Xrcc6

Summary

Gene Symbol: Xrcc6
Description: X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6
Alias: 70kDa, G22p1, Ku70, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 6, 5'-dRP/AP lyase Ku70, 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase Ku70, ATP-dependent DNA helicase 2 subunit 1, ATP-dependent DNA helicase II 70 kDa subunit, CTC box-binding factor 75 kDa subunit, CTC75, CTCBF, DNA repair protein XRCC6, Ku p70, ku autoantigen protein p70 homolog, thyroid autoantigen 70 kDa
Species: mouse
Products:     Xrcc6

Top Publications

  1. Kurimasa A, Ouyang H, Dong L, Wang S, Li X, Cordon Cardo C, et al. Catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase: impact on lymphocyte development and tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1403-8 pubmed
    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of a heterodimer DNA-binding complex, Ku70 and Ku80, and a large catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs...
  2. Dragoi A, Fu X, Ivanov S, Zhang P, Sheng L, Wu D, et al. DNA-PKcs, but not TLR9, is required for activation of Akt by CpG-DNA. EMBO J. 2005;24:779-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings establish a novel role for DNA-PKcs in CpG-DNA signaling and define a CpG-DNA/DNA-PKcs/Akt pathway. ..
  3. Manis J, Gu Y, Lansford R, Sonoda E, Ferrini R, Davidson L, et al. Ku70 is required for late B cell development and immunoglobulin heavy chain class switching. J Exp Med. 1998;187:2081-9 pubmed
    ..b>Ku70 and Ku80 form a DNA end-binding complex required for DNA double strand break repair and V(D)J recombination...
  4. Bredemeyer A, Helmink B, Innes C, Calderon B, McGinnis L, Mahowald G, et al. DNA double-strand breaks activate a multi-functional genetic program in developing lymphocytes. Nature. 2008;456:819-23 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhu P, Zhang D, Chowdhury D, Martinvalet D, Keefe D, Shi L, et al. Granzyme A, which causes single-stranded DNA damage, targets the double-strand break repair protein Ku70. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:431-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that GzmA at nanomolar concentrations cleaves Ku70, a key double-strand break repair (DSBR) protein, in target cells...
  6. Stark J, Pierce A, Oh J, Pastink A, Jasin M. Genetic steps of mammalian homologous repair with distinct mutagenic consequences. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9305-16 pubmed
    ..by mutation of Brca1, which, like Brca2, predisposes to breast cancer, whereas SSA and HDR were increased by Ku70 mutation, which affects nonhomologous end joining...
  7. Difilippantonio M, Petersen S, Chen H, Johnson R, Jasin M, Kanaar R, et al. Evidence for replicative repair of DNA double-strand breaks leading to oncogenic translocation and gene amplification. J Exp Med. 2002;196:469-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, mice deficient in NHEJ provide excellent models to study the etiology of unbalanced translocations and amplification events during tumorigenesis. ..
  8. Akhter S, Lam Y, Chang S, Legerski R. The telomeric protein SNM1B/Apollo is required for normal cell proliferation and embryonic development. Aging Cell. 2010;9:1047-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factor Ku70, but not p53, rescued the developmental defects and lethality observed in Snm1B/Apollo mutant mice as well as the ..
  9. Li G, Ouyang H, Li X, Nagasawa H, Little J, Chen D, et al. Ku70: a candidate tumor suppressor gene for murine T cell lymphoma. Mol Cell. 1998;2:1-8 pubmed
    We present evidence that inactivation of the Ku70 gene leads to a propensity for malignant transformation both in vitro and in vivo...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Amsel A, Rathaus M, Kronman N, Cohen H. Regulation of the proapoptotic factor Bax by Ku70-dependent deubiquitylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5117-22 pubmed publisher
    The DNA end-joining protein Ku70 is one of several proteins that inhibit apoptosis by sequestering the proapoptotic factor Bax from the mitochondria...
