Wnt3

Summary

Gene Symbol: Wnt3
Description: wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3
Alias: Int-4, Wnt-3, proto-oncogene Wnt-3, proto-oncogene Int-4, proto-oncogene protein Wnt-3, wingless-related MMTV integration site 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Wnt3

Top Publications

  1. Lu C, Robertson E. Multiple roles for Nodal in the epiblast of the mouse embryo in the establishment of anterior-posterior patterning. Dev Biol. 2004;273:149-59 pubmed
  2. Roelink H, Nusse R. Expression of two members of the Wnt family during mouse development--restricted temporal and spatial patterns in the developing neural tube. Genes Dev. 1991;5:381-8 pubmed
    ..Characteristic expression patterns of these two closely related genes suggest that Wnt-3 and Wnt-3A play distinct roles in cell-cell signaling during morphogenesis of the developing neural tube. ..
  3. McMahon A, Bradley A. The Wnt-1 (int-1) proto-oncogene is required for development of a large region of the mouse brain. Cell. 1990;62:1073-85 pubmed
    ..Homozygotes are born, but die within 24 hr. Thus the normal role of Wnt-1 is in determination or subsequent development of a specific region of the central nervous system. ..
  4. Brennan J, Lu C, Norris D, Rodriguez T, Beddington R, Robertson E. Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2001;411:965-9 pubmed
    ..Our experiments show that proximal-distal and subsequent anterior-posterior polarity of the pregastrulation embryo result from reciprocal cell-cell interactions between the epiblast and the two extra-embryonic tissues. ..
  5. Rakeman A, Anderson K. Axis specification and morphogenesis in the mouse embryo require Nap1, a regulator of WAVE-mediated actin branching. Development. 2006;133:3075-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Nap1 mutant phenotypes define the crucial roles of Nap1/WAVE-mediated actin regulation in tissue organization and establishment of the body plan of the mammalian embryo. ..
  6. Lewis S, Khoo P, De Young R, Steiner K, Wilcock C, Mukhopadhyay M, et al. Dkk1 and Wnt3 interact to control head morphogenesis in the mouse. Development. 2008;135:1791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The juxtaposition of the expression domains of Dkk1 and Wnt3 is suggestive of an antagonist-agonist interaction...
  7. Parr B, Shea M, Vassileva G, McMahon A. Mouse Wnt genes exhibit discrete domains of expression in the early embryonic CNS and limb buds. Development. 1993;119:247-61 pubmed
    ..We discuss the significance of these patterns of restricted and partially overlapping domains of expression with respect to the putative function of Wnt signalling in early CNS and limb development. ..
  8. Salinas P, Nusse R. Regional expression of the Wnt-3 gene in the developing mouse forebrain in relationship to diencephalic neuromeres. Mech Dev. 1992;39:151-60 pubmed
    ..The continued expression of these genes in the adult mouse brain suggests a distinct role in the mature CNS. ..
  9. Rivera Perez J, Magnuson T. Primitive streak formation in mice is preceded by localized activation of Brachyury and Wnt3. Dev Biol. 2005;288:363-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the proposed correlation between the expression of Brachyury and Wnt3, two genes reported as expressed radially in the proximal epiblast, with the movements of proximal anterior ..
  10. Salinas P, Fletcher C, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Nusse R. Maintenance of Wnt-3 expression in Purkinje cells of the mouse cerebellum depends on interactions with granule cells. Development. 1994;120:1277-86 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Wnt-3 expression in Purkinje cells is modulated by their presynaptic granule cells at the time of neuronal maturation. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Lu C, Robertson E. Multiple roles for Nodal in the epiblast of the mouse embryo in the establishment of anterior-posterior patterning. Dev Biol. 2004;273:149-59 pubmed
  2. Roelink H, Nusse R. Expression of two members of the Wnt family during mouse development--restricted temporal and spatial patterns in the developing neural tube. Genes Dev. 1991;5:381-8 pubmed
    ..Characteristic expression patterns of these two closely related genes suggest that Wnt-3 and Wnt-3A play distinct roles in cell-cell signaling during morphogenesis of the developing neural tube. ..
