Gene Symbol: avrPto1
Description: type III effector protein AvrPto1
Alias: PSPTO4001, type III effector protein AvrPto1
Species: Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000

Top Publications

  1. Shan L, He P, Li J, Heese A, Peck S, N├╝rnberger T, et al. Bacterial effectors target the common signaling partner BAK1 to disrupt multiple MAMP receptor-signaling complexes and impede plant immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover a unique strategy of bacterial pathogenesis where virulence effectors block signal transmission through a key common component of multiple MAMP-receptor complexes. ..
  2. Xing W, Zou Y, Liu Q, Liu J, Luo X, Huang Q, et al. The structural basis for activation of plant immunity by bacterial effector protein AvrPto. Nature. 2007;449:243-7 pubmed
    ..Together, our results show that AvrPto derepresses host defences by interacting with the two defence-inhibition loops of Pto. ..
  3. Rosebrock T, Zeng L, Brady J, Abramovitch R, Xiao F, Martin G. A bacterial E3 ubiquitin ligase targets a host protein kinase to disrupt plant immunity. Nature. 2007;448:370-4 pubmed
    ..Various wild species of tomato were found to exhibit immunity in response to AvrPtoB(1-387 )and not to full-length AvrPtoB. Thus, by acquiring an E3 ligase domain, AvrPtoB has thwarted a highly conserved host resistance mechanism. ..
  4. Lin N, Martin G. Pto- and Prf-mediated recognition of AvrPto and AvrPtoB restricts the ability of diverse pseudomonas syringae pathovars to infect tomato. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2007;20:806-15 pubmed
  5. Shan L, Thara V, Martin G, Zhou J, Tang X. The pseudomonas AvrPto protein is differentially recognized by tomato and tobacco and is localized to the plant plasma membrane. Plant Cell. 2000;12:2323-2338 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that AvrPto is recognized differently by the R genes in tomato and tobacco and that the recognition of AvrPto probably is associated with the plasma membrane. ..
  6. Lin N, Martin G. An avrPto/avrPtoB mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 does not elicit Pto-mediated resistance and is less virulent on tomato. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2005;18:43-51 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that AvrPto and AvrPtoB have phenotypically redundant avirulence activity on Pto-expressing tomato and additive virulence activities on susceptible tomato plants. ..
  7. Abramovitch R, Janjusevic R, Stebbins C, Martin G. Type III effector AvrPtoB requires intrinsic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity to suppress plant cell death and immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2851-6 pubmed
    ..Overall, these data reveal a unique bacterial pathogenesis strategy, where AvrPtoB manipulates the host Ub system and requires intrinsic E3 Ub ligase activity to suppress plant immunity. ..
  8. Cheng W, Munkvold K, Gao H, Mathieu J, Schwizer S, Wang S, et al. Structural analysis of Pseudomonas syringae AvrPtoB bound to host BAK1 reveals two similar kinase-interacting domains in a type III Effector. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;10:616-26 pubmed publisher
    ..BAK1 kinase activity is inhibited by AvrPtoB, and mutations at the interaction interface disrupt AvrPtoB virulence activity. These results shed light on a structural mechanism underlying host-pathogen coevolution...
  9. Xiang T, Zong N, Zou Y, Wu Y, Zhang J, Xing W, et al. Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrPto blocks innate immunity by targeting receptor kinases. Curr Biol. 2008;18:74-80 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the mechanism by which AvrPto recognizes virulence targets is linked to the evolution of Pto, which, in association with Prf, recognizes the bacterium and triggers strong resistance. ..

