Gene Symbol: Acacb
Description: acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta
Alias: Acc2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase 2, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase beta
Species: rat
Products:     Acacb

Top Publications

  1. Harada N, Oda Z, Hara Y, Fujinami K, Okawa M, Ohbuchi K, et al. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis is present in liver-specific ACC1-deficient mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1881-8 pubmed
    ..with distinct physiological roles: cytosolic ACC1 participates in de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and mitochondrial ACC2 is involved in negative regulation of mitochondrial beta-oxidation...
  2. Oh W, Abu Elheiga L, Kordari P, Gu Z, Shaikenov T, Chirala S, et al. Glucose and fat metabolism in adipose tissue of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1384-9 pubmed
    b>Acc2-/- mutant mice, when fed a high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet, were protected against diet-induced obesity and diabetes...
  3. Park H, Kaushik V, Constant S, Prentki M, Przybytkowski E, Ruderman N, et al. Coordinate regulation of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase by AMP-activated protein kinase in rat tissues in response to exercise. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32571-7 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that in each of them, it acts to increase fatty acid oxidation and decrease its esterification. ..
  4. Oh S, Park S, Kim J, Ahn Y, Park S, Kim K. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 in liver. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:28410-7 pubmed
    ..carboxylase (ACC) exists as two major isoforms originated from separate genes: ACCalpha (or ACC1) and ACCbeta (or ACC2)...
  5. Harwood H, Petras S, Shelly L, Zaccaro L, Perry D, Makowski M, et al. Isozyme-nonselective N-substituted bipiperidylcarboxamide acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors reduce tissue malonyl-CoA concentrations, inhibit fatty acid synthesis, and increase fatty acid oxidation in cultured cells and in experimental animals. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37099-111 pubmed ACC inhibitor should inhibit both the lipogenic tissue isozyme (ACC1) and the oxidative tissue isozyme (ACC2)...
  6. Ha J, Lee J, Kim K, Witters L, Kim K. Cloning of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and its unique features. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11466-70 pubmed
    ..A fragment of ACC-beta cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli and antibodies against the peptide were generated to establish that the cDNA sequence that we cloned is that for ACC-beta. ..
  7. Abu Elheiga L, Almarza Ortega D, Baldini A, Wakil S. Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Molecular cloning, characterization, chromosomal mapping, and evidence for two isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10669-77 pubmed
    cDNA encoding the 280-kDa acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) isoform was isolated from human liver using the polymerase chain reaction...
  8. Kreuz S, Schoelch C, Thomas L, Rist W, Rippmann J, Neubauer H. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 show distinct expression patterns in rats and humans and alterations in obesity and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009;25:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..ACC1 and ACC2 transcript levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in metabolically relevant ..
  9. Abu Elheiga L, Brinkley W, Zhong L, Chirala S, Woldegiorgis G, Wakil S. The subcellular localization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1444-9 pubmed
    Animals, including humans, express two isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC ), ACC1 (M(r) = 265 kDa) and ACC2 (M(r) = 280 kDa)...

