Gene Symbol: COX2
Description: cytochrome c oxidase subunit II
Species: Neandertal

Top Publications

  1. Stasinopoulos I, O Brien D, Bhujwalla Z. Inflammation, but not hypoxia, mediated HIF-1alpha activation depends on COX-2. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:31-5 pubmed suggest that the profound effects of COX-2 silencing on inhibiting invasion, tumor growth and metastasis from MDA-MB-231 cells are dependent on the induction of IL-1beta-dependent COX-2 and HIF-1alpha but are independent of hypoxia..
  2. Fehér A, Juhász A, Rimanóczy A, Kalman J, Janka Z. Association study of interferon-?, cytosolic phospholipase A2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms in Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;18:983-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of interferon-? (IFN-?) T+874A, cytoplasmic phospholipase A? (cPLA2) BanI, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) G-765C polymorphisms in AD...
  3. Zhao Q, Wang C, Zhu J, Wang L, Dong S, Zhang G, et al. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cyclooxygenase2 inhibits the growth, invasion and migration of SaOS2 human osteosarcoma cells: a case control study. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it also reduced VEGF, EGF and bFGF mRNA and protein expression. The COX-2 signaling pathway may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of human osteosarcoma...
  4. Wang Y, Yi X, Lu H. Influence of CYP2C9 and COX-2 Genetic Polymorphisms on Clinical Efficacy of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:1775-1782 pubmed
    ..05). CONCLUSIONS COX-2-1290A/G and -1195G/A polymorphism may increase AS risk and they both can be considered as biological indicators for prediction of efficacy of NSAIDs in treatment of AS. ..
  5. Andersen V, Holst R, Kopp T, Tj nneland A, Vogel U. Interactions between diet, lifestyle and IL10, IL1B, and PTGS2/COX-2 gene polymorphisms in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective Danish case-cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78366 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates that gene-environment interactions may identify genes and environmental factors involved in colorectal carcinogenesis...
  6. Cui Y, Dong C, Wu B, Duan X, Shi G, Gong M, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor receptor in Chinese patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Cancer Res Ther. 2015;11 Suppl 1:C44-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting therapy to these three targets should be considered to the combined treatment in ESCC. ..
  7. Chang W, Liao C, Hsu C, Huang C, Fang H, Kao P, et al. Significant Association of Cyclo-oxygenase 2 Genotypes with Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2015;35:2725-30 pubmed
    ..Although up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) is found in stroma and tumor cells in more than half of the patients with UTUC investigated, the genomic ..
  8. Xu Y, Zhao B, Long C, Li H, Lu X, Liu G, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 promoter 765C increase of digestive tract cancer risk in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:4563-6 pubmed
    ..No significant liver cancer and colorectal cancer risk of COX-2 -765G/C polymorphism was found. These findings suggest that COX-2-765*C is related to cancer susceptibility and may increase gastric and pancreatic cancer risk. ..
  9. Chen T, Tsai J, Huang H, Teng C, Chien S, Kuo H, et al. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human bladder epithelial cells infected with type I fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:1703-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our findings provide the molecular pathways underlying type 1 fimbriated J96-dependent COX-2 expression in 5637 cells, providing insight into the function of UPEC invasion in bladder epithelial cells. ..

More Information


  1. Lorenzi I, Oeljeklaus S, Aich A, Ronsör C, Callegari S, Dudek J, et al. The mitochondrial TMEM177 associates with COX20 during COX2 biogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018;1865:323-333 pubmed publisher
    The three mitochondrial-encoded proteins, COX1, COX2, and COX3, form the core of the cytochrome c oxidase...
  2. Hayashi G, Shen Y, Pedersen T, Newman J, Pook M, Cortopassi G. Frataxin deficiency increases cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandins in cell and animal models of Friedreich's ataxia. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:6838-47 pubmed publisher
    ..While constitutive COX1 was unchanged, inducible COX2 expression was elevated over 1.35-fold (P < 0.05) in two Friedreich's mouse models and Friedreich's lymphocytes...
  3. Jahan S, Khaliq S, Ijaz B, Ahmad W, Hassan S. Role of HCV Core gene of genotype 1a and 3a and host gene Cox-2 in HCV-induced pathogenesis. Virol J. 2011;8:155 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies not only suggest a genotype-specific interaction between key players of HCV pathogenesis but also may represent combined viral and host gene silencing as a potential therapeutic strategy...
