Adora2a

Summary

Gene Symbol: Adora2a
Description: adenosine A2a receptor
Alias: A2ar, ADENO, Adora2l1, adenosine receptor A2a, Adenosine A2a-receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Adora2a

Top Publications

  1. Lee F, Chao M. Activation of Trk neurotrophin receptors in the absence of neurotrophins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3555-60 pubmed
  2. Tozzi A, de Iure A, Di Filippo M, Tantucci M, Costa C, Borsini F, et al. The distinct role of medium spiny neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the D?/A?A receptor interaction in the striatum: implications for Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1850-62 pubmed publisher
  3. Lee Y, Chien C, Sun C, Huang C, Huang N, Chiang M, et al. Characterization of the rat A2A adenosine receptor gene: a 4.8-kb promoter-proximal DNA fragment confers selective expression in the central nervous system. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1786-96 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, expressions of A2A-R and the transgene were found in both neurons and astrocytes, suggesting that adenosine might mediate its function through A2A-R in both cell types. ..
  4. Milojevic T, Reiterer V, Stefan E, Korkhov V, Dorostkar M, Ducza E, et al. The ubiquitin-specific protease Usp4 regulates the cell surface level of the A2A receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:1083-94 pubmed
    ..These observations show that deubiquinating enzymes can regulate quality control in the ER. ..
  5. Charles M, Adamski D, Kholler B, Pelletier L, Berger F, Wion D. Induction of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells by the bacterial nucleoside N6-methyldeoxyadenosine is mediated through adenosine A2a receptors and via cAMP and MAPK signaling pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;304:795-800 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that, in PC12 cells, the MDA-induced neuritogenesis requires the recruitment of adenosine A(2a) receptor, the stimulation of adenylate cyclase, and the activation of the p44/42MAP kinase cascade. ..
  6. Charalambous C, Gsandtner I, Keuerleber S, Milan Lobo L, Kudlacek O, Freissmuth M, et al. Restricted collision coupling of the A2A receptor revisited: evidence for physical separation of two signaling cascades. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the A(2A) receptor is the first example of a G protein-coupled receptor documented to select signaling pathways in a manner dependent on the lipid microenvironment of the membrane. ..
  7. Sun C, Cheng H, Chou J, Lee S, Lin Y, Lai H, et al. Rescue of p53 blockage by the A(2A) adenosine receptor via a novel interacting protein, translin-associated protein X. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:454-66 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the A(2A)-R modulates the differentiation ability of trophic factors through a novel interacting protein, TRAX. ..
  8. Xu F, Wu H, KATRITCH V, Han G, Jacobson K, Gao Z, et al. Structure of an agonist-bound human A2A adenosine receptor. Science. 2011;332:322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results define the molecule UK-432097 as a "conformationally selective agonist" capable of receptor stabilization in a specific active-state configuration. ..
  9. Wu Y, Lai H, Chang W, Lin J, Liu Y, Chern Y. A novel G?s-binding protein, Gas-2 like 2, facilitates the signaling of the A2A adenosine receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:3145-3154 pubmed publisher
    The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that contains a long cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus (A2AR-C). We report here that Gas-2 like 2 (G2L2) is a new interacting partner of A2AR-C...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Xi J, McIntosh R, Shen X, Lee S, Chanoit G, Criswell H, et al. Adenosine A2A and A2B receptors work in concert to induce a strong protection against reperfusion injury in rat hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:684-90 pubmed publisher
    ..A simultaneous stimulation of A2A and A2B receptors at reperfusion is required to produce a strong cardioprotection against reperfusion injury. ..
  2. Burgueno J, Blake D, Benson M, Tinsley C, Esapa C, Canela E, et al. The adenosine A2A receptor interacts with the actin-binding protein alpha-actinin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37545-52 pubmed
    ..a major F-actin-cross-linking protein, as a binding partner for the C-terminal domain of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)...
  3. Yilmaz M, Coskun C, Suzer O, Yalcin M, Mutlu D, Savci V. Hypotensive effects of intravenously administered uridine and cytidine in conscious rats: involvement of adenosine receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;584:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also implicates that the mainly adenosine A(1) receptor activation is involved in the uridine-induced cardiovascular effects, while both adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor activations mediate the cytidine's effects. ..