  3. McMahon A, Bradley A. The Wnt-1 (int-1) proto-oncogene is required for development of a large region of the mouse brain. Cell. 1990;62:1073-85 pubmed
    ..Homozygotes are born, but die within 24 hr. Thus the normal role of Wnt-1 is in determination or subsequent development of a specific region of the central nervous system. ..
  4. Brennan J, Lu C, Norris D, Rodriguez T, Beddington R, Robertson E. Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2001;411:965-9 pubmed
    ..Our experiments show that proximal-distal and subsequent anterior-posterior polarity of the pregastrulation embryo result from reciprocal cell-cell interactions between the epiblast and the two extra-embryonic tissues. ..
  5. Rakeman A, Anderson K. Axis specification and morphogenesis in the mouse embryo require Nap1, a regulator of WAVE-mediated actin branching. Development. 2006;133:3075-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Nap1 mutant phenotypes define the crucial roles of Nap1/WAVE-mediated actin regulation in tissue organization and establishment of the body plan of the mammalian embryo. ..
  6. Lewis S, Khoo P, De Young R, Steiner K, Wilcock C, Mukhopadhyay M, et al. Dkk1 and Wnt3 interact to control head morphogenesis in the mouse. Development. 2008;135:1791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The juxtaposition of the expression domains of Dkk1 and Wnt3 is suggestive of an antagonist-agonist interaction...
  7. Parr B, Shea M, Vassileva G, McMahon A. Mouse Wnt genes exhibit discrete domains of expression in the early embryonic CNS and limb buds. Development. 1993;119:247-61 pubmed
    ..We discuss the significance of these patterns of restricted and partially overlapping domains of expression with respect to the putative function of Wnt signalling in early CNS and limb development. ..
  8. Salinas P, Nusse R. Regional expression of the Wnt-3 gene in the developing mouse forebrain in relationship to diencephalic neuromeres. Mech Dev. 1992;39:151-60 pubmed
    ..The continued expression of these genes in the adult mouse brain suggests a distinct role in the mature CNS. ..
  9. Rivera Perez J, Magnuson T. Primitive streak formation in mice is preceded by localized activation of Brachyury and Wnt3. Dev Biol. 2005;288:363-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the proposed correlation between the expression of Brachyury and Wnt3, two genes reported as expressed radially in the proximal epiblast, with the movements of proximal anterior ..
  10. Salinas P, Fletcher C, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Nusse R. Maintenance of Wnt-3 expression in Purkinje cells of the mouse cerebellum depends on interactions with granule cells. Development. 1994;120:1277-86 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Wnt-3 expression in Purkinje cells is modulated by their presynaptic granule cells at the time of neuronal maturation. ..
  11. Bulfone A, Puelles L, Porteus M, Frohman M, Martin G, Rubenstein J. Spatially restricted expression of Dlx-1, Dlx-2 (Tes-1), Gbx-2, and Wnt-3 in the embryonic day 12.5 mouse forebrain defines potential transverse and longitudinal segmental boundaries. J Neurosci. 1993;13:3155-72 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with neuromeric theories of forebrain development, and based upon them we suggest a model for forebrain segmentation. ..
  12. David M, Canti C, Herreros J. Wnt-3a and Wnt-3 differently stimulate proliferation and neurogenesis of spinal neural precursors and promote neurite outgrowth by canonical signaling. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:3011-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and nerve injury. ..
  13. Chazaud C, Rossant J. Disruption of early proximodistal patterning and AVE formation in Apc mutants. Development. 2006;133:3379-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, we found that nuclear beta-catenin and other molecular markers are asymmetrically expressed by 4.5 days. ..
  14. Liu P, Wakamiya M, Shea M, Albrecht U, Behringer R, Bradley A. Requirement for Wnt3 in vertebrate axis formation. Nat Genet. 1999;22:361-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Wnt3 is expressed before gastrulation in the proximal epiblast of the egg cylinder, then is restricted to the posterior ..
  15. Tao H, Suzuki M, Kiyonari H, Abe T, Sasaoka T, Ueno N. Mouse prickle1, the homolog of a PCP gene, is essential for epiblast apical-basal polarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a role for mpk1 in AB polarity formation rather than expected role as a PCP gene. ..