  2. Takata M, Sasaki M, Sonoda E, Morrison C, Hashimoto M, Utsumi H, et al. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining pathways of DNA double-strand break repair have overlapping roles in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity in vertebrate cells. EMBO J. 1998;17:5497-508 pubmed
    ..the distinctive as well as redundant roles of these two repair pathways, we analyzed the mutants RAD54(-/-), KU70(-/-) and RAD54(-/-)/KU70(-/-), generated from the chicken B-cell line DT40...
  3. Pierce A, Hu P, Han M, Ellis N, Jasin M. Ku DNA end-binding protein modulates homologous repair of double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. Genes Dev. 2001;15:3237-42 pubmed
    ..We find that the HDR frequency is enhanced in Ku70(-/-), XRCC4(-/-), and DNA-PKcs(-/-) cells, with the increase being particularly striking in Ku70(-/-) cells...
  4. Sundaresan N, Samant S, Pillai V, Rajamohan S, Gupta M. SIRT3 is a stress-responsive deacetylase in cardiomyocytes that protects cells from stress-mediated cell death by deacetylation of Ku70. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6384-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified Ku70 as a new target of SIRT3...
  5. Ferguson D, Sekiguchi J, Chang S, Frank K, Gao Y, DePinho R, et al. The nonhomologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair is required for genomic stability and the suppression of translocations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6630-3 pubmed
    ..MEFs homozygous for mutations that inactivate either DNA ligase IV (Lig4) or Ku70 display dramatic genomic instability, even in the absence of exogenous DNA damaging agents...
  6. Frank K, Sekiguchi J, Seidl K, Swat W, Rathbun G, Cheng H, et al. Late embryonic lethality and impaired V(D)J recombination in mice lacking DNA ligase IV. Nature. 1998;396:173-7 pubmed
    ..These factors include components of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), namely DNA-PKcs and the Ku heterodimer, Ku70-Ku80, and XRCC4. The precise function of XRCC4 is unknown, but it interacts with DNA ligase IV...
  7. Gu Y, Jin S, Gao Y, Weaver D, Alt F. Ku70-deficient embryonic stem cells have increased ionizing radiosensitivity, defective DNA end-binding activity, and inability to support V(D)J recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8076-81 pubmed
    ..V(D)J recombination and confirm that the Ku70 gene can be classified as a member of the x-ray cross-complementation group 6 (XRCC6). Potential differences between the Ku70(-/-) and Ku80(-/-) V(D)J recombination defects are discussed.
  8. Li H, Choi Y, Hanes M, Marple T, Vogel H, Hasty P. Deleting Ku70 is milder than deleting Ku80 in p53-mutant mice and cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:1875-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ku70 forms a heterodimer with Ku80, called Ku that is well known for repairing DNA double-strand breaks through non-homologous end joining...
  9. Koike M, Yutoku Y, Koike A. Accumulation of Ku70 at DNA double-strand breaks in living epithelial cells. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2429-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Ku70 and Ku80 play an essential role in the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway, i.e., nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ)...
  10. Ouyang H, Nussenzweig A, Kurimasa A, Soares V, Li X, Cordon Cardo C, et al. Ku70 is required for DNA repair but not for T cell antigen receptor gene recombination In vivo. J Exp Med. 1997;186:921-9 pubmed
    Ku is a complex of two proteins, Ku70 and Ku80, and functions as a heterodimer to bind DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and activate DNA-dependent protein kinase...
  11. Li H, Vogel H, Holcomb V, Gu Y, Hasty P. Deletion of Ku70, Ku80, or both causes early aging without substantially increased cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8205-14 pubmed
    b>Ku70 forms a heterodimer with Ku80, called Ku, that is critical for repairing DNA double-stand breaks by nonhomologous end joining and for maintaining telomeres...
