Gene Symbol: relaxin
Description: relaxin 2
Alias: RLN, prorelaxin, preprorelaxin
Species: pig

Top Publications

  1. Isaacs N, James R, Niall H, Bryant Greenwood G, Dodson G, Evans A, et al. Relaxin and its structural relationship to insulin. Nature. 1978;271:278-81 pubmed
  2. Feugang J, Rodriguez Munoz J, Willard S, Bathgate R, Ryan P. Examination of relaxin and its receptors expression in pig gametes and embryos. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011;9:10 pubmed publisher
    b>Relaxin is a small peptide also known as pregnancy hormone in many mammals...
  3. Kohsaka T, Singh U, Yogo K, Sasada H, Taya K, Hashizume K. Expression and cellular pattern of relaxin mRNA in porcine corpora lutea during pregnancy. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;330:303-12 pubmed
    We developed an in situ hybridization method for detecting relaxin mRNA in the porcine corpus luteum (CL) by employing a non-radioactive probe and microwave fixation...
  4. Miah A, Tareq K, Hamano K, Kohsaka T, Tsujii H. Effect of relaxin on acrosome reaction and utilization of glucose in boar spermatozoa. J Reprod Dev. 2006;52:773-9 pubmed
    b>Relaxin is a peptide hormone found in seminal plasma that has a physiological influence on sperm motility in some species. There are no reports on the effect of relaxin on acrosome reaction and utilization of glucose in boar spermatozoa...
  5. Bagnell C, Zhang Q, Downey B, Ainsworth L. Sources and biological actions of relaxin in pigs. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 1993;48:127-38 pubmed
    Although the major source of relaxin in pigs is the corpus luteum of pregnancy, there is now evidence for relaxin gene expression and translation into protein in the theca interna cells of the preovulatory follicle, the corpus luteum of ..
  6. Schwabe C, McDonald J, Steinetz B. Primary structure of the A chain of porcine relaxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1976;70:397-405 pubmed
  7. Schwabe C, McDonald J. Demonstration of a pyroglutamyl residue at the N terminus of the B-chain of porcine relaxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977;74:1501-4 pubmed
  8. Schwabe C, McDonald J. Primary structure of the B-chain of porcine relaxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977;75:503-10 pubmed
  9. Zhao S, Lee H, Sherwood O. Porcine and human relaxin bioactivity: bioactivities of porcine relaxin and human relaxin do not differ in mice and rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1041:126-31 pubmed
    This study compares the bioactivity of porcine relaxin-1 to that of recombinant human relaxin-2 in mice and rats...

More Information


  1. Bagnell C, Yan W, Wiley A, Bartol F. Effects of relaxin on neonatal porcine uterine growth and development. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1041:248-55 pubmed
    b>Relaxin (RLX), a key reproductive hormone in pigs, stimulates uterine growth in pregnant and prepubertal gilts and in neonates 2 weeks after birth...
  2. Feugang J, Greene J, Willard S, Ryan P. In vitro effects of relaxin on gene expression in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes and developing embryos. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011;9:15 pubmed publisher
    b>Relaxin hormone peptide is found in porcine follicular and utero-tubal fluids, but its possible actions during early embryo development are still undetermined...
  3. Formigli L, Perna A, Meacci E, Cinci L, Margheri M, Nistri S, et al. Paracrine effects of transplanted myoblasts and relaxin on post-infarction heart remodelling. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11:1087-100 pubmed
    ..genetically engineered to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or eGFP and the cardiotropic hormone relaxin (RLX) through coronary venous route to swine with experimental chronic myocardial infarction...
  4. Frankshun A, Ho T, Reimer D, Chen J, Lasano S, Steinetz B, et al. Characterization and biological activity of relaxin in porcine milk. Reproduction. 2011;141:373-80 pubmed publisher
    A lactocrine mechanism for delivery of maternally derived relaxin (RLX) into the neonatal circulation as a consequence of nursing was proposed for the pig...
  5. Chen J, Frankshun A, Wiley A, Miller D, Welch K, Ho T, et al. Milk-borne lactocrine-acting factors affect gene expression patterns in the developing neonatal porcine uterus. Reproduction. 2011;141:675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Relaxin (RLX), a lactocrine-active peptide found in porcine colostrum, stimulates estrogen receptor-? (ESR1) expression ..
  6. Yoshida T, Kumagai H, Kohsaka T, Ikegaya N. Relaxin protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F1169-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Relaxin, a pregnancy hormone, has antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of relaxin on ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury...
  7. Ellegren H. Abundant (A)n.(T)n mononucleotide repeats in the pig genome: linkage mapping of the porcine APOB, FSA, ALOX12, PEPN and RLN loci. Anim Genet. 1993;24:367-72 pubmed
    ..A)n.(T)n polymorphisms allowed linkage mapping of relaxin to chromosome 1, apolipoprotein B to chromosome 3, aminopeptidase N to chromosome 7, arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase ..
  8. Haley J, Hudson P, Scanlon D, John M, Cronk M, Shine J, et al. Porcine relaxin: molecular cloning and cDNA structure. DNA. 1982;1:155-62 pubmed
    ..which hybridized to this probe were subjected to sequence analysis and some of these were found to contain the preprorelaxin coding region, comprising a signal peptide of 24 amino acids, a B chain of 32 amino acids, a large C peptide ..
  9. Masters R, Crean B, Yan W, Moss A, Ryan P, Wiley A, et al. Neonatal porcine endometrial development and epithelial proliferation affected by age and exposure to estrogen and relaxin. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2007;33:335-46 pubmed
    ..Exposure of gilts to estrogen (E) or relaxin (RLX) during this period disrupts uterine development, and neonatal E exposure can compromise adult uterine ..
  10. Haley J, Crawford R, Hudson P, Scanlon D, Tregear G, Shine J, et al. Porcine relaxin. Gene structure and expression. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:11940-6 pubmed
    A porcine genomic cosmid library was constructed to study the structure and regulation of the porcine relaxin gene...
  11. Kato S, Siqin -, Minagawa I, Aoshima T, Sagata D, Konishi H, et al. Evidence for expression of relaxin hormone-receptor system in the boar testis. J Endocrinol. 2010;207:135-49 pubmed publisher
    Although the physiological role of relaxin (RLN) in males remains largely unknown, there is limited evidence that the testis might be a candidate source and target of RLN in boars, as RLN transcripts are detected in the boar testis and ..
  12. Bagnell C, Bartol F. Milk-borne relaxin and reproductive system development. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2013;118:15-6 pubmed
    ..supports neonatal development by providing a conduit for delivery of milk-borne bioactive factors, exemplified by relaxin, from mother to offspring as proposed in the lactocrine hypothesis...
  13. Schwabe C, McDonald J. Relaxin: a disulfide homolog of insulin. Science. 1977;197:914-5 pubmed
    b>Relaxin, a peptide hormone responsible for the widening of the birth canal in mammals, has been purified from the ovaries of pregnant hogs...
  14. James R, Niall H, Kwok S, Bryand Greenwood G. Primary structure of porcine relaxin: homology with insulin and related growth factors. Nature. 1977;267:544-6 pubmed