Gene Symbol: Wls
Description: wntless WNT ligand secretion mediator
Alias: 5031439A09Rik, AI173978, AI987742, EVI, Gpr177, protein wntless homolog, G protein-coupled receptor 177, integral membrane protein GPR177, protein evenness interrupted homolog, wntless homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Wls

Top Publications

  1. Wang L, Wang S, Hsu S. Functional characterization of mammalian Wntless homolog in mammalian system. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2012;28:355-61 pubmed publisher
    Wntless (GPR177) protein is a newly identified regulator of Wnt signals in Drosophila, but its cellular function in mammals is still unclear...
  2. Chen D, Jarrell A, Guo C, Lang R, Atit R. Dermal ?-catenin activity in response to epidermal Wnt ligands is required for fibroblast proliferation and hair follicle initiation. Development. 2012;139:1522-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal functional roles for dermal Wnt signaling/?-catenin in fibroblast proliferation and in the epidermal hair follicle initiation program. ..
  3. Yu H, Jin Y, Fu J, Hsu W. Expression of Gpr177, a Wnt trafficking regulator, in mouse embryogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177 is the mouse ortholog required for axis determination...
  4. Bartscherer K, Pelte N, Ingelfinger D, Boutros M. Secretion of Wnt ligands requires Evi, a conserved transmembrane protein. Cell. 2006;125:523-33 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify a conserved multipass transmembrane protein, Evenness interrupted (Evi/Wls), through an RNAi survey for transmembrane proteins involved in Drosophila Wingless (Wg) signaling...
  5. Huang S, Zhu X, Liu Y, Tao Y, Feng G, He L, et al. Wls is expressed in the epidermis and regulates embryonic hair follicle induction in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45904 pubmed publisher
    ..Wntless (Wls) is a cargo protein required for the secretion of various Wnt ligands...
  6. Zhu X, Zhu H, Zhang L, Huang S, Cao J, Ma G, et al. Wls-mediated Wnts differentially regulate distal limb patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;365:328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of the Wntless (Wls) gene, which is required for the secretion of various Wnts, makes it possible to genetically dissect the overall ..
  7. Fu J, Ivy Yu H, Maruyama T, Mirando A, Hsu W. Gpr177/mouse Wntless is essential for Wnt-mediated craniofacial and brain development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:365-71 pubmed publisher
    We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt, is required for establishment of the anterior-posterior axis...
  8. Reyes A, Levenson R, Berrettini W, Van Bockstaele E. Ultrastructural relationship between the mu opioid receptor and its interacting protein, GPR177, in striatal neurons. Brain Res. 2010;1358:71-80 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR177, the mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Wntless/Evi/Sprinter, was recently identified as a novel mu-opioid receptor (MOR) interacting protein...
  9. Jin J, Morse M, Frey C, Petko J, Levenson R. Expression of GPR177 (Wntless/Evi/Sprinter), a highly conserved Wnt-transport protein, in rat tissues, zebrafish embryos, and cultured human cells. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2426-34 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR177 is an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein necessary for Wnt protein secretion. Little is currently known, however, regarding expression of GPR177, especially in vertebrate species...

