Gene Symbol: Zp3
Description: zona pellucida glycoprotein 3
Alias: Zp-3, zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, sperm receptor, zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3, zona pellucida protein C
Species: mouse
Products:     Zp3

Top Publications

  1. Wang Y, Spörle R, Paperna T, Schughart K, Francke U. Characterization and expression pattern of the frizzled gene Fzd9, the mouse homolog of FZD9 which is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome. Genomics. 1999;57:235-48 pubmed
    ..These results suggest potential Wnt ligands of Fzd9, a role of Fzd9 in skeletal muscle specification, and contributions of FZD9 to the WBS phenotype. ..
  2. Rankin T, Tong Z, Castle P, Lee E, Gore Langton R, Nelson L, et al. Human ZP3 restores fertility in Zp3 null mice without affecting order-specific sperm binding. Development. 1998;125:2415-24 pubmed
    ..Although the three zona proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3) are well conserved, mammalian fertilization is relatively specific and human sperm do not bind to the mouse zona ..
  3. Otsuka S, Konno A, Hashimoto Y, Sasaki N, Endoh D, Kon Y. Oocytes in newborn MRL mouse testes. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of the oocyte-specific genes Zp1, Zp2, Zp3, and Omt2a was detected in testes from MRL/MpJ mice...
  4. Rankin T, Familari M, Lee E, Ginsberg A, Dwyer N, Blanchette Mackie J, et al. Mice homozygous for an insertional mutation in the Zp3 gene lack a zona pellucida and are infertile. Development. 1996;122:2903-10 pubmed
    ..The extracellular zona matrix is composed of three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3) that are involved in folliculogenesis, species-specific fertilization, and passage of the early embryo down the ..
  5. Boja E, Hoodbhoy T, Fales H, Dean J. Structural characterization of native mouse zona pellucida proteins using mass spectrometry. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34189-202 pubmed
    ..The primary structures of mouse ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 have been deduced from cDNA...
  6. Rankin T, Coleman J, Epifano O, Hoodbhoy T, Turner S, Castle P, et al. Fertility and taxon-specific sperm binding persist after replacement of mouse sperm receptors with human homologs. Dev Cell. 2003;5:33-43 pubmed
    The zona pellucida surrounding ovulated mouse eggs contains three glycoproteins, two of which (ZP2 and ZP3) are reported sperm receptors...
  7. Gahlay G, Gauthier L, Baibakov B, Epifano O, Dean J. Gamete recognition in mice depends on the cleavage status of an egg's zona pellucida protein. Science. 2010;329:216-9 pubmed publisher
    At fertilization, mouse sperm bind to the zona pellucida (which consists of glycoproteins ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3) that surrounds eggs...
  8. Thall A, Maly P, Lowe J. Oocyte Gal alpha 1,3Gal epitopes implicated in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3 are not required for fertilization in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21437-40 pubmed
    The Gal alpha 1-->3Gal structure is displayed on the zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3 on murine oocytes...
  9. Zhao M, Gold L, Ginsberg A, Liang L, Dean J. Conserved furin cleavage site not essential for secretion and integration of ZP3 into the extracellular egg coat of transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3111-20 pubmed
    The extracellular zona pellucida surrounding mammalian eggs is formed by interactions of the ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 glycoproteins. Female mice lacking ZP2 or ZP3 do not form a stable zona matrix and are sterile...

More Information


  1. Liu C, Litscher E, Mortillo S, Sakai Y, Kinloch R, Stewart C, et al. Targeted disruption of the mZP3 gene results in production of eggs lacking a zona pellucida and infertility in female mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5431-6 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this observation, eggs recovered from oviducts of superovulated, adult mZP3-/- females also lack a zona pellucida. Thus far, mZP3-/- females mated with wild-type males have failed to become pregnant. ..
  2. Cohen N, Wassarman P. Association of egg zona pellucida glycoprotein mZP3 with sperm protein sp56 during fertilization in mice. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:569-76 pubmed
    Purified mouse sperm receptor, a zona pellucida glycoprotein called mZP3, binds to plasma membrane overlying acrosome-intact sperm heads (P.M. Wassarman, 1999, Cell 96, 175-183)...