  4. Kanno T, Nishizaki T. A(2a) adenosine receptor mediates PKA-dependent glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles and Ca(2+) efflux from an IP(3)- and ryanodine-insensitive intracellular calcium store in astrocytes. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30:1398-412 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study show that A(2a) adenosine receptor/PKA promotes glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles and stimulates Ca(2+) efflux from an IP(3)- and ryanodine-insensitive intracellular calcium store. ..
  5. León Navarro D, Albasanz J, Martín M. Hyperthermia-induced seizures alter adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and 5'-nucleotidase activity in rat cerebral cortex. J Neurochem. 2015;134:395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes suggest the possible existence of a neuroprotective mechanism against seizures. ..
  6. Minic Z, O Leary D, Scislo T. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;309:H185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects...
  7. Zahniser N, Simosky J, Mayfield R, Negri C, Hanania T, Larson G, et al. Functional uncoupling of adenosine A(2A) receptors and reduced responseto caffeine in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. J Neurosci. 2000;20:5949-57 pubmed
    ..They also reinforce the ideas that D(2)Rs and A(2A)Rs are functionally opposed and that D(2)R-mediated effects normally predominate. ..
  8. Stone T, Behan W. Interleukin-1beta but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates neuronal damage by quinolinic acid: protection by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:1077-85 pubmed
    ..Antagonism of adenosine A(2A) receptors protects neurons against the combination of quinolinic acid and IL-1beta. ..
  9. Huicong K, Zheng X, Furong W, Zhouping T, Feng X, Qi H, et al. The imbalanced expression of adenosine receptors in an epilepsy model corrected using targeted mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Mol Neurobiol. 2013;48:921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The MSCs displayed a relatively long survival time, at least 3 months. The improved AR expression and EEG findings suggested that MSC transplantation was a potentially effective means of treating refractory epilepsy. ..
  10. Coppi E, Cellai L, Maraula G, Pugliese A, Pedata F. Adenosine A?A receptors inhibit delayed rectifier potassium currents and cell differentiation in primary purified oligodendrocyte cultures. Neuropharmacology. 2013;73:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Data demonstrate that cultured OPCs express functional A(2A) receptors whose activation negatively modulate I(K) currents. We propose that, by this mechanism, A(2A) adenosine receptors inhibit OPC differentiation. ..
  11. Diógenes M, Fernandes C, Sebastião A, Ribeiro J. Activation of adenosine A2A receptor facilitates brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation of synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2905-13 pubmed
    ..5 mm) was unable to trigger the BDNF action. It is concluded that presynaptic activity-dependent release of adenosine, through activation of A(2A) receptors, facilitates BDNF modulation of synaptic transmission at hippocampal synapses. ..
  12. Martire A, Tebano M, Chiodi V, Ferreira S, Cunha R, Köfalvi A, et al. Pre-synaptic adenosine A2A receptors control cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated inhibition of striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission. J Neurochem. 2011;116:273-80 pubmed publisher
  13. Herve D, Le Moine C, Corvol J, Belluscio L, Ledent C, Fienberg A, et al. Galpha(olf) levels are regulated by receptor usage and control dopamine and adenosine action in the striatum. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4390-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these results identify Galpha(olf) as a critical and regulated component of both dopamine and adenosine signaling. ..
  14. Persson P, Friederich Persson M, Fasching A, Hansell P, Inagi R, Palm F. Adenosine A2 a receptor stimulation prevents proteinuria in diabetic rats by promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype without affecting oxidative stress. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2015;214:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates whether chronic stimulation of the adenosine A2a receptor (A2a AR) protects kidney function in insulinopenic diabetic rats...
  15. Huang P, Hsiao Y, Kao S, Chen C, Chen Y, Chiang C, et al. Adenosine A(2A) receptor up-regulates retinal wave frequency via starburst amacrine cells in the developing rat retina. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95090 pubmed publisher
    ..Ca²? transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A(2A)R (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A(2A)R may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs...
