Xdh

Summary

Gene Symbol: Xdh
Description: xanthine dehydrogenase
Alias: Xor, Xox-1, Xox1, xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase, xanthine oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase
Species: mouse
Products:     Xdh

Top Publications

  1. Ohtsubo T, Matsumura K, Sakagami K, Fujii K, Tsuruya K, Noguchi H, et al. Xanthine oxidoreductase depletion induces renal interstitial fibrosis through aberrant lipid and purine accumulation in renal tubules. Hypertension. 2009;54:868-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an enzyme responsible for purine degradation, reactive oxygen species production, and adipogenesis. XOR gene-disrupted (XOR(-/-)) mice demonstrate renal failure and early death within several months...
  2. Cheung K, Tzameli I, Pissios P, Rovira I, Gavrilova O, Ohtsubo T, et al. Xanthine oxidoreductase is a regulator of adipogenesis and PPARgamma activity. Cell Metab. 2007;5:115-28 pubmed
    ..We report here the characterization of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) as a novel regulator of adipogenesis...
  3. Huang L, Borniquel S, Lundberg J. Enhanced xanthine oxidoreductase expression and tissue nitrate reduction in germ free mice. Nitric Oxide. 2010;22:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It was demonstrated that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and possibly other enzymes can catalyze nitrate reduction under normoxic conditions in vivo...
  4. Fini M, Monks J, Farabaugh S, Wright R. Contribution of xanthine oxidoreductase to mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell differentiation in part modulates inhibitor of differentiation-1. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:1242-54 pubmed publisher
    Loss of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been linked to aggressive breast cancer in vivo and to breast cancer cell aggressiveness in vitro...
  5. Ohtsubo T, Rovira I, Starost M, Liu C, Finkel T. Xanthine oxidoreductase is an endogenous regulator of cyclooxygenase-2. Circ Res. 2004;95:1118-24 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the enzyme responsible for the final step in purine degradation resulting in the generation of uric acid. Here we have generated mice deficient in XOR...
  6. Lastra G, Manrique C, Jia G, Aroor A, Hayden M, Barron B, et al. Xanthine oxidase inhibition protects against Western diet-induced aortic stiffness and impaired vasorelaxation in female mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017;313:R67-R77 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, high-fructose diets result in elevated plasma concentrations of uric acid via xanthine oxidase (XO) activation, and uric acid elevation is also associated with increased vascular stiffness...
  7. Vorbach C, Scriven A, Capecchi M. The housekeeping gene xanthine oxidoreductase is necessary for milk fat droplet enveloping and secretion: gene sharing in the lactating mammary gland. Genes Dev. 2002;16:3223-35 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism occurring in most cell types...
  8. Kurosaki M, Zanotta S, Li Calzi M, Garattini E, Terao M. Expression of xanthine oxidoreductase in mouse mammary epithelium during pregnancy and lactation: regulation of gene expression by glucocorticoids and prolactin. Biochem J. 1996;319 ( Pt 3):801-10 pubmed
    In the mammary gland of virgin mice, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) enzymic activity is barely measurable...
  9. Ko E, Wan J, Yamamura A, Zimnicka A, Yamamura H, Yoo H, et al. Functional characterization of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in mouse pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells: divergent effect of ROS. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C1042-52 pubmed publisher
    ..and pharmacological properties of VDCC in PASMC and the divergent effects of ROS produced by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HX) on VDCC in PA and mesenteric artery (MA)...

More Information

Publications56

  1. Peleli M, Zollbrecht C, Montenegro M, Hezel M, Zhong J, Persson E, et al. Enhanced XOR activity in eNOS-deficient mice: Effects on the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and ROS homeostasis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;99:472-484 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is generally known as the final enzyme in purine metabolism and as a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  2. Madigan M, McEnaney R, Shukla A, Hong G, Kelley E, Tarpey M, et al. Xanthine Oxidoreductase Function Contributes to Normal Wound Healing. Mol Med. 2015;21:313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has the unique capacity to produce both ROS and NO...
