Gene Symbol: Xpa
Description: xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A
Alias: AI573865, Xpac, DNA repair protein complementing XP-A cells homolog, xeroderma pigmentosum group A-complementing protein homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Xpa

Top Publications

  1. Murai M, Enokido Y, Inamura N, Yoshino M, Nakatsu Y, van der Horst G, et al. Early postnatal ataxia and abnormal cerebellar development in mice lacking Xeroderma pigmentosum Group A and Cockayne syndrome Group B DNA repair genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13379-84 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice lacking both the XPA (XP-group A) and CSB (CS-group B) genes in contrast to the single mutants display severe growth retardation, ataxia,..
  2. de Boer J, Andressoo J, de Wit J, Huijmans J, Beems R, van Steeg H, et al. Premature aging in mice deficient in DNA repair and transcription. Science. 2002;296:1276-9 pubmed
    ..TTD mice carrying an additional mutation in XPA, which enhances the DNA repair defect, showed a greatly accelerated aging phenotype, which correlated with an ..
  3. Yoshino M, Nakatsu Y, te Riele H, Hirota S, Kitamura Y, Tanaka K. Additive roles of XPA and MSH2 genes in UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:935-40 pubmed
    We have made xeroderma pigmentosum group A gene (XPA)-knockout mice (XPA(-/-) mice). The XPA(-/-) mice had no detectable activity for nucleotide excision repair (NER) and showed a high incidence of UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis...
  4. Dollé M, Busuttil R, Garcia A, Wijnhoven S, van Drunen E, Niedernhofer L, et al. Increased genomic instability is not a prerequisite for shortened lifespan in DNA repair deficient mice. Mutat Res. 2006;596:22-35 pubmed
    ..appearance of symptoms of aging as a consequence of NER deficiency, we crossed four different mouse mutants, Xpa-/-, Ercc6(Csb)-/-, Ercc2(Xpd)m/m and Ercc1-/m, with mice harboring lacZ-reporter genes to assess mutant frequencies ..
  5. Jantschitsch C, Majewski S, Maeda A, Schwarz T, Schwarz A. Infrared radiation confers resistance to UV-induced apoptosis via reduction of DNA damage and upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As, however, IR reduces UV-induced DNA damage, the balance between these two effects may be important. Thus, in vivo carcinogenesis studies are required to define the role of IR and its interaction with UV in photocarcinogenesis. ..
  6. Andressoo J, Weeda G, de Wit J, Mitchell J, Beems R, van Steeg H, et al. An Xpb mouse model for combined xeroderma pigmentosum and cockayne syndrome reveals progeroid features upon further attenuation of DNA repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1276-90 pubmed publisher
    ..to show overt CS features unless the DNA repair capacity is further challenged by crossings to the NER-deficient Xpa background...
  7. Nakane H, Takeuchi S, Yuba S, Saijo M, Nakatsu Y, Murai H, et al. High incidence of ultraviolet-B-or chemical-carcinogen-induced skin tumours in mice lacking the xeroderma pigmentosum group A gene. Nature. 1995;377:165-8 pubmed
    ..We established XPA (group-A XP) gene-deficient mice by gene targeting of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells...
  8. Melis J, Wijnhoven S, Beems R, Roodbergen M, van den Berg J, Moon H, et al. Mouse models for xeroderma pigmentosum group A and group C show divergent cancer phenotypes. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..damage is nucleotide excision repair, in which, among others, the Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) and group A (XPA) proteins are involved...
  9. de Waard H, de Wit J, Gorgels T, van den Aardweg G, Andressoo J, Vermeij M, et al. Cell type-specific hypersensitivity to oxidative damage in CSB and XPA mice. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:13-25 pubmed
    ..of genetic background and directly related to the CSB defect and is not observed in totally NER-deficient XPA MEFs...

More Information


  1. Prasher J, Lalai A, Heijmans Antonissen C, Ploemacher R, Hoeijmakers J, Touw I, et al. Reduced hematopoietic reserves in DNA interstrand crosslink repair-deficient Ercc1-/- mice. EMBO J. 2005;24:861-71 pubmed
    ..These features were not seen in nucleotide excision repair-deficient Xpa-/- mice, but are characteristic of Fanconi anemia, a human cancer syndrome caused by defects in interstrand ..