  16. Dobrowolski L, Kompanowska Jezierska E, Walkowska A, Sadowski J. Sodium intake determines the role of adenosine A2 receptors in control of renal medullary perfusion in the rat. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:2805-9 pubmed
    ..On LS intake, the vasodilator and vasoconstrictor effects are probably in balance and ADO has little role in control of intrarenal circulation. ..
  17. Bonneau O, Wyss D, Ferretti S, Blaydon C, Stevenson C, Trifilieff A. Effect of adenosine A2A receptor activation in murine models of respiratory disorders. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;290:L1036-43 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that activation of the A(2A) receptor would have a beneficial effect by inhibiting inflammatory cell influx and downregulating inflammatory cell activation in asthma and COPD, respectively. ..
  18. Puri N, Mohey V, Singh M, Kaur T, Pathak D, Buttar H, et al. Dipyridamole attenuates ischemia reperfusion induced acute kidney injury through adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor agonism in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016;389:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that adenosine receptors find their definite involvement in DYP-mediated anti-oxidative and reno-protective effect against ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI. ..
  19. Kachroo A, Orlando L, Grandy D, Chen J, Young A, Schwarzschild M. Interactions between metabotropic glutamate 5 and adenosine A2A receptors in normal and parkinsonian mice. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10414-9 pubmed
    ..These data also strengthen a rationale for pursuing a combinational drug strategy for enhancing the antiparkinsonian effects of A2A and mGlu5 antagonists. ..
  20. Sanders J, Happe H, Bylund D, Murrin L. Changes in postnatal norepinephrine alter alpha-2 adrenergic receptor development. Neuroscience. 2011;192:761-72 pubmed publisher
    Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (A2AR) regulate multiple brain functions and are enriched in developing brain...
  21. Vidi P, Chen J, Irudayaraj J, Watts V. Adenosine A(2A) receptors assemble into higher-order oligomers at the plasma membrane. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3985-90 pubmed publisher
    ..A differentiated neuronal cells. ..
  22. Tozzi A, de Iure A, Marsili V, Romano R, Tantucci M, Di Filippo M, et al. A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38312 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides a possible synaptic mechanism explaining how caffeine-like compounds could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. ..
  23. Noble F, Cox B. Differences among mouse strains in the regulation by mu, delta 1 and delta 2 opioid receptors of striatal adenylyl cyclases activated by dopamine D1 or adenosine A2a receptors. Brain Res. 1996;716:107-17 pubmed
    ..The results suggest probable differences in the specific neural locations of opioid receptor subtypes in certain inbred strains of mice with varying sensitivities to the behavioral effects of morphine. ..
  24. Rebola N, Sebastião A, de Mendonca A, Oliveira C, Ribeiro J, Cunha R. Enhanced adenosine A2A receptor facilitation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus of aged rats. J Neurophysiol. 2003;90:1295-303 pubmed
  25. Batalha V, Pego J, Fontinha B, Costenla A, Valadas J, Baqi Y, et al. Adenosine A(2A) receptor blockade reverts hippocampal stress-induced deficits and restores corticosterone circadian oscillation. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:320-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a novel evidence for the use of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists as potential therapy against psychopathologies. ..
  26. Sassi Y, Ahles A, Truong D, Baqi Y, Lee S, Husse B, et al. Cardiac myocyte-secreted cAMP exerts paracrine action via adenosine receptor activation. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:5385-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal a paracrine role for secreted cAMP in intercellular signaling in the myocardium, and we postulate that secreted cAMP may also constitute an important signal in other tissues. ..
  27. Apasov S, Sitkovsky M. The extracellular versus intracellular mechanisms of inhibition of TCR-triggered activation in thymocytes by adenosine under conditions of inhibited adenosine deaminase. Int Immunol. 1999;11:179-89 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, could lead to failure of positive and negative selection of thymocytes, and to additional elimination of thymocytes or autoimmunity of surviving T cells. ..
  28. Gauda E, Cooper R, Donnelly D, Mason A, McLemore G. The effect of development on the pattern of A1 and A2a-adenosine receptor gene and protein expression in rat peripheral arterial chemoreceptors. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;580:121-9; discussion 351-9 pubmed
  29. Chen Y, Yang S, Hueng D, Syu J, Liao C, Wu Y. Cordycepin induces apoptosis of C6 glioma cells through the adenosine 2A receptor-p53-caspase-7-PARP pathway. Chem Biol Interact. 2014;216:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Both adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist and small interference RNA (siRNA) knockdown of A2AR blocked cordycepin-induced apoptosis, p53 ..