  12. Vishnudas V, Miller J. Ku70 regulates Bax-mediated pathogenesis in laminin-alpha2-deficient human muscle cells and mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..myogenic cells, we found that, as in non-muscle cells, Bax co-immunoprecipitated with the multifunctional protein Ku70. In addition, cell permeable pentapeptides designed from Ku70, termed Bax-inhibiting peptides (BIPs), inhibited ..
  13. Gama V, Gomez J, Mayo L, Jackson M, Danielpour D, Song K, et al. Hdm2 is a ubiquitin ligase of Ku70-Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting Hdm2-dependent Ku70 destabilization. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:758-69 pubmed publisher
    Earlier, we have reported that 70 kDa subunit of Ku protein heterodimer (Ku70) binds and inhibits Bax activity in the cytosol and that ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent proteolysis of cytosolic Ku70 facilitates Bax-mediated apoptosis...
  14. De Zio D, Bordi M, Tino E, Lanzuolo C, Ferraro E, Mora E, et al. The DNA repair complex Ku70/86 modulates Apaf1 expression upon DNA damage. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe Ku70/86, a mediator of non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair, as a novel regulator of Apaf1 transcription...
  15. Takiguchi Y, Kurimasa A, Chen F, Pardington P, Kuriyama T, Okinaka R, et al. Genomic structure and chromosomal assignment of the mouse Ku70 gene. Genomics. 1996;35:129-35 pubmed
    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of three polypeptide subunits: Ku70, Ku80, and the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)...
  16. Roberts S, Strande N, Burkhalter M, Strom C, Havener J, Hasty P, et al. Ku is a 5'-dRP/AP lyase that excises nucleotide damage near broken ends. Nature. 2010;464:1214-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ku had previously been presumed only to recognize ends and recruit other factors that process ends; our data support an unexpected direct role for Ku in end-processing steps as well. ..
  17. Gu Y, Seidl K, Rathbun G, Zhu C, Manis J, van der Stoep N, et al. Growth retardation and leaky SCID phenotype of Ku70-deficient mice. Immunity. 1997;7:653-65 pubmed
    b>Ku70, Ku80, and DNA-PKcs are subunits of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), an enzyme implicated in DNA double-stranded break repair and V(D)J recombination...
  18. Brenkman A, van den Broek N, de Keizer P, van Gent D, Burgering B. The DNA damage repair protein Ku70 interacts with FOXO4 to coordinate a conserved cellular stress response. FASEB J. 2010;24:4271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..an unbiased tandem-affinity purification strategy combined with mass spectrometry, we identified the heterodimer Ku70/Ku80 (Ku), a DNA double-strand break repair component...
  19. Thompson L, Jeggo P. Nomenclature of human genes involved in ionizing radiation sensitivity. Mutat Res. 1995;337:131-4 pubmed
  20. Wang H, Zhang X, Wang P, Yu X, Essers J, Chen D, et al. Characteristics of DNA-binding proteins determine the biological sensitivity to high-linear energy transfer radiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide strong evidence that the different DNA DSB binding properties of Mre11 and Ku determine the different efficiencies of HRR and NHEJ to repair high-LET radiation induced DSBs. ..
  21. Boboila C, Yan C, Wesemann D, Jankovic M, Wang J, Manis J, et al. Alternative end-joining catalyzes class switch recombination in the absence of both Ku70 and DNA ligase 4. J Exp Med. 2010;207:417-27 pubmed publisher
    The classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway employs the Ku70/80 complex (Ku) for DSB recognition and the XRCC4/DNA ligase 4 (Lig4) complex for ligation...
  22. Gong Y, Handa N, Kowalczykowski S, de Lange T. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR. Genes Dev. 2017;31:46-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair. ..
  23. Osipovich O, Duhe R, Hasty P, Durum S, Muegge K. Defining functional domains of Ku80: DNA end binding and survival after radiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;261:802-7 pubmed
    The Ku heterodimeric protein (Ku80/Ku70) is an essential component of the double-strand break DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells. We have recently defined a central region within Ku80 that is required for heterodimerization with Ku70...
