Gene Symbol: HN
Description: hemagglutinin-neuraminidase
Species: Newcastle disease virus B1

Top Publications

  1. Khattar S, Yan Y, Panda A, Collins P, Samal S. A Y526Q mutation in the Newcastle disease virus HN protein reduces its functional activities and attenuates virus replication and pathogenicity. J Virol. 2009;83:7779-82 pubmed publisher
    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in virus infectivity...
  2. Cornax I, Diel D, Rue C, Estevez C, Yu Q, Miller P, et al. Newcastle disease virus fusion and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins contribute to its macrophage host range. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1189-1194 pubmed publisher
    The fusion (F) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are multifunctional proteins that play critical roles during infection...
  3. Rajmani R, Gandham R, Gupta S, Sahoo A, Singh P, Kumar R, et al. HN Protein of Newcastle Disease Virus Induces Apoptosis Through SAPK/JNK Pathway. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2015;177:940-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN), a multifunctional protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of such proteins...
  4. Laliberte J, McGinnes L, Morrison T. Incorporation of functional HN-F glycoprotein-containing complexes into newcastle disease virus is dependent on cholesterol and membrane lipid raft integrity. J Virol. 2007;81:10636-48 pubmed publisher
    ..reduced fusion capacity of particles released from cholesterol-extracted cells correlated with significant loss of HN-F glycoprotein-containing complexes detected in the virion envelopes of these particles and with detection of cell-..
  5. Esmaelizad M, Ashtiani M. Comparative analysis of sialidase protein in velogenic and lentogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus. Acta Virol. 2015;59:194-8 pubmed
    The sialidase protein is a  major part of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is an important multifunctional envelope protein...
  6. Zhao W, Zhang Z, Zsak L, Yu Q. Effects of the HN gene C-terminal extensions on the Newcastle disease virus virulence. Virus Genes. 2013;47:498-504 pubmed publisher
    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a multifunctional protein that has receptor recognition, neuraminidase, and fusion promotion activities...
  7. Qin Z, Xu H, Ouyang W, Wang Y, Wang L, Yuan X, et al. [Correlation of the neutralization index in chicken embryo with the homologies of F and HN gene of different Newcastle-disease isolates]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2008;48:226-33 pubmed
    ..7%-84.1%. In addition, these NDV isolates all shared 95.2%-100% nt homology with the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene, whereas only 79.1%-84.3% compared these viruses with La Sota...
  8. Adu Gyamfi E, Kim L, Jardetzky T, Lamb R. Flexibility of the Head-Stalk Linker Domain of Paramyxovirus HN Glycoprotein Is Essential for Triggering Virus Fusion. J Virol. 2016;90:9172-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusion is orchestrated by the receptor binding protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN; also called H or G depending on the virus type) protein and a fusion (F) protein, the latter undergoing a major ..
  9. Rajmani R, Gupta S, Singh P, Gandham R, Sahoo A, Chaturvedi U, et al. HN protein of Newcastle disease virus sensitizes HeLa cells to TNF-?-induced apoptosis by downregulating NF-?B expression. Arch Virol. 2016;161:2395-405 pubmed publisher
    Hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN) is a membrane protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with the ability to induce apoptosis in many transformed cell lines...