  2. Shiomi N, Mori M, Kito S, Harada Y, Tanaka K, Shiomi T. Severe growth retardation and short life span of double-mutant mice lacking Xpa and exon 15 of Xpg. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:351-7 pubmed
    ..without totally eliminating the NER activity of Xpg do not result in CS, we made a series of Xpg mutant mice with Xpa-null mutant allele and found that mice with the non-CS-causing deletion mutation (XpgDeltaex15) exhibited the CS ..
  3. van Oosten M, Rebel H, Friedberg E, van Steeg H, van der Horst G, van Kranen H, et al. Differential role of transcription-coupled repair in UVB-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis in mouse epidermis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:11268-73 pubmed
    ..epidermis of UVB-exposed CS group B (Csb(-/-)) mice (no TCR), XP group C (Xpc(-/-)) mice (no GGR), and XP group A (Xpa(-/-)) mice (no TCR and no GGR)...
  4. de Vries A, van Oostrom C, Hofhuis F, Dortant P, Berg R, de Gruijl F, et al. Increased susceptibility to ultraviolet-B and carcinogens of mice lacking the DNA excision repair gene XPA. Nature. 1995;377:169-73 pubmed
    Xeroderma pigmentosum patients with a defect in the nucleotide-excision repair gene XPA are characterized by, for example, a > 1,000-fold higher risk of developing sunlight-induced skin cancer...
  5. de Boer J, van Steeg H, Berg R, Garssen J, de Wit J, van Oostrum C, et al. Mouse model for the DNA repair/basal transcription disorder trichothiodystrophy reveals cancer predisposition. Cancer Res. 1999;59:3489-94 pubmed
    ..7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis, albeit not as pronounced as the totally NER-deficient XPA mice...
  6. van der Pluijm I, Garinis G, Brandt R, Gorgels T, Wijnhoven S, Diderich K, et al. Impaired genome maintenance suppresses the growth hormone--insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in mice with Cockayne syndrome. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e2 pubmed
    ..Here, complete inactivation of NER in Csb(m/m)/Xpa(-/-) mutants causes a phenotype that reliably mimics the human progeroid CS syndrome...
  7. Kölgen W, van Steeg H, van der Horst G, Hoeijmakers J, van Vloten W, de Gruijl F, et al. Association of transcription-coupled repair but not global genome repair with ultraviolet-B-induced Langerhans cell depletion and local immunosuppression. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:751-6 pubmed
    ..CSB mice, defective in transcription-coupled repair, were far more sensitive for immunosuppression as were XPA mice, defective in both transcription-coupled repair and global genome repair...
  8. Wijnhoven S, Hoogervorst E, de Waard H, van der Horst G, van Steeg H. Tissue specific mutagenic and carcinogenic responses in NER defective mouse models. Mutat Res. 2007;614:77-94 pubmed
    ..GG-NER defects in mice predispose to cancer, both spontaneous as well as UV-induced. As such these models (Xpa, Xpc and Xpe) recapitulate the human xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) syndrome...
  9. Nakane H, Hirota S, Brooks P, Nakabeppu Y, Nakatsu Y, Nishimune Y, et al. Impaired spermatogenesis and elevated spontaneous tumorigenesis in xeroderma pigmentosum group A gene (Xpa)-deficient mice. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:1938-50 pubmed publisher
    We have reported that xeroderma pigmentosum group A (Xpa) gene-knockout mice [Xpa (-/-) mice] are deficient in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and highly sensitive to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis...
  10. Andressoo J, Mitchell J, de Wit J, Hoogstraten D, Volker M, Toussaint W, et al. An Xpd mouse model for the combined xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne syndrome exhibiting both cancer predisposition and segmental progeria. Cancer Cell. 2006;10:121-32 pubmed
    ..Like CS fibroblasts, XPCS and TTD fibroblasts from human and mouse showed evidence of defective repair of oxidative DNA lesions that may underlie these segmental progeroid symptoms. ..