  4. Tyagi V, Mustafa M, Sharma T, Banerjee B, Ahmed R, Tripathi A, et al. Association of organochlorine pesticides with the mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) & cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) genes in idiopathic preterm birth. Indian J Med Res. 2016;143:731-738 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluating the molecular control of inflammation along with gene environment interaction may be used as a model to explore the aetiology of idiopathic PTB cases and may be considered for the prognosis of adverse reproductive outcomes. ..
  5. Yu K, Lee J, Kim H, Hong I, Choi S, Seo Y, et al. A p38 MAPK-mediated alteration of COX-2/PGE2 regulates immunomodulatory properties in human mesenchymal stem cell aging. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e102426 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data indicate that the immunomodulatory ability of hMSCs gradually declines with consecutive passages via a p38-mediated alteration of COX-2 and PGE2 levels. ..
  6. Sicking I, Rommens K, Battista M, Böhm D, Gebhard S, Lebrecht A, et al. Prognostic influence of cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expression in node-negative breast cancer patients. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:952 pubmed publisher
    ..410). The present findings support the hypothesis that COX-2 protein but not mRNA expression is associated with an unfavorable outcome in node-negative breast cancer. ..
  7. Spector Chotiner A, Shraga Heled N, Sood R, Rimon G, Barki Harrington L. Prostaglandin receptor EP?-mediated differential degradation of cyclooxygenases involves a specific lysine residue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;443:738-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data suggest that distinctive ubiquitination of COX-1 and COX-2 may be responsible for their different sensitivity to EP? -mediated degradation. ..
  8. Yang Q, Liu Y, Huang Y, Huang D, Li Y, Wu J, et al. Expression of COX-2, CD44v6 and CD147 and relationship with invasion and lymph node metastasis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71048 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the three biomarkers play important roles in tumor invasion and lymph node metastases and might be valuable indicators of tumor metastasis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma...
  9. Catli T, Bayazit Y, Yilmaz A, Menevse A, Gokdogan O, Goksu N, et al. Quantitative measurement of m-RNA levels to assess expression of cyclooxygenase-II, inducible nitric oxide synthase and 12-lipoxygenase genes in middle ear cholesteatoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;271:1471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The amount of COX2 mRNA was significantly higher in cholesteatoma matrix at transcriptional level (p = 0.038)...
  10. Kaare M, G tz A, Ulander V, Ariansen S, Kaaja R, Suomalainen A, et al. Do mitochondrial mutations cause recurrent miscarriage?. Mol Hum Reprod. 2009;15:295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, none of the detected variations were previously known to be pathogenic and therefore they are an unlikely cause of miscarriage...
  11. Wu R, Abramson A, Symons M, Steinberg B. Pak1 and Pak2 are activated in recurrent respiratory papillomas, contributing to one pathway of Rac1-mediated COX-2 expression. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:2230-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest that Rac1 --> Pak1/Pak2 --> NFkappaB is a separate pathway that contributes to the expression of COX-2 in HPV-induced papillomas, independently of the previously described Rac1 --> p38 --> COX-2 pathway. ..
  12. Hillion J, Smail S, Di Cello F, Belton A, Shah S, Huso T, et al. The HMGA1-COX-2 axis: a key molecular pathway and potential target in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreatology. 2012;12:372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify for the first time an important role for the HMGA1-COX-2 pathway in pancreatic cancer and suggest that targeting this pathway could be effective to treat, or even prevent, pancreatic cancer. ..
  13. Le M, Kim M, Song Y, Noh W, Chun S, Yoon D. Water-extracted Ampelopsis brevipedunculata downregulates IL-1β,CCL5, and COX-2 expression via inhibition of PKC-mediated JNK/NF-κB signaling pathways in human monocytic cells. J Pharmacol Sci. 2014;126:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that water extracted A.bre may be a therapeutic agent against inflammatory disease. ..
  14. Lakatos A, Derbeneva O, Younes D, Keator D, Bakken T, Lvova M, et al. Association between mitochondrial DNA variations and Alzheimer's disease in the ADNI cohort. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:1355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the mitochondrial haplogroup UK may confer genetic susceptibility to AD independently of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele...
