Xist

Summary

Gene Symbol: Xist
Description: inactive X specific transcripts
Alias: A430022B11, AI314753
Species: mouse
Products:     Xist

Top Publications

  1. Herzing L, Romer J, Horn J, Ashworth A. Xist has properties of the X-chromosome inactivation centre. Nature. 1997;386:272-5 pubmed
    ..The Xic has been localized to a 450-kilobase region of the mouse X chromosome. The Xist gene also maps to this region and is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome...
  2. Beard C, Li E, Jaenisch R. Loss of methylation activates Xist in somatic but not in embryonic cells. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2325-34 pubmed
    The mouse Xist gene, which is expressed only from the inactive X chromosome, is thought to play a role in the initiation of X inactivation...
  3. Panning B, Jaenisch R. DNA hypomethylation can activate Xist expression and silence X-linked genes. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1991-2002 pubmed
    b>Xist and other X-linked gene expression was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cells of wild type and DNA methyltranferase (Dnmt) mutant embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells to determine whether demethylation-induced Xist ..
  4. Mise N, Goto Y, Nakajima N, Takagi N. Molecular cloning of antisense transcripts of the mouse Xist gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;258:537-41 pubmed
    Prior to X-inactivation, Xist is transcribed in unstable form. The initiation of X-inactivation is associated with the appearance of stable Xist transcripts which coat the X chromosome to be inactivated...
  5. Agrelo R, Souabni A, Novatchkova M, Haslinger C, Leeb M, Komnenovic V, et al. SATB1 defines the developmental context for gene silencing by Xist in lymphoma and embryonic cells. Dev Cell. 2009;16:507-16 pubmed publisher
    The noncoding Xist RNA triggers silencing of one of the two female X chromosomes during X inactivation in mammals...
  6. Sado T, Hoki Y, Sasaki H. Tsix silences Xist through modification of chromatin structure. Dev Cell. 2005;9:159-65 pubmed
    X inactivation is controlled by Xist and its antisense gene, Tsix, neither of which encodes a protein...
  7. Zhao J, Sun B, Erwin J, Song J, Lee J. Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X chromosome. Science. 2008;322:750-6 pubmed publisher
    ..X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is initiated by expression of Xist, a 17-kb noncoding RNA (ncRNA) that accumulates on the X in cis...
  8. Ogawa Y, Lee J. Xite, X-inactivation intergenic transcription elements that regulate the probability of choice. Mol Cell. 2003;11:731-43 pubmed
    ..During XCI, one X is randomly silenced by Xist. X chromosome choice is determined by asymmetric expression of Tsix whose antisense action represses Xist...
  9. Nesterova T, Johnston C, Appanah R, Newall A, Godwin J, Alexiou M, et al. Skewing X chromosome choice by modulating sense transcription across the Xist locus. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2177-90 pubmed
    The X-inactive-specific transcript (Xist) locus is a cis-acting switch that regulates X chromosome inactivation in mammals...
  10. Kay G, Penny G, Patel D, Ashworth A, Brockdorff N, Rastan S. Expression of Xist during mouse development suggests a role in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation. Cell. 1993;72:171-82 pubmed
    The mouse Xist gene maps to the X inactivation center (Xic) region and is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome. It is thus a candidate gene for the Xic...

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. Herzing L, Romer J, Horn J, Ashworth A. Xist has properties of the X-chromosome inactivation centre. Nature. 1997;386:272-5 pubmed
    ..The Xic has been localized to a 450-kilobase region of the mouse X chromosome. The Xist gene also maps to this region and is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome...
  2. Beard C, Li E, Jaenisch R. Loss of methylation activates Xist in somatic but not in embryonic cells. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2325-34 pubmed
    The mouse Xist gene, which is expressed only from the inactive X chromosome, is thought to play a role in the initiation of X inactivation...
  3. Panning B, Jaenisch R. DNA hypomethylation can activate Xist expression and silence X-linked genes. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1991-2002 pubmed
    b>Xist and other X-linked gene expression was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cells of wild type and DNA methyltranferase (Dnmt) mutant embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells to determine whether demethylation-induced Xist ..
  4. Mise N, Goto Y, Nakajima N, Takagi N. Molecular cloning of antisense transcripts of the mouse Xist gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;258:537-41 pubmed
    Prior to X-inactivation, Xist is transcribed in unstable form. The initiation of X-inactivation is associated with the appearance of stable Xist transcripts which coat the X chromosome to be inactivated...
