasting. FEBS Lett. 2002;530:37-40 pubmed
    ..Hence, beta-adrenergic signalling is essential for the resistance to obesity and cold, but not for the lipolytic response to fasting. ..
  21. Leblais V, Jo S, Chakir K, Maltsev V, Zheng M, Crow M, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase offsets cAMP-mediated positive inotropic effect via inhibiting Ca2+ influx in cardiomyocytes. Circ Res. 2004;95:1183-90 pubmed
  22. Downs C, Kriener L, Yu L, Eaton D, Jain L, Helms M. ?-Adrenergic agonists differentially regulate highly selective and nonselective epithelial sodium channels to promote alveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L1167-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, ?-AR agonists differentially regulate HSC and NSC in T1 and T2 cells to promote lung fluid clearance in vivo, and the mode of drug delivery is critical for maximizing ?-AR agonist efficacy...
  23. Janssens K, Krylyshkina O, Hersmus N, Vankelecom H, Denef C. Beta1-adrenoceptor expression in rat anterior pituitary gonadotrophs and in mouse alphaT3-1 and LbetaT2 gonadotrophic cell lines. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the glucocorticoid-induced up-regulation does not seem to occur directly in the gonadotrophs but within (an)other unidentified cell type(s), or is transduced by that cell type on gonadotrophs. ..
  24. Ghosh P, Shu Z, Zhu B, Lu Z, Ikeno Y, Barnes J, et al. Role of ?-adrenergic receptors in regulation of hepatic fat accumulation during aging. J Endocrinol. 2012;213:251-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that augmented hepatic ?-AR signaling during aging may increase lipid accumulation in liver and advocate a possible role for ?-adrenergic blockers in preventing or retarding the development of hepatic steatosis. ..
  25. Oliver E, Martí D, Montó F, Flacco N, Moreno L, Barettino D, et al. The impact of alpha1-adrenoceptors up-regulation accompanied by the impairment of beta-adrenergic vasodilatation in hypertension. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;328:982-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These functional changes might be involved in the greater sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone observed in hypertension. ..
  26. Komatsu S, Dobson J, Ikebe M, Shea L, Fenton R. Crosstalk between adenosine A1 and ?1-adrenergic receptors regulates translocation of PKC? in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:3201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In that this translocation has been previously associated with the antiadrenergic property of A(1)R, it is apparent that the interactive effects of adenosine and ?(1)-adrenergic agonists on function are complex in the heart. ..
  27. Bossard F, Silantieff E, Lavazais Blancou E, Robay A, Sagan C, Rozec B, et al. ?1, ?2, and ?3 adrenoceptors and Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 expression in human bronchi and their modifications in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, NHERF1 may be a new therapeutic target in patients with CF, to facilitate the trafficking of mutated CFTR to plasma membrane. ..
  28. Zhao L, Liao Y, Xiang G, Wang M, Yue L, Zhou Z, et al. [Positive rate of autoantibodies against adrenergic receptors beta1 and angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2010;38:139-42 pubmed
  29. Ma Y, Guo Z. [Effect of substance P on expression of beta1-adrenergic receptor in cultured rat cardiomyocytes]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2008;20:710-2 pubmed
    ..85+/-4.63,135.00+/-6.84,121.41+/-5.22 vs. 161.35+/-3.09,all P<0.05). SP could down-regulate the expression of beta1-AR in cultured rat cardiomyocytes in vitro. ..
  30. Galinier M, Senard J, Valet P, Arias A, Daviaud D, Glock Y, et al. Cardiac beta-adrenoceptors and adenylyl cyclase activity in human left ventricular hypertrophy due to pressure overload. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1994;8:90-9 pubmed
    ..This is associated with alterations of the transmembrane signalling marked by a decreased capacity of isoprenaline to stimulate AC and an impaired expression of Gi proteins. ..
  31. Meitzen J, Luoma J, Stern C, Mermelstein P. ?1-Adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons. J Neurochem. 2011;116:984-95 pubmed publisher
  32. Rohlfs E, Daniel K, Premont R, Kozak L, Collins S. Regulation of the uncoupling protein gene (Ucp) by beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3-adrenergic receptor subtypes in immortalized brown adipose cell lines. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10723-32 pubmed
  33. Montó F, Oliver E, Vicente D, Buendía F, Rueda J, Agüero J, et al. β2- and β1-Adrenoceptor Expression Exhibits a Common Regulatory Pattern With GRK2 and GRK5 in Human and Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2015;66:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This highlights the need to focus not only on GRKs but also on β(1)- or β(2)-AR changes to completely understand the involvement of β-AR/GRK pathways in cardiovascular diseases. ..
  34. Yeh C, Chandrasekar B, Lin A, Dang H, Kamat A, Zhu B, et al. Cellular signals underlying ?-adrenergic receptor mediated salivary gland enlargement. Differentiation. 2012;83:68-76 pubmed publisher
  35. Li H, Ma X, Ye F, Zhang J, Zhou X, Wang Z, et al. Expressions of cardiac sympathetic norepinephrine transporter and beta1-adrenergic receptor decreased in aged rats. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2009;10:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also show that aging induces a strong decrease of the catecholaminergic nerve fiber density. ..