  3. Del Giacco L, Diani S, Cotelli F. Identification and spatial distribution of the mRNA encoding an egg envelope component of the Cyprinid zebrafish, Danio rerio, homologous to the mammalian ZP3 (ZPC). Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:41-6 pubmed
    ..isolated a cDNA encoding a putative component of the zebrafish Danio rerio egg chorion, homologous to the mammalian ZP3 (ZPC). The predicted protein (zfZPC) has a calculated molecular mass of 58...
  4. Jovine L, Qi H, Williams Z, Litscher E, Wassarman P. A duplicated motif controls assembly of zona pellucida domain proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:5922-7 pubmed
    ..Whereas the transmembrane domain (TMD) of ZP3 can be functionally replaced by an unrelated TMD, mutations in either EHP or IHP do not hinder secretion of full-..
  5. Dell A, Chalabi S, Easton R, Haslam S, Sutton Smith M, Patankar M, et al. Murine and human zona pellucida 3 derived from mouse eggs express identical O-glycans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15631-6 pubmed
    ..The data obtained in this investigation may prove to be very useful for studies to determine the precise molecular basis of initial murine sperm-egg binding. ..
  6. Schickler M, Lira S, Kinloch R, Wassarman P. A mouse oocyte-specific protein that binds to a region of mZP3 promoter responsible for oocyte-specific mZP3 gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:120-7 pubmed
    The gene encoding mZP3, the mouse sperm receptor, is expressed exclusively in growing oocytes during oogenesis...
  7. Williams Z, Litscher E, Wassarman P. Conversion of Ser to Thr residues at the sperm combining-site of mZP3 does not affect sperm receptor activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;301:813-8 pubmed
    ..suggest that Thr residues can replace the two evolutionarily conserved Ser residues as acceptors for essential O-linked oligosaccharides at the sperm combining-site of mZP3 without affecting the glycoprotein's sperm receptor activity.
  8. Noguchi M, Kitabatake A, Ishibashi T, Kasahara M. The MHC class I-like Zn-alpha 2-glycoprotein gene maps to mouse chromosome 5. Immunogenetics. 1995;42:72-4 pubmed
  9. Pangas S, Choi Y, Ballow D, Zhao Y, Westphal H, Matzuk M, et al. Oogenesis requires germ cell-specific transcriptional regulators Sohlh1 and Lhx8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8090-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that Lhx8 is downstream of Sohlh1 and critical in fertility. Thus, Sohlh1 and Lhx8 are two germ cell-specific, critical regulators of oogenesis. ..
  10. Paperna T, Peoples R, Wang Y, Kaplan P, Francke U. Genes for the CPE receptor (CPETR1) and the human homolog of RVP1 (CPETR2) are localized within the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion. Genomics. 1998;54:453-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a role for CPE-R in internal organ development and function during pre- and postnatal life. ..
  11. Suto J, Yamanaka H, Sekikawa K. Genetic analysis of inferior nurturing ability in RR mice. Reproduction. 2002;123:52-8 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that this locus is one of the heritable components that determine the inferior nurturing ability of RR mice. ..
  12. Tong Z, Nelson L, Dean J. Inhibition of zona pellucida gene expression by antisense oligonucleotides injected into mouse oocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:849-53 pubmed
    During murine oogenesis, the zona pellucida proteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3) are synthesized and secreted to form an extracellular matrix that surrounds the oocyte and mediates specific biological functions essential to mammalian ..
  13. Hahm S, Mizuno T, Wu T, Wisor J, Priest C, Kozak C, et al. Targeted deletion of the Vgf gene indicates that the encoded secretory peptide precursor plays a novel role in the regulation of energy balance. Neuron. 1999;23:537-48 pubmed
  14. Lira S, Schickler M, Wassarman P. cis-acting DNA elements involved in oocyte-specific expression of mouse sperm receptor gene mZP3 are located close to the gene's transcription start site. Mol Reprod Dev. 1993;36:494-9 pubmed
    We report that cis-acting DNA elements involved in oocyte-specific expression of the mouse sperm receptor gene (mZP3) are located close to the gene's transcription start site...
  15. Xu H, Liu F, Srakaew N, Koppisetty C, Nyholm P, Carmona E, et al. Sperm arylsulfatase A binds to mZP2 and mZP3 glycoproteins in a nonenzymatic manner. Reproduction. 2012;144:209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of the active site pocket of ASA bound to the ZP suggested that ASA would still retain enzymatic activity, which might be important for subsequent sperm penetration through the ZP. ..