  11. Niedernhofer L, Odijk H, Budzowska M, van Drunen E, Maas A, Theil A, et al. The structure-specific endonuclease Ercc1-Xpf is required to resolve DNA interstrand cross-link-induced double-strand breaks. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5776-87 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data support a role for Ercc1-Xpf in processing ICL-induced DSBs so that these cytotoxic intermediates can be repaired by homologous recombination. ..
  12. Tanaka K, Satokata I, Ogita Z, Uchida T, Okada Y. Molecular cloning of a mouse DNA repair gene that complements the defect of group-A xeroderma pigmentosum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:5512-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the cloned DNA repair gene is specific for group-A XP and may be the mouse homologue of the group-A XP human gene. ..
  13. Nahari D, McDaniel L, Task L, Daniel R, Velasco Miguel S, Friedberg E. Mutations in the Trp53 gene of UV-irradiated Xpc mutant mice suggest a novel Xpc-dependent DNA repair process. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:379-86 pubmed
    ..Here we show that this mutation is not a hot spot in Xpa or Csa mutant mice...
  14. Strotmann J, Hoppe R, Conzelmann S, Feinstein P, Mombaerts P, Breer H. Small subfamily of olfactory receptor genes: structural features, expression pattern and genomic organization. Gene. 1999;236:281-91 pubmed
    ..These data suggest the involvement of locus-dependent mechanisms for the spatial control of OR gene expression. ..
  15. Wijnhoven S, van Steeg H. Transgenic and knockout mice for DNA repair functions in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Toxicology. 2003;193:171-87 pubmed
    ..One attractive candidate mouse model, having a presumptive broad detective range, is the Xpa/p53 mutant mouse model, which will be discussed in more detail.
  16. de Vries A, Gorgels T, Berg R, Jansen G, van Steeg H. Ultraviolet-B induced hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinomas in the cornea of XPA-deficient mice. Exp Eye Res. 1998;67:53-9 pubmed
    ..There are seven complementation groups in XP (XP-A to XP-G). Recently, we have generated XPA-deficient mice (group-A XP) by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells...
  17. John K, Pratt M, Beland F, Churchwell M, McMullen G, Olivero O, et al. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) DNA adduct formation in DNA repair-deficient p53 haploinsufficient [Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-)] and wild-type mice fed BP and BP plus chlorophyllin for 28 days. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:2236-41 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA damage (DNA adduct formation) after feeding benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to wild-type (WT) and cancer-susceptible Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice deficient in nucleotide excision repair and haploinsufficient for the tumor suppressor p53...
  18. Berg R, de Vries A, van Steeg H, de Gruijl F. Relative susceptibilities of XPA knockout mice and their heterozygous and wild-type littermates to UVB-induced skin cancer. Cancer Res. 1997;57:581-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the XPA knockout trait has been crossed into hairless mice, and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin have been induced by ..
  19. Layher S, Cleaver J. Quantification of XPA gene expression levels in human and mouse cell lines by competitive RT-PCR. Mutat Res. 1997;383:9-19 pubmed
    Expression of the mammalian photoproduct-specific DNA-binding protein XPA has been quantified by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, a method that provides relative numbers of mRNA molecules per cell...
  20. Ugalde A, Ramsay A, de la Rosa J, Varela I, Mariño G, Cadinanos J, et al. Aging and chronic DNA damage response activate a regulatory pathway involving miR-29 and p53. EMBO J. 2011;30:2219-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose the existence of a novel regulatory circuitry involving miR-29, Ppm1d and p53, which is activated in aging and in response to DNA damage. ..
  21. van Kesteren P, Beems R, Luijten M, Robinson J, de Vries A, van Steeg H. DNA repair-deficient Xpa/p53 knockout mice are sensitive to the non-genotoxic carcinogen cyclosporine A: escape of initiated cells from immunosurveillance?. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:538-43 pubmed publisher
    The DNA repair-deficient Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) (Xpa/p53) mouse is a potent model for carcinogenicity testing, representing increased sensitivity toward genotoxic but surprisingly also toward true human non-genotoxic carcinogens...
