Gene Symbol: fdxA
Description: ferredoxin I
Species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

Top Publications

  1. Camba R, Jung Y, Hunsicker Wang L, Burgess B, Stout C, Hirst J, et al. Mechanisms of redox-coupled proton transfer in proteins: role of the proximal proline in reactions of the [3Fe-4S] cluster in Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I. Biochemistry. 2003;42:10589-99 pubmed
    ..The electrostatic coupling is crucial for maintaining the efficiency of proton transfer both to and from the cluster, over a range of pH values...
  2. Stout C. Two crystal forms of Azotobacter ferredoxin. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:3598-9 pubmed
    ..8, b = 58.7, c = 64.3 A, alpha = = 105 degrees 05 min, beta = 82 degrees 30 min, gamma = 110 degrees 30 min and 4 or 5 molecules/unit cell. Both crystal forms are stable to x-ray irradiation and diffract beyond 3.0 A resolution. ..
  3. Stout C. Refinement of the 7 Fe ferredoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii at 1.9 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1989;205:545-55 pubmed
    ..These residues are part of two loops in contact with residues of the extended C-terminal chain of 7 Fe ferredoxin. ..
  4. Shen B, Jollie D, Stout C, Diller T, Armstrong F, Gorst C, et al. Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I. Alteration of individual surface charges and the [4FE-4S]2+/+ cluster reduction potential. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:8564-75 pubmed
    ..These differences are therefore most likely to be due to differences in solvent accessibility. ..
  5. Kemper M, Stout C, Lloyd S, Prasad G, Fawcett S, Armstrong F, et al. Y13C Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I. A designed [Fe-S] ligand motif contains a cysteine persulfide. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:15620-7 pubmed
    ..It is interesting to note that neither of the two free cysteines present in FdI was modified. Thus, if NifS is involved in modifying the introduced cysteine there must be specificity to the reaction. ..
  6. Stephens P, Morgan T, Devlin F, Penner Hahn J, Hodgson K, Scott R, et al. [4Fe-4S]-cluster-depleted Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: a new 3Fe iron-sulfur protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:5661-5 pubmed
    ..Possible interpretations of this result are discussed. ..
  7. Shen B, Martin L, Butt J, Armstrong F, Stout C, Jensen G, et al. Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I. Aspartate 15 facilitates proton transfer to the reduced [3Fe-4S] cluster. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:25928-39 pubmed
    ..Overproduction of D15N FdI, but not native FdI, in A. vinelandii has a negative effect on the growth rate of the organism, suggesting that the rate of protonation or deprotonation of the [3Fe-4S]0 cluster may be important in vivo. ..
  8. Chen K, Hirst J, Camba R, Bonagura C, Stout C, Burgess B, et al. Atomically defined mechanism for proton transfer to a buried redox centre in a protein. Nature. 2000;405:814-7 pubmed
    ..Our analysis defines the structural, dynamic and energetic requirements for proton courier groups in redox-driven proton-pumping enzymes. ..
  9. Shen B, Jollie D, Diller T, Stout C, Stephens P, Burgess B. Site-directed mutagenesis of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: cysteine ligation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster with protein rearrangement is preferred over serine ligation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10064-8 pubmed
    ..In the C20S protein the [4Fe-4S] cluster has altered stability and redox properties relative to either C20A or the native protein. ..