  16. Litscher E, Juntunen K, Seppo A, Penttila L, Niemela R, Renkonen O, et al. Oligosaccharide constructs with defined structures that inhibit binding of mouse sperm to unfertilized eggs in vitro. Biochemistry. 1995;34:4662-9 pubmed
  17. Korthauer U, Nagel W, Davis E, Le Beau M, Menon R, Mitchell E, et al. Anergic T lymphocytes selectively express an integrin regulatory protein of the cytohesin family. J Immunol. 2000;164:308-18 pubmed
    ..However, GRP1-transduced T cells were not stable and rapidly lost GRP1 expression. Thus, although GRP1 may not directly mediate T cell anergy, it regulates cell expansion and survival, perhaps through its integrin-associated activities. ..
  18. Clydesdale G, Pekin J, Beaton S, Jackson R, Vignarajan S, Hardy C. Contraception in mice immunized with recombinant zona pellucida subunit 3 proteins correlates with Th2 responses and the levels of interleukin 4 expressed by CD4+ cells. Reproduction. 2004;128:737-45 pubmed
    ..Female BALB/c and CBA mice were immunized with recombinant mouse (m) ZP3 (vmZP3) or pig (p) ZPC (vpZPC) using Freund's adjuvants and boosted three times...
  19. Kinloch R, Roller R, Fimiani C, Wassarman D, Wassarman P. Primary structure of the mouse sperm receptor polypeptide determined by genomic cloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:6409-13 pubmed
    The mouse sperm receptor, a glycoprotein called ZP3, is synthesized and secreted by growing oocytes. It is present in more than a billion copies in the unfertilized egg's extracellular coat, or zona pellucida...
  20. Jimenez Movilla M, Dean J. ZP2 and ZP3 cytoplasmic tails prevent premature interactions and ensure incorporation into the zona pellucida. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:940-50 pubmed publisher
    The zona pellucida contains three proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3), the precursors of which possess signal peptides, 'zona' domains and short (9-15 residue) cytoplasmic tails downstream of a transmembrane domain...
  21. Zhao M, Boja E, Hoodbhoy T, Nawrocki J, Kaufman J, Kresge N, et al. Mass spectrometry analysis of recombinant human ZP3 expressed in glycosylation-deficient CHO cells. Biochemistry. 2004;43:12090-104 pubmed
    ..The mouse zona pellucida is composed of three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3)...
  22. Jungnickel M, Sutton K, Wang Y, Florman H. Phosphoinositide-dependent pathways in mouse sperm are regulated by egg ZP3 and drive the acrosome reaction. Dev Biol. 2007;304:116-26 pubmed
    ..are triggered during sperm contact with the egg extracellular matrix, or zona pellucida, by the matrix glycoprotein ZP3. Here, we show that ZP3 stimulates production of phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-triphosphate in sperm membranes...
  23. El Mestrah M, Castle P, Borossa G, Kan F. Subcellular distribution of ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 glycoproteins during folliculogenesis and demonstration of their topographical disposition within the zona matrix of mouse ovarian oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:866-76 pubmed
    ..Using antibodies against mouse ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 in conjunction with the protein A-gold technique, we have shown an association of immunolabeling with the Golgi ..
  24. Williams Z, Litscher E, Jovine L, Wassarman P. Polypeptide encoded by mouse ZP3 exon-7 is necessary and sufficient for binding of mouse sperm in vitro. J Cell Physiol. 2006;207:30-9 pubmed
    ..In one set of experiments, hamster ZP3 (hZP3) exon-6, -7, and -8 were individually replaced with the corresponding exon of mZP3...
  25. Avella M, Baibakov B, Dean J. A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations in transgenic mice document that the ZP2(51-149) sperm-binding domain is necessary for human and mouse gamete recognition and penetration through the zona pellucida. ..
  26. Sutton V, Pan Y, Craigen W. Regional localization of the mouse argininosuccinate lyase gene to chromosome 5. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:871 pubmed
  27. Beebe S, Leyton L, Burks D, Ishikawa M, Fuerst T, Dean J, et al. Recombinant mouse ZP3 inhibits sperm binding and induces the acrosome reaction. Dev Biol. 1992;151:48-54 pubmed
    ..In mouse, the zona is composed of three glycoproteins. One of them, ZP3, participates in primary sperm binding and in the subsequent triggering of the sperm's acrosome reaction...