  22. Klein J, Beems R, Zwart P, Hamzink M, Zomer G, van Steeg H, et al. Intestinal toxicity and carcinogenic potential of the food mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in DNA repair deficient XPA-/- mice. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:619-26 pubmed
    ..of the food mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were studied in DNA repair deficient XPA(-/-) mice...
  23. Wijnhoven S, Kool H, Mullenders L, van Zeeland A, Friedberg E, van der Horst G, et al. Age-dependent spontaneous mutagenesis in Xpc mice defective in nucleotide excision repair. Oncogene. 2000;19:5034-7 pubmed
    ..Hprt mutant frequencies in Xpa-/- and Csb-/- mice that both have a defect in this NER subpathway, remained low during ageing...
  24. Ng J, Vermeulen W, van der Horst G, Bergink S, Sugasawa K, Vrieling H, et al. A novel regulation mechanism of DNA repair by damage-induced and RAD23-dependent stabilization of xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1630-45 pubmed
    ..These findings resolve the primary function of RAD23 in repair and reveal a novel DNA-damage-dependent regulation mechanism of DNA repair in eukaryotes, which may be part of a more global damage-response circuitry. ..
  25. Miyauchi Hashimoto H, Kuwamoto K, Urade Y, Tanaka K, Horio T. Carcinogen-induced inflammation and immunosuppression are enhanced in xeroderma pigmentosum group A model mice associated with hyperproduction of prostaglandin E2. J Immunol. 2001;166:5782-91 pubmed
    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) gene-deficient mice easily developed skin cancers by the application of topical chemical carcinogens as well as by UV irradiation...
  26. de Vries A, van Steeg H. Xpa knockout mice. Semin Cancer Biol. 1996;7:229-40 pubmed
    The xeroderma pigmentosum group A correcting (XPA) gene encodes a DNA binding zinc-finger protein that recognizes DNA damage. As such the XPA protein participates in the initial step of the process of nucleotide excision repair...
  27. Melis J, Hoogervorst E, van Oostrom C, Zwart E, Breit T, Pennings J, et al. Genotoxic exposure: novel cause of selection for a functional ?N-p53 isoform. Oncogene. 2011;30:1764-72 pubmed publisher
  28. Pallares P, Perez Solana M, Torres Rovira L, Gonzalez Bulnes A. Phenotypic characterization by high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging evidences differential effects of embryo genotype on intrauterine growth retardation in NOS3-deficient mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, Nos3(-/-) showed a reduction of 29% in the maximum thickness of the placenta, which may be related to the appearance of IUGR due to compromised nutritional delivery to the fetus. ..
  29. Kisby G, Lesselroth H, Olivas A, Samson L, Gold B, Tanaka K, et al. Role of nucleotide- and base-excision repair in genotoxin-induced neuronal cell death. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:617-27 pubmed
    ..the role of the BER enzyme 3-alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) and the NER protein xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) in protecting cerebellar neurons and astrocytes from chloroacetaldehyde (CAA) or the alkylating agent 3-..
  30. Boonstra A, van Oudenaren A, Baert M, van Steeg H, Leenen P, van der Horst G, et al. Differential ultraviolet-B-induced immunomodulation in XPA, XPC, and CSB DNA repair-deficient mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117:141-6 pubmed
    ..In this study the immunologic consequences of specific nucleotide excision repair defects in three mouse models, XPA, XPC, and CSB mutant mice, were investigated...
  31. van Schanke A, van Venrooij G, Jongsma M, Banus H, Mullenders L, van Kranen H, et al. Induction of nevi and skin tumors in Ink4a/Arf Xpa knockout mice by neonatal, intermittent, or chronic UVB exposures. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2608-15 pubmed
    ..To ascertain the effect of these risk factors, pigmented hairless Ink4a/Arf-, Xpa- knockout mice were subjected to various combinations of neonatal [7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or UVB ..