More Information


  1. Stout C. Structure of the iron-sulphur clusters in Azotobacter ferredoxin at 4.0 A resolution. Nature. 1979;279:83-4 pubmed
  2. Gao Sheridan H, Kemper M, Khayat R, Tilley G, Armstrong F, Sridhar V, et al. A T14C variant of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I undergoes facile [3Fe-4S]0 to [4Fe-4S]2+ conversion in vitro but not in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:33692-701 pubmed
    ..However, unlike native FdI which does not undergo facile cluster conversion, the 7Fe form T14C FdI quickly converts to the 8Fe form with a high efficiency under reducing conditions. ..
  3. Jung Y, Bonagura C, Tilley G, Gao Sheridan H, Armstrong F, Stout C, et al. Structure of C42D Azotobacter vinelandii FdI. A Cys-X-X-Asp-X-X-Cys motif ligates an air-stable [4Fe-4S]2+/+ cluster. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36974-83 pubmed
    ..The cluster conversion was ultimately accomplished using a new electrochemical method. Hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction and the lack of Gly residues adjacent to the Asp ligand explain the remarkable stability of this cluster. ..
  4. Chen K, Jung Y, Bonagura C, Tilley G, Prasad G, Sridhar V, et al. Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: a sequence and structure comparison approach to alteration of [4Fe-4S]2+/+ reduction potential. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5603-10 pubmed
  5. Stout C, Ghosh D, Pattabhi V, Robbins A. Iron-sulfur clusters in Azotobacter ferredoxin at 2.5 A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:1797-800 pubmed
    ..The smaller cluster is distinctly planar and cannot be modeled with [2Fe-2S] or [4Fe-4S] structures. The best model for this cluster is a [3Fe-3S] core. The protein makes six contacts with this cluster. ..
  6. Stout C, Stura E, McRee D. Structure of Azotobacter vinelandii 7Fe ferredoxin at 1.35 A resolution and determination of the [Fe-S] bonds with 0.01 A accuracy. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:629-39 pubmed
  7. Chen K, Tilley G, Sridhar V, Prasad G, Stout C, Armstrong F, et al. Alteration of the reduction potential of the [4Fe-4S](2+/+) cluster of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:36479-87 pubmed
    ..Subsequent Protein Dipole Langevin Dipole calculations (using the actual I40N x-ray structures) did quite accurately predict the observed change in E(0'). ..
  8. Stout C. Crystal structures of oxidized and reduced Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin at pH 8 and 6. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:25920-7 pubmed
    ..1993).(abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  9. Soman J, Iismaa S, Stout C. Crystallographic analysis of two site-directed mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:21558-62 pubmed
    ..The conformational change observed at residue 24 is similar in both C24A and C20A FdI structures. The solvent accessibility of the Fe atoms in the [3Fe-4S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters is similar in C24A, C20A, and native FdI. ..
  10. Stout C. 7-Iron ferredoxin revisited. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:9256-60 pubmed
    ..However, there are two free sulfhydryls, cysteines 11 and 24, in the new model. Cysteine 24 is in contact with the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Cysteine 11 is shielded from solvent by residues 86-90...
  11. Martin A, Burgess B, Stout C, Cash V, Dean D, Jensen G, et al. Site-directed mutagenesis of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: [Fe-S] cluster-driven protein rearrangement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:598-602 pubmed
    ..Recently the x-ray crystal structure has been redetermined and the fdxA gene, which encodes the protein, has been cloned and sequenced...
  12. Schipke C, Goodin D, McRee D, Stout C. Oxidized and reduced Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I at 1.4 A resolution: conformational change of surface residues without significant change in the [3Fe-4S]+/0 cluster. Biochemistry. 1999;38:8228-39 pubmed
    ..These structural changes imply a mechanism for H+ transfer to the [3Fe-4S]0 cluster in agreement with electrochemical and spectroscopic results. ..
  13. Stout G, Turley S, Sieker L, Jensen L. Structure of ferredoxin I from Azotobacter vinelandii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1020-2 pubmed
  14. Howard J, Lorsbach T, Ghosh D, Melis K, Stout C. Structure of Azotobacter vinelandii 7Fe ferredoxin. Amino acid sequence and electron density maps of residues. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:508-22 pubmed
    ..These sequence features are compared to the sequences of various ferredoxin groups. Structure predictions for other suspected 7Fe ferredoxins are discussed. ..
  15. Chen K, Bonagura C, Tilley G, McEvoy J, Jung Y, Armstrong F, et al. Crystal structures of ferredoxin variants exhibiting large changes in [Fe-S] reduction potential. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:188-92 pubmed
    ..The smaller (50--100 mV) increases observed for the neutral form are proposed to occur by directing a Hdelta+--Ndelta- dipole toward the reduced form of the cluster. ..
  16. Ghosh D, O Donnell S, Furey W, Robbins A, Stout C. Iron-sulfur clusters and protein structure of Azotobacter ferredoxin at 2.0 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1982;158:73-109 pubmed
  17. Ghosh D, Furey W, O Donnell S, Stout C. Structure of a 7Fe ferredoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:4185-92 pubmed
    ..The partially refined structure at 2.5 A (3,490 reflections, 6.0 sigma(F)) has R = 35%. ..