  28. Cho C, Primakoff P, White J, Myles D. Chromosomal assignment of four testis-expressed mouse genes from a new family of transmembrane proteins (ADAMs) involved in cell-cell adhesion and fusion. Genomics. 1996;34:413-7 pubmed
  29. Tong Z, Gold L, De Pol A, Vanevski K, Dorward H, Sena P, et al. Developmental expression and subcellular localization of mouse MATER, an oocyte-specific protein essential for early development. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1427-34 pubmed
    ..The presence of MATER protein in mitochondria and nucleoli suggests that it may participate in both cytoplasmic and nuclear events during early development. ..
  30. Wassarman P, Qi H, Litscher E. Mutant female mice carrying a single mZP3 allele produce eggs with a thin zona pellucida, but reproduce normally. Proc Biol Sci. 1997;264:323-8 pubmed
    ..While this produces a relatively thin ZP, it apparently has no affect on reproduction. Furthermore, these results are consistent with the current molecular model for ZP structure. ..
  31. Kinloch R, Wassarman P. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3--the mouse sperm receptor. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:2861-3 pubmed
  32. Hoodbhoy T, Aviles M, Baibakov B, Epifano O, Jimenez Movilla M, Gauthier L, et al. ZP2 and ZP3 traffic independently within oocytes prior to assembly into the extracellular zona pellucida. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7991-8 pubmed
    ..In mice, the zona pellucida is composed of three glycoproteins, but the presence of ZP2 and ZP3 is sufficient to form a biologically functional structure...
  33. Coonrod S, Calvert M, Reddi P, Kasper E, Digilio L, Herr J. Oocyte proteomics: localisation of mouse zona pellucida protein 3 to the plasma membrane of ovulated mouse eggs. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2004;16:69-78 pubmed
    ..heterogeneous protein possessing a staining pattern similar to that of the zona pellucida glycoprotein, mouse ZP3 (mZP3)...
  34. Epifano O, Liang L, Familari M, Moos M, Dean J. Coordinate expression of the three zona pellucida genes during mouse oogenesis. Development. 1995;121:1947-56 pubmed
    ..The mouse zona is composed of three sulfated glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3. Each is critically involved in fertilization, the postfertilization block to polyspermy and protection of the ..
  35. Youakim A, Hathaway H, Miller D, Gong X, Shur B. Overexpressing sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase in transgenic mice affects multiple aspects of sperm-egg interactions. J Cell Biol. 1994;126:1573-83 pubmed
    ..mediates fertilization in mice by binding to specific O-linked oligosaccharide ligands on the egg coat glycoprotein ZP3. Before binding the egg, sperm GalTase is masked by epididymally derived glycosides that are shed from the sperm ..
  36. Durkin M, Keck Waggoner C, Popescu N, Thorgeirsson S. Integration of a c-myc transgene results in disruption of the mouse Gtf2ird1 gene, the homologue of the human GTF2IRD1 gene hemizygously deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome. Genomics. 2001;73:20-7 pubmed
    ..Loss of the 5' end of the Gtf2ird1 gene resulted in greatly reduced expression of Gtf2ird1 mRNA in mice homozygous for the transgene. ..
  37. Soyal S, Amleh A, Dean J. FIGalpha, a germ cell-specific transcription factor required for ovarian follicle formation. Development. 2000;127:4645-54 pubmed
    ..The additional observation that null females do not express Zp1, Zp2 or Zp3 indicates that FIGalpha plays a key regulatory role in the expression of multiple oocyte-specific genes, including ..
  38. Prasad S, Skinner S, Carino C, Wang N, Cartwright J, Dunbar B. Structure and function of the proteins of the mammalian Zona pellucida. Cells Tissues Organs. 2000;166:148-64 pubmed
    ..In the mouse it has been established that ZP3 is the primary sperm receptor while ZP2 has secondary sperm receptor properties...
  39. Gao Z, Harumi T, Garbers D. Chromosome localization of the mouse zonadhesin gene and the human zonadhesin gene (ZAN). Genomics. 1997;41:119-22 pubmed
    ..The gene for zonadhesin maps to chromosome 5 in the mouse (Zan) and to chromosome 7 in the human (ZAN) in a position near the gene for the egg extracellular matrix protein ZP3.