  24. Jiang W, Crowe J, Liu X, Nakajima S, Wang Y, Li C, et al. Differential phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs regulates the interplay between end-processing and end-ligation during nonhomologous end-joining. Mol Cell. 2015;58:172-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings identify DNA-PKcs as the molecular switch that coordinates end-processing and end-ligation at the DNA ends through differential phosphorylations. ..
  25. Wu P, de Lange T. No overt nucleosome eviction at deprotected telomeres. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5724-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, telomeres lacking TRF2 and Ku70, which are processed by HR, appeared to maintain their original nucleosomal organization...
  26. Wang Q, Gao F, Wang T, Flagg T, Deng X. A nonhomologous end-joining pathway is required for protein phosphatase 2A promotion of DNA double-strand break repair. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1012-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, PP2A promotion of DSB repair may occur in a novel mechanism by activating the nonhomologous end-joining pathway through direct dephosphorylation of Ku and DNA-PKcs, which may contribute to maintenance of genetic stability. ..
  27. Helmink B, Bredemeyer A, Lee B, Huang C, Sharma G, Walker L, et al. MRN complex function in the repair of chromosomal Rag-mediated DNA double-strand breaks. J Exp Med. 2009;206:669-79 pubmed publisher
  28. Kosova A, Lavrik O, Hodyreva S. [The role of Ku antigen in the repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in DNA]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2015;49:67-74 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Ku was shown to be a 5'-dRP/AP lyase that acts near DSBs in NHEJ. The recent studies have demonstrated involvement of Ku in the different stages of BER. Here, Ku roles in NHEJ and BER pathways of DNA repair are overviewed. ..
  29. Porges A, Ng T, Reeves W. Antigenic determinants of the Ku (p70/p80) autoantigen are poorly conserved between species. J Immunol. 1990;145:4222-8 pubmed
    ..In general, poorly conserved autoepitopes have been conformational, rather than sequential, suggesting that the antigenicity of conformational epitopes may be particularly sensitive to evolutionary change. ..
  30. Celli G, Denchi E, de Lange T. Ku70 stimulates fusion of dysfunctional telomeres yet protects chromosome ends from homologous recombination. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:885-90 pubmed
    b>Ku70-Ku80 heterodimers promote the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA breaks and, as shown here, the fusion of dysfunctional telomeres...
  31. Griffin C, Waard H, Deans B, Thacker J. The involvement of key DNA repair pathways in the formation of chromosome rearrangements in embryonic stem cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1019-27 pubmed
    ..We chose cells deficient in Ku70 (DNA end joining), Xrcc2 (gene conversion), Ercc1 (single-strand annealing) and Csb (transcription-coupled repair) ..
  32. Libby B, Reinholdt L, Schimenti J. Positional cloning and characterization of Mei1, a vertebrate-specific gene required for normal meiotic chromosome synapsis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15706-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, Mei1 is required for vertebrate meiosis. To our knowledge, Mei1 is the first meiosis-specific mutation identified by forward genetic approaches in mammals. ..
  33. Koike M, Yutoku Y, Koike A. Establishment of ku70-deficient lung epithelial cell lines and their hypersensitivity to low-dose x-irradiation. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:549-54 pubmed
    ..The DNA repair protein Ku70 is a key contributor to chemoresistance to anticancer agents, e.g., etoposide and bleomycin, or radioresistance...
  34. Xing M, Bjørås M, Daniel J, Alt F, Oksenych V. Synthetic lethality between murine DNA repair factors XLF and DNA-PKcs is rescued by inactivation of Ku70. DNA Repair (Amst). 2017;57:133-138 pubmed publisher
    ..C-NHEJ includes the core Ku70 and Ku80 (or Ku86) heterodimer that binds DSBs and thus promotes recruitment of accessory downstream NHEJ factors ..