  3. Kushiyama A, Okubo H, Sakoda H, Kikuchi T, Fujishiro M, Sato H, et al. Xanthine oxidoreductase is involved in macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis development. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:291-8 pubmed publisher
    Hyperuricemia is common in patients with metabolic syndrome. We investigated the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in atherosclerosis development, and the effects of the XOR inhibitor allopurinol on this process.
  4. McManaman J, Palmer C, Wright R, Neville M. Functional regulation of xanthine oxidoreductase expression and localization in the mouse mammary gland: evidence of a role in lipid secretion. J Physiol. 2002;545:567-79 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a key enzyme of purine metabolism, has been implicated in the secretion of the milk fat droplet in lactating mammary epithelial cells, possibly through structural interactions with other milk fat globule ..
  5. Nakatsu Y, Seno Y, Kushiyama A, Sakoda H, Fujishiro M, Katasako A, et al. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat suppresses development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a rodent model. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;309:G42-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme involved in the production of uric acid (UA) from purine nucleotides...
  6. Chen Q, Park H, Goligorsky M, Chander P, Fischer S, Gross S. Untargeted plasma metabolite profiling reveals the broad systemic consequences of xanthine oxidoreductase inactivation in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37149 pubmed publisher
    ..of untargeted plasma metabolite profiling to discover systemic changes arising from inactivation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), an enzyme that catalyzes the final steps in purine degradation...
  7. Vida C, Corpas I, De la Fuente M, Gonzalez E. Age-related changes in xanthine oxidase activity and lipid peroxidation, as well as in the correlation between both parameters, in plasma and several organs from female mice. J Physiol Biochem. 2011;67:551-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidase, a purine catabolism enzyme, has been implicated as an important source of oxidant production and plays an essential role in several inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases...
  8. Yoon I, Park D, Ki S, Cho S. Effects of extracts from Corylopsis coreana Uyeki (Hamamelidaceae) flos on xanthine oxidase activity and hyperuricemia. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2016;68:1597-1603 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to investigate xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and antihyperuricemic effects of Corylopsis coreana Uyeki flos extracts and the phytochemicals contained therein...
  9. Widmer R, Engels M, Voss P, Grune T. Postanoxic damage of microglial cells is mediated by xanthine oxidase and cyclooxygenase. Free Radic Res. 2007;41:145-52 pubmed
    ..Although, numerous free radical generating systems may contribute to the postanoxic microglial cell damage, the xanthine oxidase- and the cyclooxygenase-mediated oxidant production seems to be of major importance.
  10. Martelli A, Wattenhofer Donzé M, Schmucker S, Bouvet S, Reutenauer L, Puccio H. Frataxin is essential for extramitochondrial Fe-S cluster proteins in mammalian tissues. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2651-8 pubmed
    ..These results thus provide new cellular pathways that may contribute to molecular mechanisms of the disease. ..
  11. Kim B, Serebreni L, Hamdan O, Wang L, Parniani A, Sussan T, et al. Xanthine oxidoreductase is a critical mediator of cigarette smoke-induced endothelial cell DNA damage and apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;60:336-46 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the pathogenic causes of emphysema is an alveolar oxidant and antioxidant imbalance. The enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been shown to be a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a multitude of diseases (S...
  12. Ishii T, Aoki N, Noda A, Adachi T, Nakamura R, Matsuda T. Carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain of mouse butyrophilin specifically associates with a 150-kDa protein of mammary epithelial cells and milk fat globule membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1245:285-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that butyrophilin might be physiologically associated with xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase and might function in a complex form in milk fat secretion. ..
  13. Lin H, Stubbs L, Mucenski M. Identification and characterization of a seven transmembrane hormone receptor using differential display. Genomics. 1997;41:301-8 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the Cmyb mutant fetuses represent a unique resource for identifying genes involved in hematopoiesis. ..