  32. Yao Y, Harrison K, Al Hassani M, Murphy R, Rezania S, Konger R, et al. Platelet-activating factor receptor agonists mediate xeroderma pigmentosum A photosensitivity. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..role in the photosensitivity associated with the deficiency of the DNA repair protein xeroderma pigmentosum type A (XPA). It should be noted that XPA-deficient cells are known to have decreased antioxidant defenses...
  33. Ide F, Iida N, Nakatsuru Y, Oda H, Tanaka K, Ishikawa T. Mice deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA have elevated sensitivity to benzo[a]pyrene induction of lung tumors. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:1263-5 pubmed
    This study is focused on chemical induction of lung tumors in xeroderma pigmentosum group A gene (XPA)-deficient mice to clarify the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in internal organs...
  34. Horiki S, Miyauchi Hashimoto H, Tanaka K, Nikaido O, Horio T. Protective effects of sunscreening agents on photocarcinogenesis, photoaging, and DNA damage in XPA gene knockout mice. Arch Dermatol Res. 2000;292:511-8 pubmed
    ..effects of commercial sunscreening agents against UVB-induced photoresponses in group A xeroderma pigmentosum (XPA) model mice...
  35. Stout G, Oosten M, Acherrat F, Wit J, Vermeij W, Mullenders L, et al. Selective DNA damage responses in murine Xpa-/-, Xpc-/- and Csb-/- keratinocyte cultures. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1337-44 pubmed
    ..After a dose of UV-B that did not affect wild-type keratinocytes, Xpa(-/-) keratinocytes (complete NER deficiency) showed a rapid depletion of DNA replicating S-phase cells, a transient ..
  36. van de Ven M, Andressoo J, Holcomb V, von Lindern M, Jong W, De Zeeuw C, et al. Adaptive stress response in segmental progeria resembles long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction in mice. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e192 pubmed
    ..also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPD(G602D/R722W)/XPA(-/-)) that survived weaning with high penetrance...
  37. Sreevidya C, Fukunaga A, Khaskhely N, Masaki T, Ono R, Nishigori C, et al. Agents that reverse UV-Induced immune suppression and photocarcinogenesis affect DNA repair. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PAF and 5-HT receptor antagonists accelerate DNA repair caused by UV radiation, which prevents immune suppression and interferes with photocarcinogenesis...
  38. de Vries A, Berg R, Wijnhoven S, Westerman A, Wester P, van Kreijl C, et al. XPA-deficiency in hairless mice causes a shift in skin tumor types and mutational target genes after exposure to low doses of U.V.B. Oncogene. 1998;16:2205-12 pubmed
    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients with a defect in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA, develop tumors with a high frequency on sun-exposed areas of the skin...
  39. Hajkova P, Jeffries S, Lee C, Miller N, Jackson S, Surani M. Genome-wide reprogramming in the mouse germ line entails the base excision repair pathway. Science. 2010;329:78-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that DNA repair through BER represents a core component of genome-wide DNA demethylation in vivo and provides a mechanistic link to the extensive chromatin remodeling in developing PGCs. ..
  40. Kamenisch Y, Fousteri M, Knoch J, von Thaler A, Fehrenbacher B, Kato H, et al. Proteins of nucleotide and base excision repair pathways interact in mitochondria to protect from loss of subcutaneous fat, a hallmark of aging. J Exp Med. 2010;207:379-90 pubmed publisher
  41. Melis J, Speksnijder E, Kuiper R, Salvatori D, Schaap M, Maas S, et al. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc(-/-)p53(+/-) mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;266:289-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed the Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay...
  42. Van Zeeland A, Vreeswijk M, de Gruijl F, van Kranen H, Vrieling H, Mullenders L. Transcription-coupled repair: impact on UV-induced mutagenesis in cultured rodent cells and mouse skin tumors. Mutat Res. 2005;577:170-8 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the UVB-induced cancer susceptibility of Csb(-/-) mice is related to the absence of TCR as well as to a lack of a compensating global genome repair system for CPDs in mice. ..