More Information


  1. Kim C, Moon Y, Park S, Cheng D, Kwon H, Horton J. Induced polymerization of mammalian acetyl-CoA carboxylase by MIG12 provides a tertiary level of regulation of fatty acid synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to its regulation by phosphorylation and transcription, ACC is regulated at a tertiary level by MIG12, which facilitates ACC polymerization and enhances enzymatic activity. ..
  2. Janovska A, Hatzinikolas G, Staikopoulos V, McInerney J, Mano M, Wittert G. AMPK and ACC phosphorylation: effect of leptin, muscle fibre type and obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;284:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPK activation by leptin occurred independently of energy-related metabolites. These data demonstrate that the leptin effect on AMPKalpha and ACCbeta is muscle fibre type dependent and fails in diet-induced obesity. ..
  3. Cheng D, Chu C, Chen L, Feder J, Mintier G, Wu Y, et al. Expression, purification, and characterization of human and rat acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) isozymes. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;51:11-21 pubmed
    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase isozyme 1 (ACC1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase isozyme 2 (ACC2) are critical for de novo fatty acid synthesis and for the regulation of beta-oxidation...
  4. Dabrowski Z, Gregorczyk J, Samochowiec L, Wojcicki J, Lawczynski L, Antoszczyk M, et al. [Effect of truncal vagotomy on the exocrine function of the pancreas in the dog]. Pol Tyg Lek. 1978;33:1093-5 pubmed
  5. Rathman S, Gregory J, McMahon R. Pharmacological biotin supplementation maintains biotin status and function in rats administered dietary carbamazepine. J Nutr. 2003;133:2857-62 pubmed
    ..These results support the use of biotin supplementation as a concurrent strategy during CBZ administration to help maintain biotin status, function of biotin-dependent enzymes and decrease CBZ-induced lactate accumulation. ..
  6. Abu Elheiga L, Oh W, Kordari P, Wakil S. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 mutant mice are protected against obesity and diabetes induced by high-fat/high-carbohydrate diets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10207-12 pubmed
    Malonyl-CoA, generated by acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2, is a key metabolite in the control of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in response to dietary changes...
  7. Abu Elheiga L, Matzuk M, Abo Hashema K, Wakil S. Continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced fat storage in mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Science. 2001;291:2613-6 pubmed
    Malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA), generated by acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2, is a key metabolite in the regulation of energy homeostasis...
  8. Colbert C, Kim C, Moon Y, Henry L, Palnitkar M, McKean W, et al. Crystal structure of Spot 14, a modulator of fatty acid synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of S14 suggests a mechanism whereby heterodimer formation with MIG12 attenuates the ability of MIG12 to activate ACC. ..
  9. Widmer J, Fassihi K, Schlichter S, Wheeler K, Crute B, King N, et al. Identification of a second human acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 3):915-22 pubmed
    ..The newly discovered human gene and its rat homologue appear to be under different regulatory control to the HACC265 gene, as judged by tissue-specific expression in vivo and by independent modulation in cultured cells in vitro. ..
  10. Liang Y, She P, Wang X, Demarest K. The messenger RNA profiles in liver, hypothalamus, white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle of female Zucker diabetic fatty rats after topiramate treatment. Metabolism. 2006;55:1411-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that TPM regulates hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, which could be part of the mechanisms by which TPM reduces plasma triglyceride levels in obese diabetic rodents. ..
  11. Essop M, Camp H, Choi C, Sharma S, Fryer R, Reinhart G, et al. Reduced heart size and increased myocardial fuel substrate oxidation in ACC2 mutant mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H256-65 pubmed publisher
    The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC2) is a key regulator of mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) uptake via carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1)...
  12. Savage D, Choi C, Samuel V, Liu Z, Zhang D, Wang A, et al. Reversal of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance by antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:817-24 pubmed
    ..Malonyl-CoA, generated by acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (Acc1 and Acc2), is a key regulator of both mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and fat synthesis...
  13. Ullrich C, Widmer J, Park J, Mohandas T, Witters L. Assignment of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta (ACACB) to human chromosome band 12q24.1 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1997;77:176-7 pubmed
  14. Imbriolo J, Mapanga R, Essop M. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway induces gene promoter activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;452:734-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that such ACCβ induction may elicit serious downstream effects, e.g. the inhibition of FA β-oxidation and the onset of IR. ..
  15. Rubink D, Winder W. Effect of phosphorylation by AMP-activated protein kinase on palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of skeletal muscle acetyl-CoA carboxylase. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;98:1221-7 pubmed
    ..This may contribute to low-muscle malonyl-CoA values and increasing fatty acid oxidation rates during long-term exercise when plasma fatty acid concentrations are elevated. ..
  16. Gao S, Kinzig K, Aja S, Scott K, Keung W, Kelly S, et al. Leptin activates hypothalamic acetyl-CoA carboxylase to inhibit food intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17358-63 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings highlight site-specific impacts of hypothalamic ACC activation in leptin's anorectic signaling cascade. ..
  17. Oh S, Lee M, Kim J, Yoon S, Shin S, Park Y, et al. Alternative usages of multiple promoters of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene are related to differential transcriptional regulation in human and rodent tissues. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5909-16 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to explain the mechanisms underlying the differential regulation of ACCbeta gene expression between tissues in living organisms. ..
  18. Abe K, Shinohara Y, Terada H. Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding rat heart type acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1398:347-52 pubmed
    ..As the deduced amino acid sequence showed 85% homology with that of human type 2 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC2), we concluded that the cDNA clones encode rat heart type ACC2...
  19. Watson J. The Warble Fly Orders. Vet Rec. 1978;103:354-5 pubmed
    ..During this period no infested cattle may be moved, even to a slaughterhouse, unless they have been treated and are accompanied by a statutory declaration of treatment. ..