  5. Agrelo R, Souabni A, Novatchkova M, Haslinger C, Leeb M, Komnenovic V, et al. SATB1 defines the developmental context for gene silencing by Xist in lymphoma and embryonic cells. Dev Cell. 2009;16:507-16 pubmed publisher
    The noncoding Xist RNA triggers silencing of one of the two female X chromosomes during X inactivation in mammals...
  6. Sado T, Hoki Y, Sasaki H. Tsix silences Xist through modification of chromatin structure. Dev Cell. 2005;9:159-65 pubmed
    X inactivation is controlled by Xist and its antisense gene, Tsix, neither of which encodes a protein...
  7. Zhao J, Sun B, Erwin J, Song J, Lee J. Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X chromosome. Science. 2008;322:750-6 pubmed publisher
    ..X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is initiated by expression of Xist, a 17-kb noncoding RNA (ncRNA) that accumulates on the X in cis...
  8. Ogawa Y, Lee J. Xite, X-inactivation intergenic transcription elements that regulate the probability of choice. Mol Cell. 2003;11:731-43 pubmed
    ..During XCI, one X is randomly silenced by Xist. X chromosome choice is determined by asymmetric expression of Tsix whose antisense action represses Xist...
  9. Nesterova T, Johnston C, Appanah R, Newall A, Godwin J, Alexiou M, et al. Skewing X chromosome choice by modulating sense transcription across the Xist locus. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2177-90 pubmed
    The X-inactive-specific transcript (Xist) locus is a cis-acting switch that regulates X chromosome inactivation in mammals...
  10. Kay G, Penny G, Patel D, Ashworth A, Brockdorff N, Rastan S. Expression of Xist during mouse development suggests a role in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation. Cell. 1993;72:171-82 pubmed
    The mouse Xist gene maps to the X inactivation center (Xic) region and is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome. It is thus a candidate gene for the Xic...
  11. Debrand E, Chureau C, Arnaud D, Avner P, Heard E. Functional analysis of the DXPas34 locus, a 3' regulator of Xist expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:8513-25 pubmed
    ..The Xist gene maps to the Xic region and is essential for the initiation of X inactivation in cis...
  12. Okamoto I, Otte A, Allis C, Reinberg D, Heard E. Epigenetic dynamics of imprinted X inactivation during early mouse development. Science. 2004;303:644-9 pubmed
    ..This reveals the remarkable plasticity of the X-inactivation process during preimplantation development and underlines the importance of the ICM in global reprogramming of epigenetic marks in the early embryo...
  13. Chaumeil J, Le Baccon P, Wutz A, Heard E. A novel role for Xist RNA in the formation of a repressive nuclear compartment into which genes are recruited when silenced. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2223-37 pubmed
    ..Although X-chromosome coating by Xist RNA is essential for the initiation of X inactivation, little is known about how this signal is transformed into ..
  14. Chiba H, Hirasawa R, Kaneda M, Amakawa Y, Li E, Sado T, et al. De novo DNA methylation independent establishment of maternal imprint on X chromosome in mouse oocytes. Genesis. 2008;46:768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the allelic expression patterns of X-linked genes including Xist and Tsix were unchanged in preimplantation embryos and also in the trophoblast...
  15. Jeppesen P, Turner B. The inactive X chromosome in female mammals is distinguished by a lack of histone H4 acetylation, a cytogenetic marker for gene expression. Cell. 1993;74:281-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that H4 hyperacetylation defines regions of the genome containing potentially transcriptionally active chromatin, while virtual absence of H4 acetylation defines both constitutive and facultative heterochromatin. ..
  16. Buzin C, Mann J, Singer Sam J. Quantitative RT-PCR assays show Xist RNA levels are low in mouse female adult tissue, embryos and embryoid bodies. Development. 1994;120:3529-36 pubmed
    We have investigated expression of the Xist gene in mouse female adult kidney, embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells undergoing in vitro differentiation as embryoid bodies...
  17. Kalantry S, Magnuson T. The Polycomb group protein EED is dispensable for the initiation of random X-chromosome inactivation. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e66 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the lineage- and differentiation state-specific requirements for PcGs in XCI and argue against PcG function in the formation of the facultative heterochromatin of the inactive X-chromosome. ..
  18. Borsani G, Tonlorenzi R, Simmler M, Dandolo L, Arnaud D, Capra V, et al. Characterization of a murine gene expressed from the inactive X chromosome. Nature. 1991;351:325-9 pubmed
    ..We have recently identified a human gene (XIST) exclusively expressed from the inactive X chromosome...