  43. Tanaka K, Miura N, Satokata I, Miyamoto I, Yoshida M, Satoh Y, et al. Analysis of a human DNA excision repair gene involved in group A xeroderma pigmentosum and containing a zinc-finger domain. Nature. 1990;348:73-6 pubmed
    ..We have cloned the mouse DNA repair gene that complements the defect of group A, the XPAC gene. Here we report molecular cloning of human and mouse XPAC complementary DNAs...
  44. Schrader C, Guikema J, Linehan E, Selsing E, Stavnezer J. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent DNA breaks in class switch recombination occur during G1 phase of the cell cycle and depend upon mismatch repair. J Immunol. 2007;179:6064-71 pubmed
    ..We also show that nucleotide excision repair does not contribute to class switching. Our data support the hypothesis that MMR is required to convert SSBs into DSBs when SSBs on opposite strands are too distal to form DSBs spontaneously. ..
  45. van Kesteren P, Zwart P, Pennings J, Gottschalk W, Kleinjans J, van Delft J, et al. Deregulation of cancer-related pathways in primary hepatocytes derived from DNA repair-deficient Xpa-/-p53+/- mice upon exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123:123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..An attractive alternative is the DNA repair-deficient Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mouse model that is sensitive to both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens...
  46. Kaushik Tiwari M, Rogers F. XPD-dependent activation of apoptosis in response to triplex-induced DNA damage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:8979-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this mechanism may play an active role in minimizing genomic instability induced by naturally occurring noncanonical structures, perhaps protecting against cancer initiation. ..
  47. Jonker M, Bruning O, van Iterson M, Schaap M, van der Hoeven T, Vrieling H, et al. Finding transcriptomics biomarkers for in vivo identification of (non-)genotoxic carcinogens using wild-type and Xpa/p53 mutant mouse models. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Both wild-type and DNA repair-deficient Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) (Xpa/p53) mice were exposed up to 14 days to compounds of three distinct classes: genotoxic ..
  48. Lin P, Ruddle F. Murine DNA repair gene located on chromosome 4. Nature. 1981;289:191-4 pubmed
    ..This study presents the first example of a direct quantitative comparison of specific gene activity and chromosomal content on a cellular basis. ..
  49. Falany C, Fortinberry H, Leiter E, Barnes S. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of mouse liver bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1139-48 pubmed
    ..The identification of the types of amino acid conjugates of bile acids present in mouse bile had not been previously reported. These results indicate that a taurine-specific form of BAT has been cloned and expressed from mouse liver. ..
  50. van Oostrom C, Boeve M, van Den Berg J, de Vries A, Dollé M, Beems R, et al. Effect of heterozygous loss of p53 on benzo[a]pyrene-induced mutations and tumors in DNA repair-deficient XPA mice. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1999;34:124-30 pubmed
    b>XPA-deficient mice have a complete deficiency in nucleotide excision repair, and as such they display a cancer predisposition after exposure to several carcinogens...
  51. Kuwamoto K, Miyauchi Hashimoto H, Tanaka K, Eguchi N, Inui T, Urade Y, et al. Possible involvement of enhanced prostaglandin E2 production in the photosensitivity in xeroderma pigmentosum group A model mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;114:241-6 pubmed
    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) gene-deficient mice cannot repair UV-induced DNA damage and easily develop skin cancers by UV irradiation...
  52. Recio L, Everitt J. Use of genetically modified mouse models for evaluation of carcinogenic risk: considerations for the laboratory animal scientist. Comp Med. 2001;51:399-405 pubmed
    ..In this overview we will review the GM mouse models that have been proposed as bioassay alternatives and present some of the key laboratory animal science challenges that need to be considered when using these unique animals. ..
  53. Rebel H, van Steeg H, Beems R, Schouten R, de Gruijl F, Terleth C. Suppression of UV carcinogenesis by difluoromethylornithine in nucleotide excision repair-deficient Xpa knockout mice. Cancer Res. 2002;62:1338-42 pubmed
    ..UV-induced skin tumors at an early age; the most severe phenotype is found in patients of complementation group A (XPA). However, in a subset of these XPA patients no skin tumors appear, even at advanced age...