More Information


  1. Li X, Lin H, Zhang W, Zou Y, Zhang J, Tang X, et al. Flagellin induces innate immunity in nonhost interactions that is suppressed by Pseudomonas syringae effectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12990-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A remarkable number of DC3000 virulence factors act in the plant cell by suppressing the species level defenses, and that contributes to the specialization of DC3000 on Arabidopsis...
  2. He P, Shan L, Lin N, Martin G, Kemmerling B, N rnberger T, et al. Specific bacterial suppressors of MAMP signaling upstream of MAPKKK in Arabidopsis innate immunity. Cell. 2006;125:563-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletions of avrPto and avrPtoB from pathogenic P. syringae reduce its virulence. The studies reveal a fundamental role of MAMP signaling in nonhost immunity, and a novel action of type III effectors from pathogenic bacteria...
  3. Schechter L, Roberts K, Jamir Y, Alfano J, Collmer A. Pseudomonas syringae type III secretion system targeting signals and novel effectors studied with a Cya translocation reporter. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:543-55 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Cya should be a useful reporter for exploring multiple aspects of the Hrp system in P. syringae...
  4. Abramovitch R, Martin G. AvrPtoB: a bacterial type III effector that both elicits and suppresses programmed cell death associated with plant immunity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;245:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the "trump model" is proposed to explain how resistance proteins successfully elicit immunity-associated PCD in response to effectors that suppress PCD...
  5. Mathieu J, Schwizer S, Martin G. Pto kinase binds two domains of AvrPtoB and its proximity to the effector E3 ligase determines if it evades degradation and activates plant immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004227 pubmed publisher
  6. Ek Ramos M, Avila J, Nelson Dittrich A, Su D, Gray J, Devarenne T. The tomato cell death suppressor Adi3 is restricted to the endosomal system in response to the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrPto. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e110807 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we propose that inhibiting nuclear import and constraining Adi3 to the endosomal system in response to AvrPto is a mechanism to initiate the cell death associated with resistance. ..
  7. Navarro L, Jay F, Nomura K, He S, Voinnet O. Suppression of the microRNA pathway by bacterial effector proteins. Science. 2008;321:964-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that, like viruses, bacteria have evolved to suppress RNA silencing to cause disease. ..
  8. Hauck P, Thilmony R, He S. A Pseudomonas syringae type III effector suppresses cell wall-based extracellular defense in susceptible Arabidopsis plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8577-82 pubmed
    ..AvrPto is therefore one of the long postulated suppressors of an salicylic acid-independent, cell wall-based defense that is aimed at hrp mutant bacteria. ..
  9. Cohn J, Martin G. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato type III effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB promote ethylene-dependent cell death in tomato. Plant J. 2005;44:139-54 pubmed publisher
    ..AvrPto and AvrPtoB therefore appear to promote enhanced disease in tomato leaves, in part, by upregulating genes involved in ethylene production...
  10. Wulf J, Pascuzzi P, Fahmy A, Martin G, Nicholson L. The solution structure of type III effector protein AvrPto reveals conformational and dynamic features important for plant pathogenesis. Structure. 2004;12:1257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The AvrPto structure has a low stability that may facilitate chaperone-independent secretion by the TTSS...
  11. . Molecular Basis of Gene-for-Gene Specificity in Bacterial Speck Disease of Tomato. Science. 1996;274:2063-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that during infection the pathogen delivers AvrPto into the plant host cell and that resistance is specified by direct interaction of Pto with AvrPto...
  12. Kim Y, Lin N, Martin G. Two distinct Pseudomonas effector proteins interact with the Pto kinase and activate plant immunity. Cell. 2002;109:589-98 pubmed
    ..Thus, two distinct bacterial effectors activate plant immunity by interacting with the same host protein kinase through a similar structural mechanism...
  13. Salmeron J, Staskawicz B. Molecular characterization and hrp dependence of the avirulence gene avrPto from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato [corrected]. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;239:6-16 pubmed
    ..The avrPto transcription start site maps 31 nucleotides downstream of the hrp box motif...
  14. Ronald P, Salmeron J, Carland F, Staskawicz B. The cloned avirulence gene avrPto induces disease resistance in tomato cultivars containing the Pto resistance gene. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1604-11 pubmed
    ..syringae pv. glycinea transconjugants carrying avrPto elicit a typical hypersensitive resistant response in the soybean cultivar Centennial, suggesting conservation of Pto function between two crop plants, tomato and soybean. ..
  15. Hann D, Rathjen J. Early events in the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae on Nicotiana benthamiana. Plant J. 2007;49:607-18 pubmed
    ..This observation separates the respective mechanisms of the two effectors, and suggests that AvrPtoB may target the defence machinery directly for its suppressive effect. ..