  19. Barakat T, Gunhanlar N, Pardo C, Achame E, Ghazvini M, Boers R, et al. RNF12 activates Xist and is essential for X chromosome inactivation. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002001 pubmed publisher
    ..XCI) is thought to be regulated by X-encoded activators and autosomally encoded suppressors controlling Xist. Spreading of Xist RNA leads to silencing of the X chromosome in cis...
  20. Sun S, Del Rosario B, Szanto A, Ogawa Y, Jeon Y, Lee J. Jpx RNA activates Xist by evicting CTCF. Cell. 2013;153:1537-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The noncoding Xist RNA is expressed and initiates XCI only when more than one X chromosome is present...
  21. Simon M, Pinter S, Fang R, Sarma K, Rutenberg Schoenberg M, Bowman S, et al. High-resolution Xist binding maps reveal two-step spreading during X-chromosome inactivation. Nature. 2013;504:465-469 pubmed publisher
    The Xist long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is essential for X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), the process by which mammals compensate for unequal numbers of sex chromosomes...
  22. Panning B, Dausman J, Jaenisch R. X chromosome inactivation is mediated by Xist RNA stabilization. Cell. 1997;90:907-16 pubmed
    Low level Xist expression can be detected from both active X chromosomes (Xa) in female embryonic stem cells prior to X inactivation. After differentiation, Xist is expressed at high levels only from the inactive X chromosome (Xi)...
  23. Marahrens Y, Loring J, Jaenisch R. Role of the Xist gene in X chromosome choosing. Cell. 1998;92:657-64 pubmed
    ..It has been postulated that Xist is crucial for heterochromatinization and thus functions downstream of the choice mechanism...
  24. Pugacheva E, Tiwari V, Abdullaev Z, Vostrov A, Flanagan P, Quitschke W, et al. Familial cases of point mutations in the XIST promoter reveal a correlation between CTCF binding and pre-emptive choices of X chromosome inactivation. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:953-65 pubmed
    ..the future inactive X chromosome in somatic cells of female mammals involve the regulated expression of the XIST gene...
  25. Hoki Y, Kimura N, Kanbayashi M, Amakawa Y, Ohhata T, Sasaki H, et al. A proximal conserved repeat in the Xist gene is essential as a genomic element for X-inactivation in mouse. Development. 2009;136:139-46 pubmed publisher
    X-inactivation in female mammals is triggered by the association of non-coding Xist RNA in cis with the X chromosome...
  26. Williams L, Kalantry S, Starmer J, Magnuson T. Transcription precedes loss of Xist coating and depletion of H3K27me3 during X-chromosome reprogramming in the mouse inner cell mass. Development. 2011;138:2049-57 pubmed publisher
    Repression of Xist RNA expression is considered a prerequisite to reversal of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in the mouse inner cell mass (ICM), and reactivation of X-linked genes is thought to follow loss of Xist RNA coating and ..
  27. Sado T, Tada T, Takagi N. Mosaic methylation of Xist gene before chromosome inactivation in undifferentiated female mouse embryonic stem and embryonic germ cells. Dev Dyn. 1996;205:421-34 pubmed
    ..CpG sites in the 5' region of the Xist gene were partially methylated in female ES and EG and parthenogenetic ES cell lines as in the female somatic cell ..
  28. Namekawa S, Payer B, Huynh K, Jaenisch R, Lee J. Two-step imprinted X inactivation: repeat versus genic silencing in the mouse. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3187-205 pubmed publisher
    ..X(P) repetitive element silencing occurs by the two-cell stage, does not require Xist, and occurs several divisions prior to genic silencing...
  29. Lee J, Strauss W, Dausman J, Jaenisch R. A 450 kb transgene displays properties of the mammalian X-inactivation center. Cell. 1996;86:83-94 pubmed
    ..It requires the X-inactivation center (Xic) and Xist in cis...
  30. Splinter E, de Wit E, Nora E, Klous P, van de Werken H, Zhu Y, et al. The inactive X chromosome adopts a unique three-dimensional conformation that is dependent on Xist RNA. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1371-83 pubmed publisher
    ..However, escapees, among which is Xist, are engaged in long-range contacts with each other, enabling identification of novel escapees...
  31. Nesterova T, Barton S, Surani M, Brockdorff N. Loss of Xist imprinting in diploid parthenogenetic preimplantation embryos. Dev Biol. 2001;235:343-50 pubmed
    We have analysed Xist expression patterns in parthenogenetic and control fertilised preimplantation embryos by using RNA FISH. In normal XX embryos, maternally derived Xist alleles are repressed throughout preimplantation development...