More Information


  1. Zhao W, Hu H, Zsak L, Yu Q, Yang Z. HN gene C-terminal extension of Newcastle disease virus is not the determinant of the enteric tropism. Virus Genes. 2013;47:27-33 pubmed publisher
    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in virus pathogenicity and tissue tropism...
  2. Tsunekuni R, Ito H, Otsuki K, Kida H, Ito T. Genetic comparisons between lentogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated from waterfowl and velogenic variants. Virus Genes. 2010;40:252-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven amino acid substitutions were detected in the M, F, and HN proteins...
  3. Sun C, Wen H, Chen Y, Chu F, Lin B, Ren G, et al. Roles of the highly conserved amino acids in the globular head and stalk region of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein in the membrane fusion process. Biosci Trends. 2015;9:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV has multiple functions including mediating hemadsorption (HAD), neuraminidase (NA), and fusion ..
  4. Mahon P, Mirza A, Iorio R. Role of the two sialic acid binding sites on the newcastle disease virus HN protein in triggering the interaction with the F protein required for the promotion of fusion. J Virol. 2011;85:12079-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-induced membrane fusion requires an interaction between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) attachment and the fusion (F) proteins, triggered by HN's binding to receptors...
  5. Pegg C, Hoogland C, Gorman J. Site-specific glycosylation of the Newcastle disease virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase. Glycoconj J. 2017;34:181-197 pubmed publisher
  6. Sun J, Han Z, Qi T, Zhao R, Liu S. Chicken galectin-1B inhibits Newcastle disease virus adsorption and replication through binding to hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:20141-20161 pubmed publisher
    ..hemagglutination activity in vitro We confirmed that CG-1B interacted with NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein, in which the specific G4 N-glycans significantly contributed to the interaction between CG-1B ..
  7. Porotto M, Salah Z, Devito I, Talekar A, Palmer S, Xu R, et al. The second receptor binding site of the globular head of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase activates the stalk of multiple paramyxovirus receptor binding proteins to trigger fusion. J Virol. 2012;86:5730-41 pubmed publisher
    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of paramyxoviruses carries out three distinct activities contributing to the ability of HN to promote viral fusion and entry: receptor binding, receptor cleavage (neuraminidase), and activation ..
  8. Talekar A, Moscona A, Porotto M. Measles virus fusion machinery activated by sialic acid binding globular domain. J Virol. 2013;87:13619-27 pubmed publisher proteinaceous receptors on host cells, while the receptor binding protein of NDV (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase [HN]) interacts with sialic acid-containing receptors...
  9. Kim S, Xiao S, Paldurai A, Collins P, Samal S. Role of C596 in the C-terminal extension of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein in replication and pathogenicity of a highly virulent Indonesian strain of Newcastle disease virus. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:331-6 pubmed publisher
    We modified the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of the virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Banjarmasin/010/10 (Ban/010) by adding C-terminal extensions similar to those found in certain avirulent NDV strains...
  10. Sui H, Bai Y, Wang K, Li X, Song C, Fu F, et al. The anti-tumor effect of Newcastle disease virus HN protein is influenced by differential subcellular targeting. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:989-99 pubmed publisher
    ..A DNA vaccine expressing the major immunogenic hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of this virus has shown promising results as an immunotherapeutic agent. ..
  11. Ravindra P, Tiwari A, Sharma B, Rajawat Y, Ratta B, Palia S, et al. HN protein of Newcastle disease virus causes apoptosis in chicken embryo fibroblast cells. Arch Virol. 2008;153:749-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present investigation, the ability of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV to cause apoptosis in CEF cells was examined...
  12. McGinnes L, Morrison T. Inhibition of receptor binding stabilizes Newcastle disease virus HN and F protein-containing complexes. J Virol. 2006;80:2894-903 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the relationships between Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN and F protein interactions and HN protein attachment to sialic acid receptors, HN and F protein-containing complexes ..
  13. Jarahian M, Watzl C, Fournier P, Arnold A, Djandji D, Zahedi S, et al. Activation of natural killer cells by newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. J Virol. 2009;83:8108-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of the virus serves as a ligand structure for NKp44 and NKp46, as indicated by the blockade of binding to NDV-..
  14. Bose S, Song A, Jardetzky T, Lamb R. Fusion activation through attachment protein stalk domains indicates a conserved core mechanism of paramyxovirus entry into cells. J Virol. 2014;88:3925-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Two viral integral membrane glycoproteins (fusion [F] and attachment [HN, H, or G]) mediate a concerted process of host receptor recognition, followed by the fusion of viral and cellular ..
  15. Chu F, Wen H, Zhang W, Lin B, Zhang Y, Sun C, et al. 'a'-Position-mutated and G4-mutated hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of Newcastle disease virus impair fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase-fusion interaction by different mechanisms. Intervirology. 2013;56:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..repeat regions (HRs) and N-linked carbohydrate sites of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein on fusion of HN and fusion (F) proteins and HN-F interaction...
  16. Qin Z, Ma B, He Y, Wang Y, Cui Z. [Newcastle disease virus heredity mutation and correlation of HN and F gene]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;46:227-32 pubmed
    ..The fusion protein (F) gene and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of these isolated viruses were cloned and sequenced...
  17. Mirza A, Iorio R. A mutation in the stalk of the newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein prevents triggering of the F protein despite allowing efficient HN-F complex formation. J Virol. 2013;87:8813-5 pubmed publisher
    ..disease virus (NDV)-induced membrane fusion requires formation of a complex between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins...
  18. Gu M, Liu W, Xu L, Cao Y, Yao C, Hu S, et al. Positive selection in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle disease virus and its effect on vaccine efficacy. Virol J. 2011;8:150 pubmed publisher
    ..the relationship between the selective pressure and the sequence variation of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, we performed the positive selection analysis by estimating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous ..
  19. Wang Y, Ge J, Ding Y, Xie X, Bu Z. [Evaluation of Newcastle disease virus with derivated hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of mesogenic strain]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2008;48:638-43 pubmed
    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays a crucial role in the process of budding and infection...
  20. Sun Y, Jin N, Mi Z, Li X, Lian H, Li P. [Induction of apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 by Newcastle disease virus HN gene]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2005;27:279-82 pubmed
    ..induced in human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 by plasmid pVHN constructed with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN gene. ..