  16. Ouji Y, Yoshikawa M. Maintenance of Skin Epithelial Stem Cells by Wnt-3a In Vitro. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1516:279-288 pubmed publisher
    ..CD49f+ CD34+ cells obtained from each 10-day culture retained the same EpSC-characteristics as seen in the original EpSCs from adult mouse skin. Here, wedescribe the culture protocol using Wnt-3a for successful maintenance of EpSCs. ..
  17. Labelle Dumais C, Jacob Wagner M, Pare J, Belanger L, Dufort D. Nuclear receptor NR5A2 is required for proper primitive streak morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3359-69 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results suggest a requirement for NR5A2 in extraembryonic tissues and identify a novel role of this gene in proper primitive streak morphogenesis. ..
  18. Sundararajan S, Wakamiya M, Behringer R, Rivera Perez J. A fast and sensitive alternative for ?-galactosidase detection in mouse embryos. Development. 2012;139:4484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide an enhanced alternative for ?-galactosidase detection in expression and cell fate studies that use lacZ-based transgenic mouse lines. ..
  19. O HARA B, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Shows T, Eddy R, et al. Chromosomal assignment of the heparin-binding cytokine genes MDK and PTN in mouse and man. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1995;69:40-3 pubmed
    ..A pseudogene of Mdk was mapped to mouse Chromosome 11. The closely related human gene PTN was mapped to a separate location on human chromosome region 7q22-->qter. ..
  20. Barrow J, Howell W, Rule M, Hayashi S, Thomas K, Capecchi M, et al. Wnt3 signaling in the epiblast is required for proper orientation of the anteroposterior axis. Dev Biol. 2007;312:312-20 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that embryos lacking the signaling factor Wnt3 exhibit defects in this axial realignment...
  21. Millar S, Koyama E, Reddy S, Andl T, Gaddapara T, Piddington R, et al. Over- and ectopic expression of Wnt3 causes progressive loss of ameloblasts in postnatal mouse incisor teeth. Connect Tissue Res. 2003;44 Suppl 1:124-9 pubmed
    ..WNT intercellular signaling molecules have been implicated in the regulation of tooth development, and the Wnt3 gene shows specific expression in the enamel knot at the cap stage...
  22. Aramaki S, Hayashi K, Kurimoto K, Ohta H, Yabuta Y, Iwanari H, et al. A mesodermal factor, T, specifies mouse germ cell fate by directly activating germline determinants. Dev Cell. 2013;27:516-29 pubmed publisher
    ..germ cells (PGCs), the precursors for spermatozoa and oocytes, are induced in pluripotent epiblast by BMP4 and WNT3, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
  23. Pereira P, Dobreva M, Maas E, Cornelis F, Moya I, Umans L, et al. Antagonism of Nodal signaling by BMP/Smad5 prevents ectopic primitive streak formation in the mouse amnion. Development. 2012;139:3343-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter involves BMP4 signaling and also induction of ectopic Wnt3. Ectopic activation of these Nodal feedback loops in the Smad5 mutant amnion results in the eventual formation of ..
  24. Miyagawa S, Moon A, Haraguchi R, Inoue C, Harada M, Nakahara C, et al. Dosage-dependent hedgehog signals integrated with Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulate external genitalia formation as an appendicular program. Development. 2009;136:3969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the integration of growth factor signaling in the appendicular developmental programs that regulate external genitalia development...
  25. Nagasawa M, Sakimura K, Mori K, Bedell M, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse NMDA receptor channel subunits. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;36:1-11 pubmed
    ..Each of these genes mapped to a single chromosome location. The mapping results assigned the five loci to five different mouse autosomes, indicating that they have become well dispersed among mouse chromosomes. ..