  32. Kalantry S, Purushothaman S, Bowen R, Starmer J, Magnuson T. Evidence of Xist RNA-independent initiation of mouse imprinted X-chromosome inactivation. Nature. 2009;460:647-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In eutherian mammals, XCI is thought to be triggered by the expression of the non-coding Xist RNA from the future inactive X chromosome (Xi); Xist RNA in turn is proposed to recruit protein complexes that ..
  33. Romito A, Rougeulle C. Origin and evolution of the long non-coding genes in the X-inactivation center. Biochimie. 2011;93:1935-42 pubmed publisher
    ..that characterize the Xic landscape is the abundance of loci transcribing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including Xist, the master regulator of the inactivation process...
  34. Wutz A. Gene silencing in X-chromosome inactivation: advances in understanding facultative heterochromatin formation. Nat Rev Genet. 2011;12:542-53 pubmed publisher
    ..X-chromosome inactivation is initiated in early embryogenesis by the Xist RNA that localizes to the inactive X chromosome...
  35. Lee J, Davidow L, Warshawsky D. Tsix, a gene antisense to Xist at the X-inactivation centre. Nat Genet. 1999;21:400-4 pubmed
    ..dosage compensation is achieved by X inactivation and is regulated in cis by the X-inactivation centre (Xic) and Xist. The Xic controls X-chromosome counting, choice of X to inactivate and initiation of silencing...
  36. Disteche C. Escape from X inactivation in human and mouse. Trends Genet. 1995;11:17-22 pubmed
    ..Questions about the mechanisms of 'escape' are relevant to the understanding of gene regulation by X inactivation. ..
  37. Hasegawa Y, Brockdorff N, Kawano S, Tsutui K, Tsutui K, Nakagawa S. The matrix protein hnRNP U is required for chromosomal localization of Xist RNA. Dev Cell. 2010;19:469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is regulated by an X-linked long noncoding RNA Xist, which accumulates on the entire length of the chromosome in cis and induces heterochromatin formation...
  38. Corbel C, Diabangouaya P, Gendrel A, Chow J, Heard E. Unusual chromatin status and organization of the inactive X chromosome in murine trophoblast giant cells. Development. 2013;140:861-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the Xist RNA-coated X chromosome has a highly unusual chromatin content in TGCs, presenting both heterochromatic marks such ..
  39. Hendrich B, Brown C, Willard H. Evolutionary conservation of possible functional domains of the human and murine XIST genes. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2:663-72 pubmed
    The human XIST gene, a candidate for a role in X chromosome inactivation, has recently been cloned and sequenced, yielding a 17 kb cDNA with no apparent significant, conserved open reading frame...
  40. Spencer R, Del Rosario B, Pinter S, Lessing D, Sadreyev R, Lee J. A boundary element between Tsix and Xist binds the chromatin insulator Ctcf and contributes to initiation of X-chromosome inactivation. Genetics. 2011;189:441-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The Xic harbors two chromatin interaction domains, one centered around the noncoding Xist gene and the other around the antisense Tsix counterpart...
  41. Chureau C, Prissette M, Bourdet A, Barbe V, Cattolico L, Jones L, et al. Comparative sequence analysis of the X-inactivation center region in mouse, human, and bovine. Genome Res. 2002;12:894-908 pubmed
    ..714-kb and 233-kb regions of the mouse and bovine X-inactivation centers (Xic), respectively, centered on the Xist gene. This has provided the basis for a fully annotated comparative analysis of the mouse Xic with the 2...
  42. Huynh K, Lee J. Inheritance of a pre-inactivated paternal X chromosome in early mouse embryos. Nature. 2003;426:857-62 pubmed
    ..We propose that imprinted X inactivation results from inheritance of a pre-inactivated X chromosome from the paternal germ line. ..
  43. Navarro P, Pichard S, Ciaudo C, Avner P, Rougeulle C. Tsix transcription across the Xist gene alters chromatin conformation without affecting Xist transcription: implications for X-chromosome inactivation. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1474-84 pubmed
    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is highly dynamic during early mouse embryogenesis and strictly depends on the Xist noncoding RNA. The regulation of Xist and its antisense partner Tsix remains however poorly understood...
  44. Kohlmaier A, Savarese F, Lachner M, Martens J, Jenuwein T, Wutz A. A chromosomal memory triggered by Xist regulates histone methylation in X inactivation. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E171 pubmed
    We have elucidated the kinetics of histone methylation during X inactivation using an inducible Xist expression system in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells...