  35. Tavana O, Puebla Osorio N, Kim J, Sang M, Jang S, Zhu C. Ku70 functions in addition to nonhomologous end joining in pancreatic ?-cells: a connection to ?-catenin regulation. Diabetes. 2013;62:2429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..present study, to further delineate the function of NHEJ, we analyzed mice deficient for another key NHEJ factor, Ku70, to discover the effect of cellular responses to DNA damage in pancreatic ?-cells on cellular proliferation and ..
  36. Tomimatsu N, Tahimic C, Otsuki A, Burma S, Fukuhara A, Sato K, et al. Ku70/80 modulates ATM and ATR signaling pathways in response to DNA double strand breaks. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10138-45 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, Ku70/80 is known to participate at a later time point in the DSB response, recruiting DNA-PKcs to facilitate non-..
  37. Shao Z, Davis A, Fattah K, So S, Sun J, Lee K, et al. Persistently bound Ku at DNA ends attenuates DNA end resection and homologous recombination. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:310-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this data suggests that Ku70/80 binds to DSBs in all cell cycle stages and is likely actively displaced from DSB ends to free the DNA ends for ..
  38. Hurd Y, Yakovleva T, Nussenzweig A, Li G, Terenius L, Bakalkin G. A novel neuron-specific DNA end-binding factor in the murine brain. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1999;14:213-24 pubmed
    ..with Ku protein, which targets DNA-ends, the DNA end-binding activity was present in brains of Ku86- and Ku70-deficient mice...
  39. Matsuyama S, Palmer J, Bates A, Poventud Fuentes I, Wong K, Ngo J, et al. Bax-induced apoptosis shortens the life span of DNA repair defect Ku70-knockout mice by inducing emphysema. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016;241:1265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we reported that ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(-) (/) (-) and ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/) (-) mice showed significantly extended life span in comparison ..
  40. Boboila C, Jankovic M, Yan C, Wang J, Wesemann D, Zhang T, et al. Alternative end-joining catalyzes robust IgH locus deletions and translocations in the combined absence of ligase 4 and Ku70. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3034-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In normal cells, many CSR junctions are mediated by classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ), which employs the Ku70/80 complex for DSB recognition and XRCC4/DNA ligase 4 for ligation...
  41. Willis D, Loewy A, Charlton Kachigian N, Shao J, Ornitz D, Towler D. Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression by a novel Ku antigen transcription factor complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37280-91 pubmed
    ..We now identify Ku70, Ku80, and Tbdn100, a variant of Tubedown-1, as constituents of the purified OCFRE-binding complex...
  42. Leskov K, Klokov D, Li J, Kinsella T, Boothman D. Synthesis and functional analyses of nuclear clusterin, a cell death protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11590-600 pubmed
    Nuclear clusterin (nCLU) is an ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible protein that binds Ku70, and triggers apoptosis when overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. We demonstrate that endogenous nCLU synthesis is a product of alternative splicing...
  43. Lur G, Sherwood M, Ebisui E, Haynes L, Feske S, Sutton R, et al. InsP?receptors and Orai channels in pancreatic acinar cells: co-localization and its consequences. Biochem J. 2011;436:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the InsP?-releasing secretagogue ACh (acetylcholine) produced a negative modulatory effect on SOCE, suggesting that activated IP?Rs could have an inhibitory effect on this Ca²? entry mechanism. ..
  44. Koike M, Matsuda Y, Mimori T, Harada Y, Shiomi N, Shiomi T. Chromosomal localization of the mouse and rat DNA double-strand break repair genes Ku p70 and Ku p80/XRCC5 and their mRNA expression in various mouse tissues. Genomics. 1996;38:38-44 pubmed
    The Ku p70 and Ku p80/XRCC5 genes are involved in DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination, and their gene products are the components of the DNA-dependent protein kinase...
  45. Baughman G, Harrigan M, Campbell N, Nurrish S, Bourgeois S. Genes newly identified as regulated by glucocorticoids in murine thymocytes. Mol Endocrinol. 1991;5:637-44 pubmed
    ..ETn. The remaining clones represent new, unidentified genes induced by glucocorticoids in murine thymocytes and in the WEHI-7TG cell line. ..