  40. Monné M, Han L, Schwend T, Burendahl S, Jovine L. Crystal structure of the ZP-N domain of ZP3 reveals the core fold of animal egg coats. Nature. 2008;456:653-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the 2.3 ångström (A) resolution structure of the ZP-N fragment of mouse primary sperm receptor ZP3...
  41. Proschel C, Blouin M, Gutowski N, Ludwig R, Noble M. Limk1 is predominantly expressed in neural tissues and phosphorylates serine, threonine and tyrosine residues in vitro. Oncogene. 1995;11:1271-81 pubmed
    ..The combination of LIM- and kinase domains may provide a novel route by which intracellular signalling can be integrated. ..
  42. Julian J, Chiquet Ehrismann R, Erickson H, Carson D. Tenascin is induced at implantation sites in the mouse uterus and interferes with epithelial cell adhesion. Development. 1994;120:661-71 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, tenascin may facilitate embryo penetration by disrupting uterine epithelial cell adhesion to underlying basal lamina. ..
  43. Aitman T, Hearne C, McAleer M, Todd J. Mononucleotide repeats are an abundant source of length variants in mouse genomic DNA. Mamm Genome. 1991;1:206-10 pubmed
    ..Nine of the 18 repeat sequences (50%) have three or more alleles in the strains tested. Ten of these repeat sequences have been mapped using strain distribution patterns (SDPs) in recombinant inbred (RI) strains. ..
  44. O Leary S, Lloyd M, Shellam G, Robertson S. Immunization with recombinant murine cytomegalovirus expressing murine zona pellucida 3 causes permanent infertility in BALB/c mice due to follicle depletion and ovulation failure. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:849-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A single intraperitoneal immunization with recombinant murine cytomegalovirus engineered to express murine ZP3 (rMCMV-mZP3) induces permanent infertility with no evident systemic illness in female BALB/c mice...
  45. O Toole C, Arnoult C, Darszon A, Steinhardt R, Florman H. Ca(2+) entry through store-operated channels in mouse sperm is initiated by egg ZP3 and drives the acrosome reaction. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1571-84 pubmed
    ..b>ZP3, an egg zona pellucida glycoprotein, produces a sustained increase of the internal Ca(2+) concentration in mouse ..
  46. Lunsford R, Jenkins N, Kozak C, Liang L, Silan C, Copeland N, et al. Genomic mapping of murine Zp-2 and Zp-3, two oocyte-specific loci encoding zona pellucida proteins. Genomics. 1990;6:184-7 pubmed
    ..Composed of three sulfated glycoproteins in the mouse (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3), the zona pellucida facilitates early events in fertilization and protects the embryo during preimplantation ..
  47. Lloyd M, Nikolovski S, Lawson M, Shellam G. Innate antiviral resistance influences the efficacy of a recombinant murine cytomegalovirus immunocontraceptive vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:679-90 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Mus domesticus from an outbred colony of wild-derived mice were readily sterilised by vaccination, consistent with observations that strong innate immunity to MCMV is not common in Australian wild mice. ..
  48. Philpott C, Ringuette M, Dean J. Oocyte-specific expression and developmental regulation of ZP3, the sperm receptor of the mouse zona pellucida. Dev Biol. 1987;121:568-75 pubmed
    ..One of the zona gene products, ZP3, functions as the sperm receptor at fertilization...
  49. Kerr C, Hanna W, Shaper J, Wright W. Lewis X-containing glycans are specific and potent competitive inhibitors of the binding of ZP3 to complementary sites on capacitated, acrosome-intact mouse sperm. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:770-7 pubmed
    ..O-linked glycans on mouse glycoprotein ZP3 have been implicated in mediating one step of the fertilization process, the firm adhesion of acrosome-intact sperm ..
  50. Litscher E, Wassarman P. Characterization of mouse ZP3-derived glycopeptide, gp55, that exhibits sperm receptor and acrosome reaction-inducing activity in vitro. Biochemistry. 1996;35:3980-5 pubmed
    ..5). gp55 inhibits binding of sperm to eggs (i.e., exhibits sperm receptor activity) and induces sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction in vitro at about the same concentrations ..