  15. Krawczyk M, Emerson B. p50-associated COX-2 extragenic RNA (PACER) activates COX-2 gene expression by occluding repressive NF-?B complexes. elife. 2014;3:e01776 pubmed publisher
    ..DOI: ..
  16. Lee S, Kim H, Roh K, Lee B, Shin T, Yoo J, et al. DNA methyltransferase inhibition accelerates the immunomodulation and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8020 pubmed publisher
    ..promoter methylation patterns using methylation arrays and observed that the promoters of immunomodulatory factors, COX2 and PTGES, and migration-related factors, CXCR2 and CXCR4, were hypomethylated after 5-aza treatment...
  17. Lu X, Chen F, Liu X, Yuan D, Zi Y, He X, et al. Detection and Clinical Significance of COX-2 Gene SNPs in Gastric Cancer. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015;72:657-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a potential method for screening of susceptible population of gastric cancer for early-stage intervention in patients. ..
  18. Wang H, Sun L, Jiang M, Liu L, Wang G. -1195 A/G promoter variants of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene increases the risk of pain occurrence in endometriotic women. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43:254-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the -1195 A/G on the promoter region of COX-2 gene may increase the risk of pain occurrence in EM women, possibly by affecting the rate of gene expression, especially in patients with the pain phenotype. ..
  19. Suzuki R, Nemoto E, Shimauchi H. Cyclic tensile force up-regulates BMP-2 expression through MAP kinase and COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathways in human periodontal ligament cells. Exp Cell Res. 2014;323:232-41 pubmed publisher
  20. Liu S, Zhang C, Zhang K, Gao Y, Wang Z, Li X, et al. FOXP3 inhibits cancer stem cell self-renewal via transcriptional repression of COX2 in colorectal cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2017;8:44694-44704 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), a downstream target of NFκB, is found to be essential in promoting cancer stem cell renewal...
  21. Li W, Sun D, Lv Z, Wei Y, Zheng L, Zeng T, et al. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion, and downregulates COX-2 expression in A549 lung cancer cells. Cell Biol Int. 2017;41:384-391 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that IGFBP-4 has potent antitumor effects in non-small cell lung cancer cells. ..
  22. D az Gandarilla J, Osorio Trujillo C, Hern ndez Ram rez V, Talam s Rohana P. PPAR activation induces M1 macrophage polarization via cPLA?-COX-2 inhibition, activating ROS production against Leishmania mexicana. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:215283 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
  23. Lin Y, Cui M, Xu T, Yu W, Zhang L. Silencing of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibits the growth, invasion and migration of ovarian cancer cells. Mol Med Rep. 2014;9:2499-504 pubmed publisher
  24. Asting A, Caren H, Andersson M, Lönnroth C, Lagerstedt K, Lundholm K. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:238 pubmed publisher
  25. Li W, Mao Z, Fan X, Cui L, Wang X. Cyclooxygenase 2 promoted the tumorigenecity of pancreatic cancer cells. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:2271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is very urgent to find new therapeutic targets and improve the treatment. Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2), a regulator of inflammation signaling, has been found to be involved in tumorigenesis of various tumor types...
  26. Xiong S, Liu X, Yi G. High-density lipoprotein induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin I-2 release in endothelial cells through sphingosine kinase-2. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;389:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate a novel mechanism underlying anti-atherothrombotic effects of HDL...
  27. Wang W, Fan X, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Yang S, Li G. Association Between COX-2 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk. Med Sci Monit. 2015;21:3740-7 pubmed
    ..CONCLUSIONS In COX-2 gene, rs20417 may have a certain relationship with reduced risk of lung cancer, while rs2066826 may increase the risk of lung cancer. ..
  28. Lim H, Back K, Kim H, Choi Y, Park Y, Kook K. Hyaluronic acid induces COX-2 expression via CD44 in orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:7441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that HA may have a proinflammatory role in the pathogenesis of TAO by inducing COX-2. ..
  29. Xue H, Yao Y, Wang X, Zhang F, Jiang X, Liu J, et al. Interleukin-21 Is Associated with the Pathogenesis of Lumbar Disc Herniation. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;14:509-18 pubmed
    ..We concluded that inflammation was responsible for the pain associated with LDH, and that increased IL-21 expression may be associated with the pathogenesis of LDH. ..