  45. Kobayashi S, Isotani A, Mise N, Yamamoto M, Fujihara Y, Kaseda K, et al. Comparison of gene expression in male and female mouse blastocysts revealed imprinting of the X-linked gene, Rhox5/Pem, at preimplantation stages. Curr Biol. 2006;16:166-72 pubmed
    ..The remaining two (Rhox5/Pem and Xist) were mapped to the X chromosome and were predominantly expressed in female blastocysts...
  46. Sun B, Deaton A, Lee J. A transient heterochromatic state in Xist preempts X inactivation choice without RNA stabilization. Mol Cell. 2006;21:617-28 pubmed
    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) depends on a noncoding sense-antisense transcript pair, Xist and Tsix. At the onset of XCI, Xist RNA accumulates on one of two Xs, coating and silencing the chromosome in cis...
  47. Morey C, Navarro P, Debrand E, Avner P, Rougeulle C, Clerc P. The region 3' to Xist mediates X chromosome counting and H3 Lys-4 dimethylation within the Xist gene. EMBO J. 2004;23:594-604 pubmed
    ..Counting is regulated by the X-inactivation centre, which contains the Xist gene...
  48. Marahrens Y, Panning B, Dausman J, Strauss W, Jaenisch R. Xist-deficient mice are defective in dosage compensation but not spermatogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:156-66 pubmed
    The X-linked Xist gene encodes a large untranslated RNA that has been implicated in mammalian dosage compensation and in spermatogenesis...
  49. Csankovszki G, Panning B, Bates B, Pehrson J, Jaenisch R. Conditional deletion of Xist disrupts histone macroH2A localization but not maintenance of X inactivation. Nat Genet. 1999;22:323-4 pubmed
  50. Xu N, Tsai C, Lee J. Transient homologous chromosome pairing marks the onset of X inactivation. Science. 2006;311:1149-52 pubmed
    ..X inactivation is known to be regulated in cis by Xite, Tsix, and Xist, but in principle the two Xs must also be regulated in trans to ensure mutually exclusive silencing...
  51. Yildirim E, Kirby J, Brown D, Mercier F, Sadreyev R, Scadden D, et al. Xist RNA is a potent suppressor of hematologic cancer in mice. Cell. 2013;152:727-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is triggered by Xist RNA to equalize gene expression between the sexes...
  52. Percec I, Plenge R, Nadeau J, Bartolomei M, Willard H. Autosomal dominant mutations affecting X inactivation choice in the mouse. Science. 2002;296:1136-9 pubmed
    ..We have used chemical mutagenesis in the mouse to identify specific factors involved in X inactivation and report two genetically distinct autosomal mutations with dominant effects on X chromosome choice early in embryogenesis. ..
  53. Kobayashi S, Fujihara Y, Mise N, Kaseda K, Abe K, Ishino F, et al. The X-linked imprinted gene family Fthl17 shows predominantly female expression following the two-cell stage in mouse embryos. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3672-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery will be important for the study of early sex differentiation, as clearly these differences arise before gonadal differentiation. ..
  54. Brockdorff N, Ashworth A, Kay G, Cooper P, Smith S, McCabe V, et al. Conservation of position and exclusive expression of mouse Xist from the inactive X chromosome. Nature. 1991;351:329-31 pubmed
    ..The recently described human XIST gene maps to the XIC region and seems to be expressed only from the inactive X chromosome...
  55. Redrup L, Branco M, Perdeaux E, Krueger C, Lewis A, Santos F, et al. The long noncoding RNA Kcnq1ot1 organises a lineage-specific nuclear domain for epigenetic gene silencing. Development. 2009;136:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Long ncRNAs in imprinting clusters and the Xist RNA on the inactive X chromosome thus appear to regulate epigenetic gene silencing by similar mechanisms.
  56. Brown C, Willard H. The human X-inactivation centre is not required for maintenance of X-chromosome inactivation. Nature. 1994;368:154-6 pubmed
    ..The XIST gene, which is localized within the XIC interval on both the human and mouse X chromosomes, is constitutively ..
  57. Ahn J, Lee J. Retinoic acid accelerates downregulation of the Xist repressor, Oct4, and increases the likelihood of Xist activation when Tsix is deficient. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:90 pubmed publisher
    ..X-inactivation is triggered by expression of the non-coding Xist gene. In turn, Xist is dually regulated by the antisense Tsix RNA and by the Oct4 pluripotency factor...