  46. Liu J, Naegele J, Lin S. The DNA-PK catalytic subunit regulates Bax-mediated excitotoxic cell death by Ku70 phosphorylation. Brain Res. 2009;1296:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared DNA damage, Ku70-Bax interaction, and Bax-dependent excitotoxic cell death in kainic acid-treated primary cortical neurons derived ..
  47. Gurley K, Moser R, Gu Y, Hasty P, Kemp C. DNA-PK suppresses a p53-independent apoptotic response to DNA damage. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..nullizygous mice were resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis, whereas apoptosis in DNA-PK(cs)/p53, Ku80/p53 and Ku70/p53 double-null mice was quantitatively equivalent to that seen in wild-type mice...
  48. Hammer F, Compagnone N, Vigne J, Bair S, Mellon S. Transcriptional regulation of P450scc gene expression in the embryonic rodent nervous system. Endocrinology. 2004;145:901-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, members of the Sp transcription family play a role in activating P450scc gene transcription in the nervous system, and Ku may further augment this activation. ..
  49. Bunting S, Callén E, Kozak M, Kim J, Wong N, López Contreras A, et al. BRCA1 functions independently of homologous recombination in DNA interstrand crosslink repair. Mol Cell. 2012;46:125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..BRCA1 therefore has two separate roles in ICL repair that can be modulated by manipulating NHEJ, whereas FANCD2 provides a key activity that cannot be bypassed by ablation of 53BP1 or Ku. ..
  50. Hossain M, Ji P, Anish R, Jacobson R, Takada S. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 Interacts with Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 (NRF-1) and Plays a Role in NRF-1 Transcriptional Regulation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8621-32 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA-PK.Ku80.Ku70.topoisomerase IIbeta-containing protein complex...
  51. Narasimhaiah R, Tuchman A, Lin S, Naegele J. Oxidative damage and defective DNA repair is linked to apoptosis of migrating neurons and progenitors during cerebral cortex development in Ku70-deficient mice. Cereb Cortex. 2005;15:696-707 pubmed
    ..We examined cortical development in mice deficient for the DNA end-joining protein, Ku70. At gestational day 14...
  52. Zhang X, Brann T, Zhou M, Yang J, Oguariri R, Lidie K, et al. Cutting edge: Ku70 is a novel cytosolic DNA sensor that induces type III rather than type I IFN. J Immunol. 2011;186:4541-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A pull-down assay using cytosolic proteins identified that Ku70 and Ku80 are the DNA-binding proteins...
  53. Falzon M, Kuff E. The nucleotide sequence of a mouse cDNA encoding the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku (p70/p80) autoantigen. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:3784 pubmed
  54. Ishii K, Takeshita F, Gursel I, Gursel M, Conover J, Nussenzweig A, et al. Potential role of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, rather than DNA-dependent protein kinase, in CpG DNA-induced immune activation. J Exp Med. 2002;196:269-74 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which CpG signaling is mediated through TLR-9 but not DNA-PK, and suggest that wortmannin-sensitive member(s) of the PI3-kinase family play a critical role in shuttling CpG DNA to TLR-9. ..
  55. Weinstock D, Jasin M. Alternative pathways for the repair of RAG-induced DNA breaks. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:131-9 pubmed
    ..As expected, V(D)J recombination was substantially impaired in cells deficient for the NHEJ components Ku70, XRCC4, and DNA-PKcs...
  56. Bennardo N, Cheng A, Huang N, Stark J. Alternative-NHEJ is a mechanistically distinct pathway of mammalian chromosome break repair. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000110 pubmed publisher
    ..However, at later steps of repair, alt-NHEJ is a mechanistically distinct pathway of DSB repair, and thus may play a unique role in mutagenesis during cancer development and therapy...