  30. Xia S, Zhao Y, Yu S, Zhang M. Activated PI3K/Akt/COX-2 pathway induces resistance to radiation in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2010;25:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study proposes that the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/COX-2 pathway can synergistically enhance radiation efficacy...
  31. Rosignoli P, Fuccelli R, Fabiani R, Servili M, Morozzi G. Effect of olive oil phenols on the production of inflammatory mediators in freshly isolated human monocytes. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:1513-9 pubmed publisher
    ..anions (O2-), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and the expression of cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) in human monocytes, freshly isolated from healthy donors, was investigated...
  32. Verma S, Kumar M, Nerurkar V. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor blocks the production of West Nile virus-induced neuroinflammatory markers in astrocytes. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of COX-2 inhibitors to modulate WNV-induced COX-2 and PGE2 signalling warrants further investigation in an animal model as a potential approach for clinical management of neuroinflammation associated with WNVE...
  33. Sato A, Mizobuchi Y, Nakajima K, Shono K, Fujihara T, Kageji T, et al. Blocking COX-2 induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation via the Akt/survivin- and Akt/ID3 pathway in low-grade-glioma. J Neurooncol. 2017;132:231-238 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that celecoxib may have a promising therapeutic potential and that the early treatment of LGG patients with the drug may be beneficial. ..
  34. Chien P, Lin C, Hsiao L, Yang C. c-Src/Pyk2/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/CREB-activated pathway contributes to human cardiomyocyte hypertrophy: Role of COX-2 induction. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;409:59-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We uncover the importance of COX-2 regarding human cardiomyocyte hypertrophy that will provide a therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular diseases. ..
  35. Li Y, Liu G, Cai D, Pan B, Lin Y, Li X, et al. H2S inhibition of chemical hypoxia-induced proliferation of HPASMCs is mediated by the upregulation of COX-2/PGI2. Int J Mol Med. 2014;33:359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results from the current study suggest that H(2)S enhances hypoxia-induced cell proliferation through the upregulation of COX-2/PGI(2), as opposed to ROS. ..
  36. Shomaf M, Yousef A, Ababna N, Bobali Y. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) gene polymorphisms and the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer and polyps among Jordanian population. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2015;26:154-8 pubmed publisher
    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) is a crucial enzyme involved in the metabolism of Prostaglandins and it has been implicated in several processes...
  37. Hang J, Hu H, Huang J, Han T, Zhuo M, Zhou Y, et al. Sp1 and COX2 expression is positively correlated with a poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Oncotarget. 2016;7:28207-17 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies showed that celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor, can inhibit angiogenesis and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) via the suppression of specificity protein 1 (Sp1)...
  38. Zeng L, Zhen Y, Chen Y, Zou L, Zhang Y, Hu F, et al. Naringin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis by a mechanism dependent on reduced activation of NF‑κB/COX‑2‑caspase-1 pathway in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2014;45:1929-36 pubmed publisher
  39. Kumar M, Pathak D, Kriplani A, Ammini A, Talwar P, Dada R. Nucleotide variations in mitochondrial DNA and supra-physiological ROS levels in cytogenetically normal cases of premature ovarian insufficiency. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010;282:695-705 pubmed publisher
  40. Rostoff P, Szczeklik W, Piwowarska W, Konduracka E, Sanak M, Nessler J. [Association of common cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene polymorphisms with clinical and angiographic characteristics of patients with coronary artery disease]. Przegl Lek. 2014;71:314-8 pubmed
    ..p=0.021 ..
  41. Giaginis C, Alexandrou P, Tsoukalas N, Sfiniadakis I, Kavantzas N, Agapitos E, et al. Hu-antigen receptor (HuR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters, tumor proliferative capacity and patients' survival. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..015 and p = 0.001, respectively). The present study supported evidence that HuR may participate in malignant transformation of NSCLC, reinforcing its usefulness as potential therapeutic target in this type of neoplasia. ..
  42. Wu Y, Chen X, Chai J. The involvement of the CD40-CD40L pathway in activated platelet-induced changes in HUVEC COX-2 and PPAR? expression. Inflammation. 2012;35:1184-90 pubmed publisher
    ..01) increased COX-2 enzymatic activity, but had almost no effects on PPAR? binding activity. Activated platelets may increase HUVEC COX-2 expression and activity partly through the CD40-CD40L pathway. ..