  30. Costa M, Ardais A, Fioreze G, Mioranzza S, Botton P, Portela L, et al. Treadmill running frequency on anxiety and hippocampal adenosine receptors density in adult and middle-aged rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012;36:198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, this is the first study reporting the modulation of adenosine receptors after chronic physical exercise, which could be important to prevent neurological disorders associated to increase in adenosine A2A receptors. ..
  31. Perígolo Vicente R, Ritt K, Gonçalves de Albuquerque C, Castro Faria Neto H, Paes de Carvalho R, Giestal de Araujo E. IL-6, A1 and A2aR: a crosstalk that modulates BDNF and induces neuroprotection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;449:477-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work we show that the trophic effect of IL-6 is mediated by adenosine receptor (A2aR) activation and also by the presence of extracellular BDNF...
  32. Chen C, Penuelas O, Quinn K, Cheng K, Li C, Zhang H, et al. Protective effects of adenosine A2A receptor agonist in ventilator-induced lung injury in rats. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:2235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of adenosine A2A receptors has been reported to attenuate inflammatory cascades...
  33. Wright K, Tajouri L, Lea R, Ovcaric M, Heux S, Morin F, et al. The role of adenosine-related genes variants in susceptibility to essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2004;22:1519-22 pubmed
    To test markers within adenosine-related genes: A1 and A2a receptors (ADORA1, ADORA2a) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) for potential involvement in essential hypertension (EH)...
  34. Matos M, Augusto E, Santos Rodrigues A, Schwarzschild M, Chen J, Cunha R, et al. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate glutamate uptake in cultured astrocytes and gliosomes. Glia. 2012;60:702-16 pubmed publisher
  35. Corcoran A, Milsom W. Maturational changes in pontine and medullary alpha-adrenoceptor influences on respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal rats. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009;165:195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, transection experiments indicated that during development, the net influence of the pons changed from one of excitation to one of inhibition. ..
  36. Ciruela F, Casado V, Rodrigues R, Lujan R, Burgueno J, Canals M, et al. Presynaptic control of striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission by adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromers. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2080-7 pubmed
    ..bioluminescence and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques, we showed the existence of A1R-A2AR heteromers in the cell surface of cotransfected cells...
  37. Pritchett C, Pardee A, McGuirk S, Will M. The role of nucleus accumbens adenosine-opioid interaction in mediating palatable food intake. Brain Res. 2010;1306:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these results suggest a potential role of striatal adenosine A2(A) receptors in mediating baseline and striatal opioid-mediated intake of a high-fat diet. ..
  38. Nadeem A, Fan M, Ansari H, Ledent C, Jamal Mustafa S. Enhanced airway reactivity and inflammation in A2A adenosine receptor-deficient allergic mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L1335-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that A(2A)AR deficiency leads to airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, possibly via involvement of nitrosative stress in this model of asthma. ..
  39. Miyazaki N, Nakatsuka T, Takeda D, Nohda K, Inoue K, Yoshida M. Adenosine modulates excitatory synaptic transmission and suppresses neuronal death induced by ischaemia in rat spinal motoneurones. Pflugers Arch. 2008;457:441-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this study has provided a cellular basis for an involvement of A(1) receptors in the neuroprotective actions of adenosine...
  40. Ferre S, Karcz Kubicha M, Hope B, Popoli P, Burgueno J, Gutiérrez M, et al. Synergistic interaction between adenosine A2A and glutamate mGlu5 receptors: implications for striatal neuronal function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11940-5 pubmed
    ..a synergism between adenosine and glutamate based on subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGluR5) and adenosine A2A (A2AR) receptor/receptor interactions...
  41. Carlström M, Wilcox C, Welch W. Adenosine A2A receptor activation attenuates tubuloglomerular feedback responses by stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, adenosine A(2A) receptor activation attenuated TGF responses by stimulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS), presumably in the afferent arteriole. Moreover, NO derived from both eNOS and nNOS in the JGA may blunt TGF responses. ..