  14. Doyle J, Hoffman S, Ucla C, Reith W, Mach B, Stubbs L. Locations of human and mouse genes encoding the RFX1 and RFX2 transcription factor proteins. Genomics. 1996;35:227-30 pubmed
    ..These data define the established relationships between these homologous mouse and human regions in further detail and provide new tools for linking cloned genes to phenotypes in both species. ..
  15. Gomez Cabrera M, Close G, Kayani A, McArdle A, Vina J, Jackson M. Effect of xanthine oxidase-generated extracellular superoxide on skeletal muscle force generation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R2-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypotheses that 1) after an isometric contraction protocol, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity is a source of superoxide anion in the extracellular space of skeletal muscle and 2) the ..
  16. Lorne E, Zmijewski J, Zhao X, Liu G, Tsuruta Y, Park Y, et al. Role of extracellular superoxide in neutrophil activation: interactions between xanthine oxidase and TLR4 induce proinflammatory cytokine production. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C985-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, neutrophils were exposed to superoxide generating combinations of xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine or lumazine...
  17. Terao M, Cazzaniga G, Ghezzi P, Bianchi M, Falciani F, Perani P, et al. Molecular cloning of a cDNA coding for mouse liver xanthine dehydrogenase. Regulation of its transcript by interferons in vivo. Biochem J. 1992;283 ( Pt 3):863-70 pubmed
    ..The elevation of XD mRNA concentration is relatively fast and precedes the induction of both XD and xanthine oxidase (XO) enzymic activities.
  18. Westover A, Harrison C, Selemidis S. Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase are sources of superoxide in mouse trachea. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36:331-3 pubmed publisher
    ..two key candidate superoxide-producing enzymes in mammalian cells, namely Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase, are responsible for superoxide production in mouse trachea. 2...
  19. Retamoso L, Silveira M, Lima F, Busanello G, Bresciani G, Ribeiro L, et al. Increased xanthine oxidase-related ROS production and TRPV1 synthesis preceding DOMS post-eccentric exercise in rats. Life Sci. 2016;152:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between TRPV1 and xanthine oxidase-related ROS production in muscle and DOMS after a bout of eccentric exercise...
  20. Abdulnour R, Peng X, Finigan J, Han E, Hasan E, Birukov K, et al. Mechanical stress activates xanthine oxidoreductase through MAP kinase-dependent pathways. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L345-53 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) plays a prominent role in acute lung injury because of its ability to generate reactive oxygen species. We investigated the role of XOR in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI)...
  21. Seymour K, Roberts L, Fini M, Parmley L, Oustitch T, Wright R. Stress activation of mammary epithelial cell xanthine oxidoreductase is mediated by p38 MAPK and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8545-58 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the formation of uric acid from xanthine and hypoxanthine and is recognized as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species...
  22. Murakami N, Ohtsubo T, Kansui Y, Goto K, Noguchi H, Haga Y, et al. Mice heterozygous for the xanthine oxidoreductase gene facilitate lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:44-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the production of uric acid with concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species...
  23. Kurosaki M, Li Calzi M, Scanziani E, Garattini E, Terao M. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of mouse xanthine oxidoreductase gene in vivo: regulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Biochem J. 1995;306 ( Pt 1):225-34 pubmed
    The expression of the xanthine oxidoreductase gene was studied in various mouse organs and tissues, under basal conditions and on treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide...
  24. Khan S, Lee K, Minhas K, Gonzalez D, Raju S, Tejani A, et al. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase negatively regulates xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15944-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a prototypic superoxide O(2)(...
  25. Palis J, Kingsley P. Differential gene expression during early murine yolk sac development. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995;42:19-27 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that at E7.5, the yolk sac endoderm provides differentiated liver-like functions, while the newly developing extraembryonic mesoderm is still a largely undifferentiated tissue. ..