  26. Kozak C, Danciger M, Bowes C, Adamson M, Palczewski K, Polans A, et al. Localization of three genes expressed in retina on mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:142-4 pubmed
  27. Lin C, Fisher A, Yin Y, Maruyama T, Veith G, Dhandha M, et al. The inductive role of Wnt-?-Catenin signaling in the formation of oral apparatus. Dev Biol. 2011;356:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide genetic evidence that disruption of either signaling pathway results in severe microglossia. Altogether, we demonstrate a dynamic role for Wnt-?-Catenin signaling in the development of the oral apparatus...
  28. Cohen E, Ihida Stansbury K, Lu M, Panettieri R, Jones P, Morrisey E. Wnt signaling regulates smooth muscle precursor development in the mouse lung via a tenascin C/PDGFR pathway. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2538-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data define a Wnt/Tnc/Pdgfr signaling axis that is critical for smooth muscle development and disease progression in the lung. ..
  29. Liu H, Grosse A, Iwatsuki K, Mishina Y, Gumucio D, Mistretta C. Separate and distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue, lingual tissue and taste papilla development. Dev Biol. 2012;361:39-56 pubmed publisher
  30. Hsieh J, Lee L, Zhang L, Wefer S, Brown K, DeRossi C, et al. Mesd encodes an LRP5/6 chaperone essential for specification of mouse embryonic polarity. Cell. 2003;112:355-67 pubmed
    ..However, phenotypic differences between mesd-deficient and wnt3(-)(/)(-) embryos suggest that MESD may function on related members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) ..
  31. Buchert M, Athineos D, Abud H, Burke Z, Faux M, Samuel M, et al. Genetic dissection of differential signaling threshold requirements for the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000816 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the present genotype-phenotype analysis suggests tissue-specific response levels for the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway that regulate both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. ..
  32. Wright K, Mahoney Rogers A, Zhang J, Shim K. Cooperative and independent functions of FGF and Wnt signaling during early inner ear development. BMC Dev Biol. 2015;15:33 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest that although specification of the otic placode may be globally regulated by FGF signaling, otic specification of cells in which both FGF and Wnt signaling are active may be more tightly regulated. ..
  33. Zheng B, Sage M, Sheppeard E, Jurecic V, Bradley A. Engineering mouse chromosomes with Cre-loxP: range, efficiency, and somatic applications. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:648-55 pubmed
    ..In vivo chromosome engineering can be potentially used to achieve somatic losses of heterozygosity in creating mouse models of human cancers. ..
  34. Kinder S, Tsang T, Ang S, Behringer R, Tam P. Defects of the body plan of mutant embryos lacking Lim1, Otx2 or Hnf3beta activity. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:347-55 pubmed
    ..of the expression pattern of genes associated with the posterior germ layer tissues and the primitive streak (T, Wnt3 and Fgf8) and anterior endoderm (Cer1 and Sox17) revealed that the A-P axis of mutant embryos remains aligned with ..
  35. Béland M, Pilon N, Houle M, Oh K, Sylvestre J, Prinos P, et al. Cdx1 autoregulation is governed by a novel Cdx1-LEF1 transcription complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5028-38 pubmed
    ..Further data suggest that Cdx-high-mobility group box interactions might be involved in a number of additional pathways. ..
  36. Wang Q, Piotrowska K, Ciemerych M, Milenkovic L, Scott M, Davis R, et al. A genome-wide study of gene activity reveals developmental signaling pathways in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Dev Cell. 2004;6:133-44 pubmed
    ..Overall, these data provide a detailed temporal profile of gene expression that reveals the richness of signaling processes in early mammalian development. ..
  37. Koo B, van Es J, van den Born M, Clevers H. Porcupine inhibitor suppresses paracrine Wnt-driven growth of Rnf43;Znrf3-mutant neoplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:7548-50 pubmed publisher
    ..growing adenomas containing LGR5(+) (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5) stem cells and Wnt3-producing Paneth cells. We now show that removal of Paneth cells by Math1 mutation inhibits RZ(-/-) tumor formation...