  42. Zhu Y, Liu L, Peng X, Ding X, Yang G, Li T. Role of adenosine A2A receptor in organ-specific vascular reactivity following hemorrhagic shock in rats. J Surg Res. 2013;184:951-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the contributions of A2ARs to organ-specific vascular reactivity and the protection of vascular responsiveness following shock are currently unknown...
  43. Lee Y, Lai H, Sun C, Chien C, Chern Y. Identification of nuclear factor 1 (NF1) as a transcriptional modulator of rat A(2A) adenosine receptor. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;111:61-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, the NF1-mediated inhibition of the A(2A)-R promoter was promoter- and cell line-specific. In summary, we have defined a distal negative element (A(2A)-R/NF1) that plays a functional role in modulating the expression of A(2A)-R. ..
  44. Assaife Lopes N, Sousa V, Pereira D, Ribeiro J, Sebastião A. Regulation of TrkB receptor translocation to lipid rafts by adenosine A(2A) receptors and its functional implications for BDNF-induced regulation of synaptic plasticity. Purinergic Signal. 2014;10:251-67 pubmed publisher
  45. Chern Y, King K, Lai H, Lai H. Molecular cloning of a novel adenosine receptor gene from rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;185:304-9 pubmed
    ..The variations in amino acid sequences between RA2 protein and the dog A2 receptor are largely confined to the extracellular second loop and the carboxyl terminus. ..
  46. Costenla A, Diógenes M, Canas P, Rodrigues R, Nogueira C, Maroco J, et al. Enhanced role of adenosine A(2A) receptors in the modulation of LTP in the rat hippocampus upon ageing. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This age-associated gain of function of A(?A) R modulating synaptic plasticity may underlie the ability of A(?A) R antagonists to prevent memory dysfunction in aged animals. ..
  47. Lee K, Hong J, Choi I, Che Y, Lee J, Yang S, et al. Impaired D2 dopamine receptor function in mice lacking type 5 adenylyl cyclase. J Neurosci. 2002;22:7931-40 pubmed
    Dopamine receptor subtypes D1 and D2, and many other seven-transmembrane receptors including adenosine receptor A2A, are colocalized in striatum of brain...
  48. Ke R, Xiong J, Liu Y. Adenosine A2a receptor induces GDNF expression by the Stat3 signal in vitro. Neuroreport. 2012;23:958-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) is believed to play a role in a number of physiological responses and pathological conditions. Our group has shown previously that A2aR-activated astrocytes occurred following oxygen-glucose deprivation...
  49. Golder F. Spinal NMDA receptor activation is necessary for de novo, but not the maintenance of, A2a receptor-mediated phrenic motor facilitation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:217-23 pubmed publisher
  50. Ohata H, Cao S, Koehler R. Contribution of adenosine A2A and A2B receptors and heme oxygenase to AMPA-induced dilation of pial arterioles in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R728-35 pubmed
    ..In addition, CO derived from HO appears to play a role in the vascular response to AMPA receptor activation in mature brain by a mechanism that is not additive with that of adenosine receptor activation. ..
  51. Ohta A, Sitkovsky M. Role of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors in downregulation of inflammation and protection from tissue damage. Nature. 2001;414:916-20 pubmed
    ..We suggest that A2a adenosine receptors are a critical part of the physiological negative feedback mechanism for limitation and termination of both tissue-specific and systemic inflammatory responses. ..
  52. Chen J, Moratalla R, Impagnatiello F, Grandy D, Cuellar B, Rubinstein M, et al. The role of the D(2) dopamine receptor (D(2)R) in A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)R)-mediated behavioral and cellular responses as revealed by A(2A) and D(2) receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:1970-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, endogenous adenosine acting at striatal A(2A)Rs may be most accurately viewed as a facilitative modulator of striatal neuronal activity rather than simply as an inhibitory modulator of D(2)R neurotransmission. ..
  53. Minutoli L, Arena S, Bonvissuto G, Bitto A, Polito F, Irrera N, et al. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors by polydeoxyribonucleotide increases vascular endothelial growth factor and protects against testicular damage induced by experimental varicocele in rats. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1510-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In rat experimental varicocele, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, thereby enhancing testicular function. This may point to a new therapeutic approach in human varicocele. ..