  51. Samuelson L, Isakoff M, Lacourse K. Localization of the murine cholecystokinin A and B receptor genes. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:242-6 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 1.4 cM). Since CCK can function as a satiety factor when administered to rodents, localization of Cckbr near the tub mutation identifies this receptor as a possible candidate gene for this obesity mutation. ..
  52. Takahara K, Osborne L, Elliott R, Tsui L, Scherer S, Greenspan D. Fine mapping of the human and mouse genes for the type I procollagen COOH-terminal proteinase enhancer protein. Genomics. 1996;31:253-6 pubmed
    ..These data also indicate that PCOLCE is located within a 10- to 15-cM region of conserved synteny between human chromosome 7 and mouse chromosome 5. ..
  53. Lou Y, McElveen F, Adams S, Tung K. Altered target organ. A mechanism of postrecovery resistance to murine autoimmune oophoritis. J Immunol. 1995;155:3667-73 pubmed
    ..autoimmune oophoritis, a model of human premature ovarian failure, is induced by immunization with a peptide of the ZP3 glycoprotein from mouse zona pellucida (ZP3(330-340)) in CFA...
  54. Howes E, Pascall J, Engel W, Jones R. Interactions between mouse ZP2 glycoprotein and proacrosin; a mechanism for secondary binding of sperm to the zona pellucida during fertilization. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4127-36 pubmed
    ..Safe mimetics of suramin have potential as non-steroidal antifertility agents. ..
  55. Sohl G, Eiberger J, Jung Y, Kozak C, Willecke K. The mouse gap junction gene connexin29 is highly expressed in sciatic nerve and regulated during brain development. Biol Chem. 2001;382:973-8 pubmed
    ..Our expression data suggest that the new connexin gene is active in myelin-forming glial cells. ..
  56. Choi Y, Rajkovic A. Genetics of early mammalian folliculogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:579-90 pubmed
    ..Genes critical in early folliculogenesis are important determinants of reproductive life span and represent candidate genes for human ovarian failure. ..
  57. Wassarman P, Liu C, Chen J, Qi H, Litscher E. Ovarian development in mice bearing homozygous or heterozygous null mutations in zona pellucida glycoprotein gene mZP3. Histol Histopathol. 1998;13:293-300 pubmed
    ..It seems likely that the pleiotropic effects of the homozygous null mutation on ovarian development may be due, at least in part, to disruption of intercellular communication between growing oocytes and their surrounding follicle cells. ..
  58. Wassarman P, Litscher E. Influence of the zona pellucida of the mouse egg on folliculogenesis and fertility. Int J Dev Biol. 2012;56:833-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Eggs from mZP1-/- females have a distorted ZP and, although the mice are fertile, they exhibit reduced fertility due to early embryonic loss. Potential relationships between ZP biogenesis, folliculogenesis, and fertility are addressed...
  59. Sharma S, Leonard J, Lee S, Chapman H, Leiter E, Montminy M. Pancreatic islet expression of the homeobox factor STF-1 relies on an E-box motif that binds USF. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2294-9 pubmed
  60. Kimura J, Sato K, Okano M, Tsukise A. Localization of ZP3 mRNA in mouse ovary by non-radioactive in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled cDNA. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1994;40:1097-101 pubmed
    ..We have used this technique to detect and locate mRNA for mouse ZP3 protein in paraffin sections of fixed ovaries of newborn and adult mice...
  61. Xing Y, Gosden R, Lasko P, Clarke H. Murine homologues of the Drosophila gustavus gene are expressed in ovarian granulosa cells. Reproduction. 2006;131:905-15 pubmed
    ..Based on their tissue-restricted pattern of expression and apparent abundance in granulosa cells, we propose that SSB-1 and SSB-4 play key roles in regulating granulosa cell physiology. ..
  62. Johnston D, Wright W, Shaper J, Hokke C, van den Eijnden D, Joziasse D. Murine sperm-zona binding, a fucosyl residue is required for a high affinity sperm-binding ligand. A second site on sperm binds a nonfucosylated, beta-galactosyl-capped oligosaccharide. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1888-95 pubmed
    ..The second (apparently low affinity) site binds a nonfucosylated beta-galactosyl-capped trisaccharide. ..