  43. Urban J, Kuźbicki Å, Szatkowski G, Stanek Widera A, Lange D, Chwirot B. Stromal, rather than epithelial cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with overall survival of breast cancer patients. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:732 pubmed publisher
    ..Wide scatter of the published results concerning prognostic value of COX-2 expression in breast cancer tissues seems to be due to a large extent to multitude of antibodies and scoring algorithms used by different groups. ..
  44. Leijon H, Salmenkivi K, Heiskanen I, Hagstrom J, Louhimo J, Heikkila P, et al. HuR in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas - overexpression in verified malignant tumors. APMIS. 2016;124:757-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that increased expression of HuR protein is associated with metastatic potential of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas, and COX-2 seems to be a target of HuR. ..
  45. Hua H, Jin C, Yang L, Tao S, Zhu X. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Keratoacanthoma and its Clinical Significance. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015;72:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive expression rate of COX-2 is associated with the malignant degree of the tumor, and also it may help differentiating squamous cell carcinoma from keratoacanthoma. ..
  46. Dovizio M, Maier T, Alberti S, Di Francesco L, Marcantoni E, Münch G, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of platelet-tumor cell cross-talk prevents platelet-induced overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in HT29 human colon carcinoma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:25-40 pubmed publisher
  47. Xu K, Wang L, Shu H. COX-2 overexpression increases malignant potential of human glioma cells through Id1. Oncotarget. 2014;5:1241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, COX-2 enhances the malignancy of GBM cells through induction of Id1...
  48. Wasilewicz M, Kołodziej B, Bojułko T, Kaczmarczyk M, Sulzyc Bielicka V, Bielicki D. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in colonic polyps. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2010;120:313-20 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that high COX-2 expression is associated with typical risk factors for malignant transformation of colonic polyps. The results suggest the possible role of COX-2 in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis. ..
  49. Ou H, Sun D, Peng Y, Wu Y. Novel effects of the cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitor NS-398 on IL-1?-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and IL-8 expression in human ovarian granulosa cells. Innate Immun. 2016;22:452-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a clear pro-inflammatory function for NS-398 in the IL-1?-mediated inflammatory response of granulosa cells, at least in part, owing to its augmenting effect on the IL-1?-induced activation of NF-?B. ..
  50. Li N, Li H, Su F, Li J, Ma X, Gong P. Relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and serum cyclooxygenase-2 Level, and the synergistic effect of celecoxib and gefitinib on EGFR expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:9010-20 pubmed
  51. Haidar M, Echebli N, Ding Y, Kamau E, Langsley G. Transforming growth factor β2 promotes transcription of COX2 and EP4, leading to a prostaglandin E2-driven autostimulatory loop that enhances virulence of Theileria annulata-transformed macrophages. Infect Immun. 2015;83:1869-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that concomitant with the loss of TGF-β2 production, there is ablated expression of COX2 and EP4, which leads to a drop in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and, consequently, reduced activation of protein kinase ..
  52. Fan H, Liu G, Zhao C, Li X, Yang X. Differential expression of COX-2 in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:12872-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05), patients showed significantly higher COX-2 levels compared to the control group. Elevated synovial COX-2 expression facilitates the pathogenesis of OA and RA, and thus this index reflects the condition of these 2 diseases. ..
  53. Bisaro B, Montani M, Konstantinidou G, Marchini C, Pietrella L, Iezzi M, et al. p130Cas/Cyclooxygenase-2 axis in the control of mesenchymal plasticity of breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14:R137 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data identify a new p130Cas/Cyclooxygenase-2 axis as a crucial element in the control of breast tumor plasticity, opening new therapeutic strategies leading to inhibition of these pathways in aggressive breast carcinoma. ..
  54. Sugie S, Tsukino H, Mukai S, Akioka T, Shibata N, Nagano M, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 genotypes influence prostate cancer susceptibility in Japanese Men. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:2717-21 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) G1195A (rs689465) polymorphism and the risk of prostate cancer in a Japanese population and the associations between COX2 polymorphisms and ..
  55. Alsbeih G, Al Harbi N, El Sebaie M, Al Rajhi N, Al Hadyan K, Abu Amero K. Involvement of mitochondrial DNA sequence variations and respiratory activity in late complications following radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:7352-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Predictive markers of radiosensitivity should take into account mtDNA genetic variations in addition to variations in nuclear genes...
