Gene Symbol: Xrcc5
Description: X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5
Alias: AI314015, CTC85, CTCBF, Ku80, Ku86, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 5, ATP-dependent DNA helicase 2 subunit 2, ATP-dependent DNA helicase II 80 kDa subunit, CTC box-binding factor 85 kDa subunit, DNA repair protein XRCC5, Ku p80, ku autoantigen protein p86 homolog, nuclear factor IV
Species: mouse
Products:     Xrcc5

Top Publications

  1. Karanjawala Z, Adachi N, Irvine R, Oh E, Shibata D, Schwarz K, et al. The embryonic lethality in DNA ligase IV-deficient mice is rescued by deletion of Ku: implications for unifying the heterogeneous phenotypes of NHEJ mutants. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:1017-26 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the lethality of DNA ligase IV-deficiency in the mouse can be rescued when Ku86 is also absent...
  2. Holcomb V, Vogel H, Marple T, Kornegay R, Hasty P. Ku80 and p53 suppress medulloblastoma that arise independent of Rag-1-induced DSBs. Oncogene. 2006;25:7159-65 pubmed
    b>Ku80 maintains the genome by repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), a pathway that repairs nonspecific DSBs and Rag-1 Rag-2 (Rag)-specific DSBs...
  3. Bogue M, Wang C, Zhu C, Roth D. V(D)J recombination in Ku86-deficient mice: distinct effects on coding, signal, and hybrid joint formation. Immunity. 1997;7:37-47 pubmed
    ..Although Ku86-deficient mice are defective in coding and signal joint formation, rare recombination products have been detected ..
  4. Dmitrieva N, Celeste A, Nussenzweig A, Burg M. Ku86 preserves chromatin integrity in cells adapted to high NaCl. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10730-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Ku86 is important for maintaining chromosomal integrity despite the continued presence of DNA breaks...
  5. Tomimatsu N, Tahimic C, Otsuki A, Burma S, Fukuhara A, Sato K, et al. Ku70/80 modulates ATM and ATR signaling pathways in response to DNA double strand breaks. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10138-45 pubmed
  6. Vogel H, Lim D, Karsenty G, Finegold M, Hasty P. Deletion of Ku86 causes early onset of senescence in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:10770-5 pubmed
    ..after exposure to ionizing radiation are repaired by proteins important for nonhomologous end joining that include Ku86, Ku70, DNA-PK(CS), Xrcc4, and DNA ligase IV...
  7. Karanjawala Z, Grawunder U, Hsieh C, Lieber M. The nonhomologous DNA end joining pathway is important for chromosome stability in primary fibroblasts. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1501-4 pubmed
    ..b>Ku86 and DNA ligase IV are two major proteins in the NHEJ pathway...
  8. Difilippantonio M, Zhu J, Chen H, Meffre E, Nussenzweig M, Max E, et al. DNA repair protein Ku80 suppresses chromosomal aberrations and malignant transformation. Nature. 2000;404:510-4 pubmed
    ..Although the importance of Ku80 in DNA double-strand break repair is well established, neither Ku80 nor other components of the non-homologous end-..
  9. Nussenzweig A, Chen C, da Costa Soares V, Sanchez M, Sokol K, Nussenzweig M, et al. Requirement for Ku80 in growth and immunoglobulin V(D)J recombination. Nature. 1996;382:551-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the role of the DNA-binding subunit of DNA-PK in vivo, we targeted Ku80 in mice...

More Information


  1. Guirouilh Barbat J, Rass E, Plo I, Bertrand P, Lopez B. Defects in XRCC4 and KU80 differentially affect the joining of distal nonhomologous ends. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20902-7 pubmed
    XRCC4-null mice have a more severe phenotype than KU80-null mice. Here, we address whether this difference in phenotype is connected to nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)...
  2. Henrie M, Kurimasa A, Burma S, Menissier de Murcia J, de Murcia G, Li G, et al. Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiological synergy during early embryogenesis. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:151-8 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro...
  3. Samper E, Goytisolo F, Slijepcevic P, Van Buul P, Blasco M. Mammalian Ku86 protein prevents telomeric fusions independently of the length of TTAGGG repeats and the G-strand overhang. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:244-52 pubmed
    b>Ku86 together with Ku70, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV forms a complex involved in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in mammals...