  58. Duthie S, Nesterova T, Formstone E, Keohane A, Turner B, Zakian S, et al. Xist RNA exhibits a banded localization on the inactive X chromosome and is excluded from autosomal material in cis. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:195-204 pubmed
    ..of X chromosome inactivation is thought to be mediated by the cis- limited spreading of the non-protein coding Xist transcript. In this report we have investigated the localization of Xist RNA on rodent metaphase chromosomes...
  59. Morey C, Arnaud D, Avner P, Clerc P. Tsix-mediated repression of Xist accumulation is not sufficient for normal random X inactivation. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:1403-11 pubmed
    ..the X inactivation process, one X chromosome in each female embryonic cell is chosen at random to become coated by Xist RNA and silenced...
  60. Sado T, Wang Z, Sasaki H, Li E. Regulation of imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice by Tsix. Development. 2001;128:1275-86 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigate the role of Tsix, the antisense transcript from the Xist locus, in regulation of Xist expression and X-inactivation...
  61. Murakami K, Ohhira T, Oshiro E, Qi D, Oshimura M, Kugoh H. Identification of the chromatin regions coated by non-coding Xist RNA. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2009;125:19-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Xist non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is essential for X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Some genes can escape from XCI, but how this occurs is unknown...
  62. Wutz A, Rasmussen T, Jaenisch R. Chromosomal silencing and localization are mediated by different domains of Xist RNA. Nat Genet. 2002;30:167-74 pubmed
    The gene Xist initiates the chromosomal silencing process of X inactivation in mammals. Its product, a noncoding RNA, is expressed from and specifically associates with the inactive X chromosome in female cells...
  63. Zhao J, Ohsumi T, Kung J, Ogawa Y, Grau D, Sarma K, et al. Genome-wide identification of polycomb-associated RNAs by RIP-seq. Mol Cell. 2010;40:939-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Polycomb proteins interact with a genome-wide family of RNAs, some of which may be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for human disease. ..
  64. Navarro P, Page D, Avner P, Rougeulle C. Tsix-mediated epigenetic switch of a CTCF-flanked region of the Xist promoter determines the Xist transcription program. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2787-92 pubmed
    Initiation of X inactivation depends on the coordinated expression of the sense/antisense pair Xist/Tsix...
  65. Ohhata T, Hoki Y, Sasaki H, Sado T. Tsix-deficient X chromosome does not undergo inactivation in the embryonic lineage in males: implications for Tsix-independent silencing of Xist. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113:345-9 pubmed
    Differential induction of the X-linked non-coding Xist gene is a key event in the process of X inactivation occurring in female mammalian embryos...
  66. Brockdorff N, Ashworth A, Kay G, McCabe V, Norris D, Cooper P, et al. The product of the mouse Xist gene is a 15 kb inactive X-specific transcript containing no conserved ORF and located in the nucleus. Cell. 1992;71:515-26 pubmed
    The Xist gene maps to the X inactivation center region in both mouse and human, and previous analysis of the 3' end of the gene has demonstrated inactive X-specific expression, suggesting a possible role in X inactivation...
  67. Royce Tolland M, Andersen A, Koyfman H, Talbot D, Wutz A, Tonks I, et al. The A-repeat links ASF/SF2-dependent Xist RNA processing with random choice during X inactivation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:948-54 pubmed publisher
    One X chromosome, selected at random, is silenced in each female mammalian cell. Xist encodes a noncoding RNA that influences the probability that the cis-linked X chromosome will be silenced...
  68. Simmler M, Cattanach B, Rasberry C, Rougeulle C, Avner P. Mapping the murine Xce locus with (CA)n repeats. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:523-30 pubmed
    ..Xce maps to the central region of the X Chr, which also contains the Xist sequence, itself possibly implicated in the X inactivation process...
  69. Penny G, Kay G, Sheardown S, Rastan S, Brockdorff N. Requirement for Xist in X chromosome inactivation. Nature. 1996;379:131-7 pubmed
    The Xist gene has been proposed as a candidate for the X inactivation centre, the master regulatory switch locus that controls X chromosome inactivation. So far this hypothesis has been supported solely by indirect evidence...
  70. Plath K, Talbot D, Hamer K, Otte A, Yang T, Jaenisch R, et al. Developmentally regulated alterations in Polycomb repressive complex 1 proteins on the inactive X chromosome. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:1025-35 pubmed
    ..The Xi accumulation of mPRC1 proteins requires Xist RNA and is not solely regulated by the presence of H3-K27 methylation, as not all cells that exhibit this ..