  26. Kim N, Choi S, Han E, Hong B, Choi S, Kwon H, et al. The xanthine oxidase-NFAT5 pathway regulates macrophage activation and TLR-induced inflammatory arthritis. Eur J Immunol. 2014;44:2721-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified a novel XO-ROS-p38 MAPK-NFAT5 pathway (XO is xanthine oxidase, ROS is reactive oxygen species) that is activated in RAW 264.7 macrophages upon isotonic TLR stimulation...
  27. Nishino T, Okamoto K, Kawaguchi Y, Hori H, Matsumura T, Eger B, et al. Mechanism of the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase: identification of the two cysteine disulfide bonds and crystal structure of a non-convertible rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase mutant. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24888-94 pubmed
    Mammalian xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by modification of cysteine residues or by proteolysis of the enzyme polypeptide chain...
  28. Xu X, Guo Y, Zhao J, Wang N, Ding J, Liu Q. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Inhibits LPS-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via Binding to Xanthine Oxidase in Mouse RAW264.7 Macrophages. Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:8172706 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we predicted the potential interaction between HSYA and xanthine oxidase (XO) via PharmMapper inverse docking and confirmed the binding inhibition via inhibitory test (IC50 = 40...
  29. Le A, Damico R, Damarla M, Boueiz A, Pae H, Skirball J, et al. Alveolar cell apoptosis is dependent on p38 MAP kinase-mediated activation of xanthine oxidoreductase in ventilator-induced lung injury. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:1282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is activated in a p38 MAP kinase-dependent manner following HVt MV...
  30. Cazzaniga G, Terao M, Lo Schiavo P, Galbiati F, Segalla F, Seldin M, et al. Chromosomal mapping, isolation, and characterization of the mouse xanthine dehydrogenase gene. Genomics. 1994;23:390-402 pubmed
    ..Transient transfection analysis in NIH3T3, tEnd, and COS cells with an appropriate reporter gene demonstrated that a functional promoter is located within the first 268 bp preceding the transcriptional initiation site. ..
  31. Nakai K, Kadiiska M, Jiang J, Stadler K, Mason R. Free radical production requires both inducible nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase in LPS-treated skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4616-21 pubmed
    ..1400W), or allopurinol, suggesting a role for both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and xanthine oxidase (XO) in free radical formation...
  32. Ulven S, Gundersen T, Weedon M, Landaas V, Sakhi A, Fromm S, et al. Identification of endogenous retinoids, enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors during early postimplantation development in mouse: important role of retinal dehydrogenase type 2 in synthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 2000;220:379-91 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that RALDH2 is a key regulator in initiating retinoic acid synthesis sometime between the mid-primitive streak stage and the late allantoic bud stage in mouse embryos. ..
  33. Troadec M, Warner D, Wallace J, Thomas K, Spangrude G, Phillips J, et al. Targeted deletion of the mouse Mitoferrin1 gene: from anemia to protoporphyria. Blood. 2011;117:5494-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the activity of mitoferrin1 is required to manage an increase in heme synthesis. The data also show that alterations in heme synthesis within hepatocytes can lead to protoporphyria and hepatotoxicity. ..
  34. Calzi M, Raviolo C, Ghibaudi E, De Gioia L, Salmona M, Cazzaniga G, et al. Purification, cDNA cloning, and tissue distribution of bovine liver aldehyde oxidase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:31037-45 pubmed
    ..Aldehyde oxidase is expressed at high levels in liver, lung, and spleen, and, at a much lower level, in many other organs. ..
  35. Piret S, Esapa C, Gorvin C, Head R, Loh N, Devuyst O, et al. A mouse model of early-onset renal failure due to a xanthine dehydrogenase nonsense mutation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45217 pubmed
    ..8 Mbp region on chromosome 17E1.3. DNA sequencing of the xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 26 that co-segregated with affected RENF mice...
  36. Blase M, Bruntner C, Tshisuaka B, Fetzner S, Lingens F. Cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of the three genes encoding quinoline 2-oxidoreductase, a molybdenum-containing hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida 86. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:23068-79 pubmed
    ..J., Archer, M., Moura, I., Moura, J. J. G., LeGall, J., Engh, R., Schneider, M., Hof, P., and Huber, R. (1995) Science 270, 1170-1176). ..