  4. Zhao B, Benson E, Qiao R, Wang X, Kim S, Manfredi J, et al. Cellular senescence and organismal ageing in the absence of p21(CIP1/WAF1) in ku80(-/-) mice. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:71-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ku80 is important in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by its essential function in non-homologous end-joining. The absence of Ku80 causes the accumulation of DNA damage and leads to premature ageing in mice...
  5. Gu Y, Sekiguchi J, Gao Y, Dikkes P, Frank K, Ferguson D, et al. Defective embryonic neurogenesis in Ku-deficient but not DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2668-73 pubmed
    Mammalian nonhomologous DNA end joining employs Ku70, Ku80, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4, and DNA ligase IV (Lig4)...
  6. Espejel S, Klatt P, Menissier de Murcia J, Martin Caballero J, Flores J, Taccioli G, et al. Impact of telomerase ablation on organismal viability, aging, and tumorigenesis in mice lacking the DNA repair proteins PARP-1, Ku86, or DNA-PKcs. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:627-38 pubmed
    The DNA repair proteins poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), Ku86, and catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) have been involved in telomere metabolism...
  7. Ouyang H, Nussenzweig A, Kurimasa A, Soares V, Li X, Cordon Cardo C, et al. Ku70 is required for DNA repair but not for T cell antigen receptor gene recombination In vivo. J Exp Med. 1997;186:921-9 pubmed
    Ku is a complex of two proteins, Ku70 and Ku80, and functions as a heterodimer to bind DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and activate DNA-dependent protein kinase...
  8. Li H, Choi Y, Hanes M, Marple T, Vogel H, Hasty P. Deleting Ku70 is milder than deleting Ku80 in p53-mutant mice and cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:1875-8 pubmed publisher
    Ku70 forms a heterodimer with Ku80, called Ku that is well known for repairing DNA double-strand breaks through non-homologous end joining...
  9. Bunting S, Callén E, Kozak M, Kim J, Wong N, López Contreras A, et al. BRCA1 functions independently of homologous recombination in DNA interstrand crosslink repair. Mol Cell. 2012;46:125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..BRCA1 therefore has two separate roles in ICL repair that can be modulated by manipulating NHEJ, whereas FANCD2 provides a key activity that cannot be bypassed by ablation of 53BP1 or Ku. ..
  10. Casellas R, Nussenzweig A, Wuerffel R, Pelanda R, Reichlin A, Suh H, et al. Ku80 is required for immunoglobulin isotype switching. EMBO J. 1998;17:2404-11 pubmed
    ..the role of DNA DSB repair in switch recombination in mice that are unable to repair DSBs due to a deficiency in Ku80 (Ku80(-/-))...
  11. Reina San Martin B, Difilippantonio S, Hanitsch L, Masilamani R, Nussenzweig A, Nussenzweig M. H2AX is required for recombination between immunoglobulin switch regions but not for intra-switch region recombination or somatic hypermutation. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1767-78 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a role for H2AX in regulating the higher order chromatin remodeling that facilitates switch region synapsis. ..
  12. Li H, Vogel H, Holcomb V, Gu Y, Hasty P. Deletion of Ku70, Ku80, or both causes early aging without substantially increased cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8205-14 pubmed
    Ku70 forms a heterodimer with Ku80, called Ku, that is critical for repairing DNA double-stand breaks by nonhomologous end joining and for maintaining telomeres...
  13. Busuttil R, Muñoz D, Garcia A, Rodier F, Kim W, Suh Y, et al. Effect of Ku80 deficiency on mutation frequencies and spectra at a LacZ reporter locus in mouse tissues and cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3458 pubmed publisher
    ..of inactivated NHEJ on spontaneous mutation frequencies and spectra in vivo and in cultured cells, we crossed a Ku80-deficient mouse with mice harboring a lacZ-plasmid-based mutation reporter...
  14. Espejel S, Franco S, Rodriguez Perales S, Bouffler S, Cigudosa J, Blasco M. Mammalian Ku86 mediates chromosomal fusions and apoptosis caused by critically short telomeres. EMBO J. 2002;21:2207-19 pubmed
    Here we analyze the functional interaction between Ku86 and telomerase at the mammalian telomere by studying mice deficient for both proteins...
  15. Holcomb V, Vogel H, Hasty P. Deletion of Ku80 causes early aging independent of chronic inflammation and Rag-1-induced DSBs. Mech Ageing Dev. 2007;128:601-8 pubmed
    Animal models of premature aging are often defective for DNA repair. Ku80-mutant mice are disabled for nonhomologous end joining; a pathway that repairs both spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and induced DNA DSBs generated by ..