  36. Flores O, Pérez H, Valladares L, Morgan C, Gatica A, Burgos H, et al. Hidden prenatal malnutrition in the rat: role of ??-adrenoceptors on synaptic plasticity in the frontal cortex. J Neurochem. 2011;119:314-23 pubmed publisher
  37. Ahmet I, Morrell C, Lakatta E, Talan M. Therapeutic efficacy of a combination of a beta1-adrenoreceptor (AR) blocker and beta2-AR agonist in a rat model of postmyocardial infarction dilated heart failure exceeds that of a beta1-AR blocker plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this novel therapeutic regimen for CHF warrants detailed clinical investigation. ..
  38. Zhi J, Chen R, Wu H, Liu H, Zhao R. Changes in autoantibodies against beta1-adrenoceptor and M2-muscarinic receptor during development of renovascular hypertension in rats. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2004;36:793-7 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that autoimmune mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of renal hypertension and the cardiac receptor autoantibodies might be one of the mechanisms leading to cardiac dysfunction. ..
  39. Ceolotto G, Papparella I, Sticca A, Bova S, Cavalli M, Cargnelli G, et al. An abnormal gene expression of the beta-adrenergic system contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy in cirrhotic rats. Hepatology. 2008;48:1913-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that overexpression of Galpha(i2), PDE2a, and RGS2 down-regulates the beta-adrenergic signaling pathway, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. ..
  40. Ruffolo R, Goldberg M, Morgan E. Interactions of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and their corresponding alpha-methyl-substituted derivatives with alpha and beta adrenoceptors in the pithed rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984;230:595-600 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the results show that alpha-methylepinephrine is a potent beta adrenoceptor agonist, with an apparent 500-fold selectivity for beta-2 adrenoceptors over beta-1 adrenoceptors...
  41. Tsushima H, Fujimoto S, Matsuda T. Effects of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists applied into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei of spontaneously hypertensive rats on urine production. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1994;64:201-7 pubmed
    ..The ability of beta-adrenoceptor agonists to decrease urine outflow rates in SHR was not altered as compared to that in the control rats. beta-Adrenoceptor-mediated antidiuresis was not due to vasopressin release. ..
  42. Morioka N, Abe H, Araki R, Matsumoto N, Zhang F, Nakamura Y, et al. A ?1/2 adrenergic receptor-sensitive intracellular signaling pathway modulates CCL2 production in cultured spinal astrocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, activation of ?1/2 adrenergic receptors expressed in spinal astrocytes could be a novel method of moderating neurological disorders with endogenous catecholamines or selective agonists. ..
  43. Rohrer D, Chruscinski A, Schauble E, Bernstein D, Kobilka B. Cardiovascular and metabolic alterations in mice lacking both beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16701-8 pubmed
  44. Hott S, Gomes F, Fabri D, Reis D, Crestani C, Correa F, et al. Both ?1- and ?1-adrenoceptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are involved in the expression of conditioned contextual fear. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167:207-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the idea that noradrenergic neurotransmission in the BNST via ?(1) - and ?(1) -adrenoceptors is involved in the expression of conditioned contextual fear. ..
  45. El Armouche A, Eschenhagen T. Beta-adrenergic stimulation and myocardial function in the failing heart. Heart Fail Rev. 2009;14:225-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Which lessons can be drawn from studies in genetically engineered mice, which from (pharmaco) genetic studies? Finally, what are promising targets downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors that go beyond the current neurohumoral blockade? ..
  46. Segev A, Ramot A, Akirav I. Stress hormones receptors in the amygdala mediate the effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a non aversive spatial task. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29988 pubmed publisher
  47. Fung M, Chen Y, Lipkowitz M, Salem R, Bhatnagar V, Mahata M, et al. Adrenergic beta-1 receptor genetic variation predicts longitudinal rate of GFR decline in hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:3677-86 pubmed publisher
    ..End-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to hypertension is common and displays familial aggregation in African Americans, suggesting genetic risk factors, including adrenergic activity alterations which are noted in both hypertension and ESRD...
  48. Gao M, Tang T, Miyanohara A, Feramisco J, Hammond H. beta(1)-Adrenergic receptor vs adenylyl cyclase 6 expression in cardiac myocytes: differences in transgene localization and intracellular signaling. Cell Signal. 2010;22:584-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a potential underlying mechanism for the beneficial vs deleterious effects of these two related betaAR-signaling elements. ..
  49. Zhang W, Shibamoto T, Kurata Y, Kohno H. Effects of ?-adrenoceptor antagonists on anaphylactic hypotension in conscious rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;650:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These ?-adrenoceptor antagonists may exert detrimental effects on rat systemic anaphylaxis via inhibiting beneficial actions of catecholamines endogenously released from the adrenal gland. ..
  50. Spadari Bratfisch R, dos Santos I. Adrenoceptors and adaptive mechanisms in the heart during stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:377-83 pubmed publisher
  51. Clancy R, Moue Y, Erwig L, Smith P, Gonzalez N. Role of beta-adrenergic and cholinergic systems in acclimatization to hypoxia in the rat. Respir Physiol. 1997;107:75-84 pubmed
  52. Jiang Q, Yuan H, Xing X, Liu J, Huang Z, Du X. Methylation of adrenergic ?1 receptor is a potential epigenetic mechanism controlling antihypertensive response to metoprolol. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2011;48:301-7 pubmed
    ..Evidence suggests that adrenergic beta1 receptor (ADRB1, designated Adrb1 in rodents) gene polymorphisms influence the level of blood pressure response to this drug ..
  53. Laing M, Bashir Z. ?-Adrenoceptors and synaptic plasticity in the perirhinal cortex. Neuroscience. 2014;273:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms of amygdala-perirhinal cortex plasticity will allow a greater understanding of how emotionally-charged events are remembered. ..