  57. Sfeir A, Kabir S, Van Overbeek M, Celli G, de Lange T. Loss of Rap1 induces telomere recombination in the absence of NHEJ or a DNA damage signal. Science. 2010;327:1657-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The data reveal that HDR at telomeres can take place in the absence of DNA damage foci and underscore the functional compartmentalization within shelterin. ..
  58. Ramalingam A, Farmer G, Stamato T, Prendergast G. Bin1 interacts with and restrains the DNA end-binding protein complex Ku. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:1914-8 pubmed
    ..Both Ku70 and Ku80 were purified from human and murine cell extracts using the Bin1 BAR domain as an affinity matrix...
  59. Sekiguchi J, Ferguson D, Chen H, Yang E, Earle J, Frank K, et al. Genetic interactions between ATM and the nonhomologous end-joining factors in genomic stability and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3243-8 pubmed
    ..However, although Lig4 deficiency causes late embryonic lethality, deficiency in DNA-PK subunits (Ku70, Ku80, and DNA-PKcs) does not...
  60. Hamer G, Roepers Gajadien H, van Duyn Goedhart A, Gademan I, Kal H, van Buul P, et al. Function of DNA-protein kinase catalytic subunit during the early meiotic prophase without Ku70 and Ku86. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:717-21 pubmed
    ..All components of the double-stranded DNA break (DSB) repair complex DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), including Ku70, Ku86, and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), were found in the radiosensitive spermatogonia...
  61. Mazumder S, Plesca D, Kinter M, Almasan A. Interaction of a cyclin E fragment with Ku70 regulates Bax-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3511-20 pubmed
    ..Here we identify Ku70 as a specific p18-cyclin E-interacting partner...
  62. Gu Y, Sekiguchi J, Gao Y, Dikkes P, Frank K, Ferguson D, et al. Defective embryonic neurogenesis in Ku-deficient but not DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2668-73 pubmed
    Mammalian nonhomologous DNA end joining employs Ku70, Ku80, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4, and DNA ligase IV (Lig4)...
  63. Stetson D, Medzhitov R. Recognition of cytosolic DNA activates an IRF3-dependent innate immune response. Immunity. 2006;24:93-103 pubmed
    ..These findings define an innate immune response to DNA linked to type I interferon production. ..
  64. Ahmed E, Sfeir A, Takai H, Scherthan H. Ku70 and non-homologous end joining protect testicular cells from DNA damage. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:3095-104 pubmed publisher
    ..At somatic mammalian telomeres, the NHEJ factor Ku70/80 inhibits HR, as does the Rap1 component of the shelterin complex...
  65. Paesen G, Zanotto P, Nuttall P. A tick homologue of the human DNA helicase II 70-kDa subunit. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1305:120-4 pubmed
    ..The tick homologue appears to be more closely related to the mammalian protein than to the only other p70 homologue reported in arthropods, the inverted repeat binding protein (IRBP) in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. ..
  66. Teoh N, Dan Y, Swisshelm K, Lehman S, Wright J, Haque J, et al. Defective DNA strand break repair causes chromosomal instability and accelerates liver carcinogenesis in mice. Hepatology. 2008;47:2078-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether a defect in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair gene Ku70 was associated with chromosomal abnormalities and enhanced liver carcinogenesis...
  67. d Adda di Fagagna F, Hande M, Tong W, Roth D, Lansdorp P, Wang Z, et al. Effects of DNA nonhomologous end-joining factors on telomere length and chromosomal stability in mammalian cells. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1192-6 pubmed
    DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) relies on the Ku70:Ku80 heterodimer in species ranging from yeast to man. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Ku also controls telomere functions...
  68. Katz D, Beer M, Levorse J, Tilghman S. Functional characterization of a novel Ku70/80 pause site at the H19/Igf2 imprinting control region. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3855-63 pubmed
    ..The DNA binding activity was identified as the heterodimer Ku70/80, which binds nonspecifically to free DNA ends...