  63. Ringuette M, Chamberlin M, Baur A, Sobieski D, Dean J. Molecular analysis of cDNA coding for ZP3, a sperm binding protein of the mouse zona pellucida. Dev Biol. 1988;127:287-95 pubmed
    ..b>ZP3, an 83,000-85,000 Da glycoprotein of the murine zona pellucida, has been shown to inhibit sperm binding via its O-..
  64. Li D, Cao S, Xu C. Polypeptide backbone derived from carboxyl terminal of mouse ZP3 inhibits sperm-zona binding. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:1327-36 pubmed
    ..In mouse, zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3 is believed to be the primary receptor for sperm and inducer of sperm acrosomal reaction, and its ..
  65. Spearow J. P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (Por) maps to mouse chromosome 5, not chromosome 6. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:558-9 pubmed
  66. Wydner K, Sechler J, Boyd C, Passmore H. Use of an intron polymorphism to localize the tropoelastin gene to mouse chromosome 5 in a region of linkage conservation with human chromosome 7. Genomics. 1994;23:125-31 pubmed
    ..The linkage and genetic distances between Eln and the closest molecular markers used in this study are centromere-D5Mit95, D5Mit96-6.7 cM-Gus, Eln-4.0 cM-Zp3-telomere.
  67. Chamberlin M, Dean J. Genomic organization of a sex specific gene: the primary sperm receptor of the mouse zona pellucida. Dev Biol. 1989;131:207-14 pubmed
    ..The mouse zona is composed of three sulfated glycoproteins one of which, ZP3, serves as the primary sperm receptor in the initial interaction between egg and sperm...
  68. Wang Y, Perez Jurado L, Francke U. A mouse single-copy gene, Gtf2i, the homolog of human GTF2I, that is duplicated in the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion region. Genomics. 1998;48:163-70 pubmed
    ..Gtf2i transcript is detectable in ES cells by RT-PCR and on Northern blots of tissues from 7-dpc embryos. A ubiquitous expression pattern is seen by Northern and tissue in situ hybridization studies of 14-dpc embryos. ..
  69. Ringuette M, Sobieski D, Chamow S, Dean J. Oocyte-specific gene expression: molecular characterization of a cDNA coding for ZP-3, the sperm receptor of the mouse zona pellucida. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:4341-5 pubmed
    ..a lambda gt11 cDNA library from ovarian poly(A)+ mRNA and have isolated clones coding for ZP-3, the mouse sperm receptor. The identity of the clones was confirmed by comparing their DNA sequence with an amino acid sequence obtained ..
  70. Jin D, Kozak C, Pangilinan F, Spencer F, Green E, Jeang K. Mitotic checkpoint locus MAD1L1 maps to human chromosome 7p22 and mouse chromosome 5. Genomics. 1999;55:363-4 pubmed
  71. Harris J, Hibler D, Fontenot G, Hsu K, Yurewicz E, Sacco A. Cloning and characterization of zona pellucida genes and cDNAs from a variety of mammalian species: the ZPA, ZPB and ZPC gene families. DNA Seq. 1994;4:361-93 pubmed
    ..full length zona pellucida cDNA from cat and a gene and full length cDNA from human that are homologous to the rc55/ZP3 alpha genes from rabbit and pig, and full length zona pellucida cDNAs from cat, cow, dog, pig and rabbit that are ..
  72. Lundrigan B, Jansa S, Tucker P. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus mus, based on paternally, maternally, and biparentally inherited characters. Syst Biol. 2002;51:410-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to reflect a localized homoplasy in one partition obscuring the phylogenetic signal from another, rather than differences in gene or genome histories...
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    ..Furthermore, the results suggest that ZP assembly from nascent glycoproteins may be a stochastic process that requires the presence of both mZP2 and mZP3 and occurs completely outside the growing oocyte. ..
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    ..This study has investigated whether anti-ZP3 antibodies affect ZP assembly...
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    ..Additionally this study highlights the importance of choosing the correct fixative for immunohistochemistry, not only for the usual reason of retaining antigenicity, but rather to retain the entire architectural structure. ..
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    ..The strain distribution pattern for this polymorphism indicates that Ache is located on distal mouse chromosome 5. ..
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    ..One of these glycoproteins, ZP3, exhibits properties expected for a sperm receptor. We have now used rabbit antisera that recognize ZP3 to immunoprecipitate [35S]methionine-labeled, ..