  56. Gandhi J, Gaur N, Khera L, Kaul R, Robertson E. COX-2 induces lytic reactivation of EBV through PGE2 by modulating the EP receptor signaling pathway. Virology. 2015;484:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates a role for increased COX-2 levels in modulation of EBV latency. This is important for understanding the pathogenesis of EBV-associated cancers in people with chronic inflammatory conditions. ..
  57. Li M, Tan S, Wang X. Paeonol exerts an anticancer effect on human colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of PGEâ‚‚ synthesis and COX-2 expression. Oncol Rep. 2014;32:2845-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect that paeonol may replace selective COX-2 inhibitors due to their toxic effects, and may offer a new strategy for the therapy of colorectal cancer. ..
  58. Pacheu Grau D, Bareth B, Dudek J, Juris L, Vögtle F, Wissel M, et al. Cooperation between COA6 and SCO2 in COX2 maturation during cytochrome c oxidase assembly links two mitochondrial cardiomyopathies. Cell Metab. 2015;21:823-33 pubmed publisher
    ..COX1 and COX2 contain heme and copper redox centers, which are integrated during assembly of the enzyme...
  59. Saffar H, Sanii S, Heshmat R, Haghpanah V, Larijani B, Rajabiani A, et al. Expression of galectin-3, nm-23, and cyclooxygenase-2 could potentially discriminate between benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Am J Clin Pathol. 2011;135:454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In early pheochromocytoma, evaluation of nm-23, galectin-3, and COX-2 expression could predict the outcome. Larger studies seem necessary to confirm the potential practical value of our findings. ..
  60. Chang B, Cao L, Zhou H. [Expression of COX-2 and VEGF and their correlation with angiogenesis in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2009;31:687-90 pubmed
    ..COX-2 expression is correlated with tumor angiogenesis in CCRCC. It is likely that VEGF is one of the most important mediators in the COX-2 angiogenic pathway...
  61. Chen T, Liu Q, Jiang L, Liu C, Ou Q. Mitochondrial COX2 G7598A mutation may have a modifying role in the phenotypic manifestation of aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced deafness associated with 12S rRNA A1555G mutation in a Han Chinese pedigree. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013;17:122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Ala 5 Thr) is found. Phylogenetic analysis of COX2 polypeptide sequences demonstrates that the alanine residue is relatively conserved, but owing to the missense ..
  62. Vural F, Soyer N, Hekimgil M, Cagirgan S, Donmez A, Tombuloglu M. The association between COX-2 expression and survival in myeloma patients. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18:2132-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that stem cell transplantation might eliminate the detrimental effects of COX-2 positivity. Larger series of patients are needed to investigate this observation. ..
  63. Miene C, Weise A, Glei M. Impact of polyphenol metabolites produced by colonic microbiota on expression of COX-2 and GSTT2 in human colon cells (LT97). Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Working with polyphenol metabolites is an important prerequisite to better understand the in vivo effects of pure polyphenols. ..
  64. Dubey P, Shrivastava R, Tripathi C, Jain N, Tewari B, Lone M, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition attenuates hypoxic cancer cells induced m2-polarization of macrophages. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2014;60:10-5 pubmed
  65. Al Moundhri M, Al Hadabi I, Al Mawaly K, Kumar S, Al Lawati F, Bhatnager G, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor receptor 1, and microvascular density in gastric cancer. Med Oncol. 2012;29:1739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the utility of epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry as a tool for gastric cancer treatment...
  66. Bourens M, Boulet A, Leary S, Barrientos A. Human COX20 cooperates with SCO1 and SCO2 to mature COX2 and promote the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:2901-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These cell lines exhibit a severe, isolated CIV deficiency due to instability of COX2, a mitochondrion-encoded CIV subunit...
  67. Majumder M, Xin X, Liu L, Tutunea Fatan E, Rodriguez Torres M, Vincent K, et al. COX-2 Induces Breast Cancer Stem Cells via EP4/PI3K/AKT/NOTCH/WNT Axis. Stem Cells. 2016;34:2290-305 pubmed publisher
    ..High COX-2/EP4 mRNA expression was linked with reduced survival. Thus, EP4 represents a novel SLC-ablative target in human breast cancer. Stem Cells 2016;34:2290-2305. ..