  38. Perea Gomez A, Lawson K, Rhinn M, Zakin L, Brulet P, Mazan S, et al. Otx2 is required for visceral endoderm movement and for the restriction of posterior signals in the epiblast of the mouse embryo. Development. 2001;128:753-65 pubmed
  39. Ben Haim N, Lu C, Guzman Ayala M, Pescatore L, Mesnard D, Bischofberger M, et al. The nodal precursor acting via activin receptors induces mesoderm by maintaining a source of its convertases and BMP4. Dev Cell. 2006;11:313-23 pubmed
    ..In return, Bmp4 induces Wnt3, which amplifies Nodal expression in the epiblast and mediates induction of mesoderm...
  40. Tamimi R, Steingrimsson E, Montgomery Dyer K, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Tapscott S. NEUROD2 and NEUROD3 genes map to human chromosomes 17q12 and 5q23-q31 and mouse chromosomes 11 and 13, respectively. Genomics. 1997;40:355-7 pubmed
    ..NEUROD2 maps to human chromosome 17q12 and mouse chromosome 11. NEUROD3 maps to human chromosome 5q23-q31 and mouse chromosome 13. ..
  41. GARCIA GARCIA M, Anderson K. Essential role of glycosaminoglycans in Fgf signaling during mouse gastrulation. Cell. 2003;114:727-37 pubmed
    ..In contrast, signaling by the growth factors Nodal and Wnt3, which are also essential during mouse gastrulation, appears to be normal in lzme embryos...
  42. Smolich B, Papkoff J. Regulated expression of Wnt family members during neuroectodermal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells: overexpression of Wnt-1 perturbs normal differentiation-specific properties. Dev Biol. 1994;166:300-10 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Wnt-1 itself can induce some aspects of early neuroectodermal differentiation and, furthermore, that the correct timing of Wnt-1 expression is necessary for proper RA-induced expression of the neural phenotype. ..
  43. Morishige K, Takahashi N, Findlay I, Koyama H, Zanelli J, Peterson C, et al. Molecular cloning, functional expression and localization of an inward rectifier potassium channel in the mouse brain. FEBS Lett. 1993;336:375-80 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first demonstration of the cloning and distribution of an inward rectifier potassium channel from the nervous system. ..
  44. Nam J, Park E, Turcotte T, Palencia S, Zhan X, Lee J, et al. Mouse R-spondin2 is required for apical ectodermal ridge maintenance in the hindlimb. Dev Biol. 2007;311:124-35 pubmed
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that Rspo2 expression in the AER is required for AER maintenance likely by regulating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. ..
  45. Liu X, Lu R, Wu S, Sun J. Salmonella regulation of intestinal stem cells through the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:911-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The numbers of stem cells and proliferative cells increased in the intestine infected with Salmonella expressing AvrA. Our study provides insights into bacterial infection and stem cell maintenance. ..
  46. Guzman Ayala M, Sachs M, Koh F, Onodera C, Bulut Karslioglu A, Lin C, et al. Chd1 is essential for the high transcriptional output and rapid growth of the mouse epiblast. Development. 2015;142:118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the RNA output by both Pol I and II is reduced in Chd1(-/-) cells. Our data indicate that Chd1 promotes a globally elevated transcriptional output required to sustain the distinctly rapid growth of the mouse epiblast. ..
  47. Farin H, van Es J, Clevers H. Redundant sources of Wnt regulate intestinal stem cells and promote formation of Paneth cells. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:1518-1529.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed intestinal tissues and cultured epithelial cells from adult mice with conditional deletion of Wnt3 (Vil-CreERT2;Wnt3fl/fl mice)...
  48. Kraushar M, Viljetić B, Wijeratne H, Thompson K, Jiao X, Pike J, et al. Thalamic WNT3 Secretion Spatiotemporally Regulates the Neocortical Ribosome Signature and mRNA Translation to Specify Neocortical Cell Subtypes. J Neurosci. 2015;35:10911-26 pubmed publisher
    ..thalamic axons, which secrete the morphogen Wingless-related MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site 3 (WNT3)...
  49. Moore S, Appella E, Villar C, Kozak C. Mapping of the mouse 86-kDa heat-shock protein expressed gene (Hsp86-1) on chromosome 12 and related genes on chromosomes 3, 4, 9, and 11. Genomics. 1991;10:1019-29 pubmed
    ..An HSP86-related locus specific to NFS/N and C58/J mice, designated Hsp86-ps3, was mapped on Chromosome 9. Also, an HSP86-related locus that was unique to NFS/N mice, designated Hsp86-ps4, was mapped to Chromosome 4. ..