  16. Goytisolo F, Samper E, Edmonson S, Taccioli G, Blasco M. The absence of the dna-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit in mice results in anaphase bridges and in increased telomeric fusions with normal telomere length and G-strand overhang. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3642-51 pubmed
    ..Five components function in this pathway, of which three (Ku70, Ku80, and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit [DNA-PKcs]) constitute a complex termed DNA-dependent ..
  17. Choi Y, Li H, Son M, Wang X, Fornsaglio J, Sobol R, et al. Deletion of individual Ku subunits in mice causes an NHEJ-independent phenotype potentially by altering apurinic/apyrimidinic site repair. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86358 pubmed publisher
    Ku70 and Ku80 form a heterodimer called Ku that forms a holoenzyme with DNA dependent-protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKCS) to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) through the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway...
  18. d Adda di Fagagna F, Hande M, Tong W, Roth D, Lansdorp P, Wang Z, et al. Effects of DNA nonhomologous end-joining factors on telomere length and chromosomal stability in mammalian cells. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1192-6 pubmed
    DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) relies on the Ku70:Ku80 heterodimer in species ranging from yeast to man. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Ku also controls telomere functions...
  19. Lim D, Vogel H, Willerford D, Sands A, Platt K, Hasty P. Analysis of ku80-mutant mice and cells with deficient levels of p53. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3772-80 pubmed
    Absence of Ku80 results in increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, defective lymphocyte development, early onset of an age-related phenotype, and premature replicative senescence...
  20. Holcomb V, Rodier F, Choi Y, Busuttil R, Vogel H, Vijg J, et al. Ku80 deletion suppresses spontaneous tumors and induces a p53-mediated DNA damage response. Cancer Res. 2008;68:9497-502 pubmed publisher
    b>Ku80 facilitates DNA repair and therefore should suppress cancer. However, ku80(-/-) mice exhibit reduced cancer, although they age prematurely and have a shortened life span...
  21. Zhu C, Bogue M, Lim D, Hasty P, Roth D. Ku86-deficient mice exhibit severe combined immunodeficiency and defective processing of V(D)J recombination intermediates. Cell. 1996;86:379-89 pubmed
    Ku is a heterodimeric DNA end binding complex composed of 70 and 86 kDa subunits. Here, we show that Ku86 is essential for normal V(D)J recombination in vivo, as Ku86-deficient mice are severely defective for formation of coding joints...
  22. Rossi D, Bryder D, Seita J, Nussenzweig A, Hoeijmakers J, Weissman I. Deficiencies in DNA damage repair limit the function of haematopoietic stem cells with age. Nature. 2007;447:725-9 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with DNA damage accrual being a physiological mechanism of stem cell ageing that may contribute to the diminished capacity of aged tissues to return to homeostasis after exposure to acute stress or injury. ..
  23. Reina San Martin B, Chen H, Nussenzweig A, Nussenzweig M. ATM is required for efficient recombination between immunoglobulin switch regions. J Exp Med. 2004;200:1103-10 pubmed
    ..Only long-range inter-switch recombination is defective, indicating an unexpected role for ATM in switch region synapsis during CSR. ..
  24. Tseng S, Yang C, Yu E, Chang C, Lee Y, Liu C, et al. K14-EGFP-miR-31 transgenic mice have high susceptibility to chemical-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis that is associating with Ku80 repression. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:1263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The repair genes PARP1 and Ku80 were validated as new targets of miR-31 in human OSCC cell lines, and were found to be downregulated in the ..
  25. Lim D, Hasty P. A mutation in mouse rad51 results in an early embryonic lethal that is suppressed by a mutation in p53. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:7133-43 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, embryonic development progressed further in a p53 null background; however, fibroblasts derived from double-mutant embryos failed to proliferate in tissue culture. ..
  26. Liebe B, Petukhova G, Barchi M, Bellani M, Braselmann H, Nakano T, et al. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3768-81 pubmed
    ..spermatocytes were significantly increased in male mice lacking recombination proteins SPO11, MEI1, MLH1, KU80, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme HR6B, and in mice with only one copy of the telomere length regulator Terf1...
  27. Seminotti B, da Rosa M, Fernandes C, Amaral A, Braga L, Leipnitz G, et al. Induction of oxidative stress in brain of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice by acute lysine administration. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;106:31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that in Gcdh(-/-) mice cerebral tissue, particularly the striatum, is at greater risk for oxidative stress than peripheral tissues following Lys administration. ..