  68. Subbaramaiah K, Morris P, Zhou X, Morrow M, Du B, Giri D, et al. Increased levels of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 contribute to elevated aromatase expression in inflamed breast tissue of obese women. Cancer Discov. 2012;2:356-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings help to explain the link among obesity, low-grade chronic inflammation, and breast cancer with important clinical implications...
  69. Feng Y, Li Y, Xiao W, Wang G, Li Y. Lack of association between the cyclooxygenase 2 -765G>C polymorphism and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:13391-402 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) -765G>C (rs20417) polymorphism and prostate cancer (PC) risk using meta-analysis...
  70. Chen Z, Yang J, Huang Q. Correlation and expression of COX-2 and P53 protein in basal cell carcinoma of eyelid. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29:383-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Spearman rank correlation analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between the expression of COX-2 and p53 (r=0.113, P=0.421). It was concluded that COX-2 can increase the expression of p53 protein, therefore suppressing apoptosis...
  71. Balachandran C, Emi N, Arun Y, Yamamoto N, Duraipandiyan V, Inaguma Y, et al. In vitro antiproliferative activity of 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone induced apoptosis against COLO320 cells through cytochrome c release caspase mediated pathway with PI3K/AKT and COX-2 inhibition. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;249:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of anticancer mechanism involving 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone in COLO320 cells. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of antitumor drugs toward colorectal cancer treatment. ..
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    ..In the present study, new COX2 downstream signals involved in urothelial carcinoma cell survival were investigated in vitro and in vivo. ..
  73. de Oliveira G, Cheng R, Ridnour L, Basudhar D, Somasundaram V, McVicar D, et al. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Carcinogenesis of Gastrointestinal Cancers. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;26:1059-1077 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the underlying mechanism involved in NOS2 activation can provide new insights into important prevention and treatment strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 1059-1077. ..
  74. Chuang J, Yang W, Lai C, Lin C, Tsai M, Tang C. CTGF inhibits cell motility and COX-2 expression in oral cancer cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:948-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicated that CTGF inhibits the migration of oral cancer cells by decreasing COX-2 expression through the ?v?5 integrin receptor, FAK, PI3K, Akt, c-Jun and AP-1 signal transduction pathways...
  75. Bartova M, Ondrias F, Muy Kheng T, Kastner M, Singer C, Pohlodek K. COX-2, p16 and Ki67 expression in DCIS, microinvasive and early invasive breast carcinoma with extensive intraductal component. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2014;115:445-51 pubmed
    ..This fact might be useful in the evaluation of further behaviour of early breast tumors (Tab. 3, Fig. 8, Ref. 29). ..
  76. Byun K, Kim D, Bayarsaikhan E, Oh J, Kim J, Kwak G, et al. Changes of calcium binding proteins, c-Fos and COX in hippocampal formation and cerebellum of Niemann-Pick, type C mouse. J Chem Neuroanat. 2013;52:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, reduction of these proteins may be one of the strong phenotypes related to the neuronal degeneration in NPC-/- mice. ..
  77. Yoon H, Lee E, Lee H, Cho I, Choi Y, Sung M, et al. Kaempferol inhibits IL-1?-induced proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts and the production of COX-2, PGE2 and MMPs. Int J Mol Med. 2013;32:971-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that kaempferol may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA. ..
  78. Chang W, Tsai C, Ji H, Wu H, Chang Y, Lien C, et al. Associations of cyclooxygenase 2 polymorphic genotypes with bladder cancer risk in Taiwan. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:5401-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide evidence that the C allele of Cox-2 promoter G-765C may be associated with the overexpression of COX-2 during bladder cancer development and may be a useful marker for the early detection of bladder cancer. ..
  79. Im G, Park M, Song J. Effect of urban particles on human middle ear epithelial cells. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;78:777-81 pubmed publisher
    ..UP decreased cell viability, increased the inflammatory response, and increased mucin gene production in HMEECs. These findings indicate that exposure to UP can contribute to the development of otitis media. ..
  80. Jin J, Li Z, Liu J, Wu Y, Gao X, He Y. Knockdown of zinc transporter ZIP5 (SLC39A5) expression significantly inhibits human esophageal cancer progression. Oncol Rep. 2015;34:1431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Migration and invasion decreased by 54 and 68%, respectively, according to the Transwell assays. COX2 expression was decreased by 68 and 75% at the mRNA and protein level, respectively, and cyclin D1 mRNA and ..