  50. Song L, Li Y, Wang K, Wang Y, Molotkov A, Gao L, et al. Lrp6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling is required for lip formation and fusion. Development. 2009;136:3161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Lrp6-mediated Wnt signaling pathway is required for lip development by orchestrating two distinctively different morphogenetic movements. ..
  51. Reid B, Yang H, Melvin V, Taketo M, Williams T. Ectodermal Wnt/?-catenin signaling shapes the mouse face. Dev Biol. 2011;349:261-9 pubmed publisher
  52. Beck S, Le Good J, Guzman M, Ben Haim N, Roy K, Beermann F, et al. Extraembryonic proteases regulate Nodal signalling during gastrulation. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:981-5 pubmed
    ..A lack of Spc1 and Spc4 affects both pathways because these proteases also stimulate induction of Bmp4. ..
  53. Zhou C, Pinson K, Pleasure S. Severe defects in dorsal thalamic development in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 mutants. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7632-9 pubmed
    ..This study provides compelling in vivo evidence that thalamic development requires normal activity of the LRP6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  54. Davis E, Zou Y, Ghosh A. Wnts acting through canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways exert opposite effects on hippocampal synapse formation. Neural Dev. 2008;3:32 pubmed publisher
    ..We used in situ hybridization to show that several Wnt ligands (Wnt3, Wnt5a, Wnt7a, and Wnt7b) and their receptors, Frizzled, are expressed in the developing hippocampus during the ..
  55. Juriloff D, Harris M, Dewell S. A digenic cause of cleft lip in A-strain mice and definition of candidate genes for the two loci. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70:509-18 pubmed
    ..The clf1 region contains 10 known genes (Arf2, Cdc27, Crhr1, Gosr2, Itgb3, Mapt, Myl4, Nsf, Wnt3, and Wnt9b). The clf2 region contains 17 known genes with human orthologs...
  56. Liu P, Zhang H, McLellan A, Vogel H, Bradley A. Embryonic lethality and tumorigenesis caused by segmental aneuploidy on mouse chromosome 11. Genetics. 1998;150:1155-68 pubmed
    ..A duplication corresponding to one of these two deficiencies was able to rescue its haplolethality. ..
  57. Yeung R, Hino O, Vilensky M, Buetow K, Szpirer C, Szpirer J, et al. Assignment of 22 loci in the rat by somatic hybrid and linkage analysis. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:585-8 pubmed
    ..Results of this study further support the extensive conservation of synteny between the rat and mouse and, to a lesser degree, between rat and human. ..
  58. Purro S, Ciani L, Hoyos Flight M, Stamatakou E, Siomou E, Salinas P. Wnt regulates axon behavior through changes in microtubule growth directionality: a new role for adenomatous polyposis coli. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8644-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, short hairpin RNA knockdown of APC mimics Wnt3a function. Together, our findings define APC as a key Wnt signaling target in the regulation of microtubule growth direction. ..
  59. Capdevila J, lzpisúa Belmonte J. Extracellular modulation of the Hedgehog, Wnt and TGF-beta signalling pathways during embryonic development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:427-33 pubmed
  60. Zheng B, Sage M, Cai W, Thompson D, Tavsanli B, Cheah Y, et al. Engineering a mouse balancer chromosome. Nat Genet. 1999;22:375-8 pubmed
    ..The chromosome features a 24-centiMorgan (cM) inversion between Trp53 (also known as p53) and Wnt3 on mouse chromosome 11 that is recessive lethal and dominantly marked with a K14-Agouti transgene...
  61. Ramkumar N, Omelchenko T, Silva Gagliardi N, McGlade C, Wijnholds J, Anderson K. Crumbs2 promotes cell ingression during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:1281-1291 pubmed publisher
  62. Robertson E, Norris D, Brennan J, Bikoff E. Control of early anterior-posterior patterning in the mouse embryo by TGF-beta signalling. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003;358:1351-7; discussion 1357 pubmed