  28. Wang Q, Gao F, Wang T, Flagg T, Deng X. A nonhomologous end-joining pathway is required for protein phosphatase 2A promotion of DNA double-strand break repair. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1012-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, PP2A promotion of DSB repair may occur in a novel mechanism by activating the nonhomologous end-joining pathway through direct dephosphorylation of Ku and DNA-PKcs, which may contribute to maintenance of genetic stability. ..
  29. Rockwood L, Nussenzweig A, Janz S. Paradoxical decrease in mutant frequencies and chromosomal rearrangements in a transgenic lacZ reporter gene in Ku80 null mice deficient in DNA double strand break repair. Mutat Res. 2003;529:51-8 pubmed
    ..To examine the impact of NHEJ deficiency on genomic integrity in Ku80 null (Ku-) mice, the chromosomally integrated shuttle vector pUR288, which includes a lacZ reporter gene, was used ..
  30. Ye J, Ren Z, Gu Q, Wang L, Wang J. Ku80 is differentially expressed in human lung carcinomas and upregulated in response to irradiation in mice. DNA Cell Biol. 2011;30:987-94 pubmed publisher
    Based on the role of Ku80 in mediating radiation-induced DNA repair, we investigated Ku80 expression in human lung cancers of different pathological types and evaluated the effect of radiotherapy on Ku80 expression levels in a mouse model...
  31. Boboila C, Jankovic M, Yan C, Wang J, Wesemann D, Zhang T, et al. Alternative end-joining catalyzes robust IgH locus deletions and translocations in the combined absence of ligase 4 and Ku70. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3034-9 pubmed publisher
    ..IgH chromosomal translocations to the c-myc oncogene also are augmented in the combined absence of Ku70 and ligase 4. We discuss the implications of these findings for A-EJ in normal and abnormal DSB repair. ..
  32. Jiang W, Crowe J, Liu X, Nakajima S, Wang Y, Li C, et al. Differential phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs regulates the interplay between end-processing and end-ligation during nonhomologous end-joining. Mol Cell. 2015;58:172-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings identify DNA-PKcs as the molecular switch that coordinates end-processing and end-ligation at the DNA ends through differential phosphorylations. ..
  33. Schulte Uentrop L, El Awady R, Schliecker L, Willers H, Dahm Daphi J. Distinct roles of XRCC4 and Ku80 in non-homologous end-joining of endonuclease- and ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:2561-9 pubmed publisher
    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is mediated by two protein complexes comprising Ku80/Ku70/DNA-PKcs/Artemis and XRCC4/LigaseIV/XLF...
  34. Dreveny I, Kondo H, Uchiyama K, Shaw A, Zhang X, Freemont P. Structural basis of the interaction between the AAA ATPase p97/VCP and its adaptor protein p47. EMBO J. 2004;23:1030-9 pubmed
    ..We also propose a classification for ubiquitin-like domains containing or lacking a longer S3/S4 loop. ..
  35. Wang H, Wang X, Zhang P, Wang Y. The Ku-dependent non-homologous end-joining but not other repair pathway is inhibited by high linear energy transfer ionizing radiation. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:725-33 pubmed publisher
  36. Falzon M, Kuff E. The nucleotide sequence of a mouse cDNA encoding the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku (p70/p80) autoantigen. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:3784 pubmed
  37. McConnell M, Kaushal D, Yang A, Kingsbury M, Rehen S, Treuner K, et al. Failed clearance of aneuploid embryonic neural progenitor cells leads to excess aneuploidy in the Atm-deficient but not the Trp53-deficient adult cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8090-6 pubmed
    ..A similar 43% decrease in adult XY aneuploidy was observed in DNA repair-deficient Xrcc5-/- mutants...
  38. Reliene R, Bishop A, Li G, Schiestl R. Ku86 deficiency leads to reduced intrachromosomal homologous recombination in vivo in mice. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:103-11 pubmed
    Ku70 and Ku86 together with DNA-PKcs form the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex that is involved in DNA double-strand break repair by nonhomologous end joining...
  39. Brugmans L, Kanaar R, Essers J. Analysis of DNA double-strand break repair pathways in mice. Mutat Res. 2007;614:95-108 pubmed
    ..In this review, we focus on the biological relevance of DSB repair in mammalian cells and the potential overlap between nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination in different tissues. ..