  37. Honorat J, Kinoshita M, Okuno T, Takata K, Koda T, Tada S, et al. Xanthine oxidase mediates axonal and myelin loss in a murine model of multiple sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71329 pubmed publisher
    ..Though reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by various mechanisms, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a major enzyme generating ROS in the context of inflammation...
  38. Cantú Medellín N, Kelley E. Xanthine oxidoreductase-catalyzed reactive species generation: A process in critical need of reevaluation. Redox Biol. 2013;1:353-8 pubmed publisher
    Nearly 30 years have passed since the discovery of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) as a critical source of reactive species in ischemia/reperfusion injury...
  39. Ives A, Nomura J, Martinon F, Roger T, Leroy D, Miner J, et al. Xanthine oxidoreductase regulates macrophage IL1β secretion upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6555 pubmed publisher
    ..of IL1β upon stimulation with ATP, crystals or LPS is mediated by a rapid increase in the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), the oxidized form of xanthine dehydrogenase, resulting in the formation of uric acid as well as ROS...
  40. Xu P, Huecksteadt T, Hoidal J. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human xanthine dehydrogenase gene (XDH). Genomics. 1996;34:173-80 pubmed
    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH, EC 1.1.1...
  41. Jeong J, Rao A, Xu J, Ogg S, Hathout Y, Fenselau C, et al. The PRY/SPRY/B30.2 domain of butyrophilin 1A1 (BTN1A1) binds to xanthine oxidoreductase: implications for the function of BTN1A1 in the mammary gland and other tissues. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22444-56 pubmed publisher
    Butyrophilin 1A1 (BTN1A1) and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) are highly expressed in the lactating mammary gland and are secreted into milk associated with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM)...
  42. Aibibula Z, Ailixiding M, Iwata M, Piao J, Hara Y, Okawa A, et al. Xanthine oxidoreductase activation is implicated in the onset of metabolic arthritis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;472:26-32 pubmed publisher
    A metabolic syndrome (MetS) is accompanied by hyperuricemia, during which xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the production of uric acid...
  43. Duncan J, Ravi R, Stull L, Murphy A. Chronic xanthine oxidase inhibition prevents myofibrillar protein oxidation and preserves cardiac function in a transgenic mouse model of cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H1512-8 pubmed
    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome associated with elevated levels of oxygen-derived free radicals. Xanthine oxidase activity is believed to be one source of reactive oxygen species in the failing heart...
  44. Bravard A, Bonnard C, Durand A, Chauvin M, Favier R, Vidal H, et al. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial alterations in skeletal muscle of diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E581-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that increased oxidative stress in muscle of STZ mice is associated with an increase of xanthine oxidase (XO) expression and activity and is mediated by an induction of H(2)O(2) production by both mitochondria and ..
  45. Fini M, Orchard Webb D, Kosmider B, Amon J, Kelland R, Shibao G, et al. Migratory activity of human breast cancer cells is modulated by differential expression of xanthine oxidoreductase. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:1008-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) may exert an important, but poorly defined, role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC)...
  46. Beigi F, Oskouei B, Zheng M, Cooke C, Lamirault G, Hare J. Cardiac nitric oxide synthase-1 localization within the cardiomyocyte is accompanied by the adaptor protein, CAPON. Nitric Oxide. 2009;21:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..NOS1, CAPON, xanthine oxidoreductase and Dexras1, a CAPON binding partner, were all present and enriched in isolated cardiac sarcoplasmic ..
  47. Holmes R, Leijten L, Duley J. Liver aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase genetics in the mouse. Anim Blood Groups Biochem Genet. 1981;12:193-9 pubmed
    ..An activity variant for mouse liver xanthine oxidase (XOX) is also reported which behaved as though controlled by codominant alleles at a single locus (designated ..