  40. Gurley K, Moser R, Gu Y, Hasty P, Kemp C. DNA-PK suppresses a p53-independent apoptotic response to DNA damage. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..cells from p53 nullizygous mice were resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis, whereas apoptosis in DNA-PK(cs)/p53, Ku80/p53 and Ku70/p53 double-null mice was quantitatively equivalent to that seen in wild-type mice...
  41. Hossain M, Ji P, Anish R, Jacobson R, Takada S. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 Interacts with Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 (NRF-1) and Plays a Role in NRF-1 Transcriptional Regulation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8621-32 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA-PK.Ku80.Ku70.topoisomerase IIbeta-containing protein complex...
  42. Holcomb V, Vogel H, Hasty P. Unlike p53, p27 failed to exhibit an anti-tumor genetic interaction with Ku80. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2463-6 pubmed
    b>Ku80 is often referred to as a tumor suppressor since it maintains the genome by repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway...
  43. Nussenzweig A, Sokol K, Burgman P, Li L, Li G. Hypersensitivity of Ku80-deficient cell lines and mice to DNA damage: the effects of ionizing radiation on growth, survival, and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13588-93 pubmed
    We recently have shown that mice deficient for the 86-kDa component (Ku80) of the DNA-dependent protein kinase exhibit growth retardation and a profound deficiency in V(D)J (variable, diversity, and joining) recombination...
  44. Wachsberger P, Li W, Guo M, Chen D, Cheong N, Ling C, et al. Rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks in Ku80-deficient mouse fibroblasts. Radiat Res. 1999;151:398-407 pubmed
    The role of Ku80 in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) was examined in fibroblasts derived from a Ku80 knockout mouse model described by Nussenzweig et al. (Nature 382, 551-555, 1996)...
  45. Hamer G, Roepers Gajadien H, van Duyn Goedhart A, Gademan I, Kal H, van Buul P, et al. Function of DNA-protein kinase catalytic subunit during the early meiotic prophase without Ku70 and Ku86. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:717-21 pubmed
    ..of the double-stranded DNA break (DSB) repair complex DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), including Ku70, Ku86, and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), were found in the radiosensitive spermatogonia...
  46. Malyarchuk S, Castore R, Harrison L. DNA repair of clustered lesions in mammalian cells: involvement of non-homologous end-joining. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:4872-82 pubmed publisher
    ..5 or 12 bps apart in a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid caused a decrease in luciferase activity in wild-type, Ku80 or DNA-PKcs-deficient cells, indicating the generation of DSBs...
  47. Didier N, Hourde C, Amthor H, Marazzi G, Sassoon D. Loss of a single allele for Ku80 leads to progenitor dysfunction and accelerated aging in skeletal muscle. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:910-23 pubmed publisher
    Muscle wasting is a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. Ku80 is required for DNA double strand repair and is implicated in telomere maintenance. Complete loss-of-function leads to reduced post-natal growth and severe progeria in mice...
  48. Sfeir A, de Lange T. Removal of shelterin reveals the telomere end-protection problem. Science. 2012;336:593-7 pubmed publisher
  49. Terskikh A, Easterday M, Li L, Hood L, Kornblum H, Geschwind D, et al. From hematopoiesis to neuropoiesis: evidence of overlapping genetic programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7934-9 pubmed
  50. Mills K, Ferguson D, Alt F. The role of DNA breaks in genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Immunol Rev. 2003;194:77-95 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the current thinking about DSBs and DSBR in chromosomal instability and tumorigenesis, and we highlight the implications for understanding the karyotypic features associated with human tumors. ..
  51. Koike M, Koike A, Sugasawa J, Toyooka T, Ibuki Y. Dynamics of Ku80 in living hamster cells with DNA double-strand breaks induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:1405-12 pubmed
    ..A variety of DNA repair factors, e.g., Ku80, might be a key contributor to chemoresistance to anticancer agents...
  52. Karanjawala Z, Hinton D, Oh E, Hsieh C, Lieber M. Developmental retinal apoptosis in Ku86-/- mice. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:1429-34 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that cell death is also present in the developing retina of E14.5 Ku86-deficient mouse embryos, suggesting that the increase in cell death in the retina is associated with chromosome ..
  53. Franco S, Canela A, Klatt P, Blasco M. Effectors of mammalian telomere dysfunction: a comparative transcriptome analysis using mouse models. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1613-26 pubmed
    ..Terc-/- mice (G3 Terc-/-) or loss of telomere capping due to abrogation of the DNA repair/telomere binding protein Ku86 (Ku86-/- mice) results in telomere dysfunction and organismal premature aging...