More Information


  1. Jin J, Kittanakom S, Wong V, Reyes B, Van Bockstaele E, Stagljar I, et al. Interaction of the mu-opioid receptor with GPR177 (Wntless) inhibits Wnt secretion: potential implications for opioid dependence. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:33 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that identifying and characterizing novel MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs) may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of opioid dependence...
  2. Carpenter A, Rao S, Wells J, Campbell K, Lang R. Generation of mice with a conditional null allele for Wntless. Genesis. 2010;48:554-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Wntless (Wls) binds to Wnt proteins and facilitates Wnt sorting and secretion...
  3. Stefater J, Lewkowich I, Rao S, Mariggi G, Carpenter A, Burr A, et al. Regulation of angiogenesis by a non-canonical Wnt-Flt1 pathway in myeloid cells. Nature. 2011;474:511-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that resident myeloid cells can use a non-canonical, Wnt-Flt1 pathway to suppress angiogenic branching. ..
  4. Fu J, Jiang M, Mirando A, Yu H, Hsu W. Reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177/mouse Wntless is required for embryonic axis formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18598-603 pubmed publisher
    ..However, relatively little is known about the making of Wnt in signal-producing cells. Here, we describe that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls, is expressed during formation of embryonic axes...
  5. Myung P, Takeo M, Ito M, ATIT R. Epithelial Wnt ligand secretion is required for adult hair follicle growth and regeneration. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we genetically deleted Wntless (Wls), a gene required for Wnt ligand secretion by Wnt-producing cells, specifically in the hair follicle epithelium ..
  6. Deschene E, Myung P, Rompolas P, Zito G, Sun T, Taketo M, et al. ?-Catenin activation regulates tissue growth non-cell autonomously in the hair stem cell niche. Science. 2014;343:1353-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates a mechanism by which Wnt/?-catenin signaling controls stem cell-dependent tissue growth non-cell autonomously and advances our understanding of the mechanisms that drive coordinated regeneration. ..
  7. Wan Y, Lu C, Cao J, Zhou R, Yao Y, Yu J, et al. Osteoblastic Wnts differentially regulate bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Bone. 2013;55:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explored the function of Wnt proteins in osteoblastic niche through inactivation of the Wntless (Wls) gene, which abrogates the secretion of Wnts...
  8. Onishi K, Zou Y. Sonic Hedgehog switches on Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling in commissural axon growth cones by reducing levels of Shisa2. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..This regulatory link between Shh and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling may also occur in other developmental processes. ..
  9. Zhu X, Yuan X, Wang M, Fang Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, et al. A Wnt/Notch/Pax7 signaling network supports tissue integrity in tongue development. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9409-9419 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that ShhCre -mediated epithelial deletion of Wntless (Wls), the key regulator for intracellular Wnt trafficking, leads to lingual hypoplasia in mice...
  10. Snowball J, Ambalavanan M, Whitsett J, Sinner D. Endodermal Wnt signaling is required for tracheal cartilage formation. Dev Biol. 2015;405:56-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Wls, a cargo receptor mediating Wnt ligand secretion, in the embryonic endoderm using ShhCre mice inhibited formation ..
  11. Wang B, Zhao L, Fish M, Logan C, Nusse R. Self-renewing diploid Axin2(+) cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver. Nature. 2015;524:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identify a cell population in the liver that subserves homeostatic hepatocyte renewal, characterize its anatomical niche, and identify molecular signals that regulate its activity. ..
  12. Chen Q, Zhang H, Liu Y, Adams S, Eilken H, Stehling M, et al. Endothelial cells are progenitors of cardiac pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12422 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify a novel and unexpected population of progenitors for coronary mural cells with potential relevance for heart function and disease conditions. ..
  13. Nguyen C, Singson E, Kim J, Cornelius J, Attia R, Doyle M, et al. Sjögren's syndrome-like disease of C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1 Aec2 mice: gender differences in keratoconjunctivitis sicca defined by a cross-over in the chromosome 3 Aec1 locus. Scand J Immunol. 2006;64:295-307 pubmed
    ..These data suggest SjS-like disease in the NOD mouse shows gender-specific regulation determined by autosomal genes...
  14. Lu C, Wan Y, Cao J, Zhu X, Yu J, Zhou R, et al. Wnt-mediated reciprocal regulation between cartilage and bone development during endochondral ossification. Bone. 2013;53:566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the effect of Wnt proteins in both tissues through generating cartilage- or bone-specific Wls null mice, respectively...
  15. Yang G, Zhou J, Teng Y, Xie J, Lin J, Guo X, et al. Mesenchymal TGF-? signaling orchestrates dental epithelial stem cell homeostasis through Wnt signaling. Stem Cells. 2014;32:2939-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In accord with these findings, mesenchyme-specific depletion of the Wnt transporter gene Wls abolished the aberrant mineralized structures caused by Tgfbr2 deletion...
  16. Goodnough L, Dinuoscio G, ATIT R. Twist1 contributes to cranial bone initiation and dermal condensation by maintaining Wnt signaling responsiveness. Dev Dyn. 2016;245:144-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Twist1, a target of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, also functions to maintain Wnt responsiveness and is a key effector for cranial bone fate selection and dermal condensation. ..
  17. Scholz B, Korn C, Wojtarowicz J, Mogler C, Augustin I, Boutros M, et al. Endothelial RSPO3 Controls Vascular Stability and Pruning through Non-canonical WNT/Ca(2+)/NFAT Signaling. Dev Cell. 2016;36:79-93 pubmed publisher
    ..phenocopied the non-canonical WNT signaling-induced vascular defects of mice deleted for the WNT secretion factor Evi/Wls. An endothelial screen for RSPO3 and EVI/WLS co-regulated genes identified Rnf213, Usp18, and Trim30α...
  18. Franco C, Jones M, Bernabeu M, Vion A, Barbacena P, Fan J, et al. Non-canonical Wnt signalling modulates the endothelial shear stress flow sensor in vascular remodelling. elife. 2016;5:e07727 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our data suggest that non-canonical Wnt signalling stabilizes forming vascular networks by reducing endothelial shear sensitivity, thus keeping vessels open under low flow conditions that prevail in the primitive plexus. ..
  19. Fu J, Hsu W. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177, the mouse Wls ortholog, is essential for hair follicle induction...
  20. Das S, Yu S, Sakamori R, Vedula P, Feng Q, Flores J, et al. Rab8a vesicles regulate Wnt ligand delivery and Paneth cell maturation at the intestinal stem cell niche. Development. 2015;142:2147-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified that Wnt secretion is partly dependent on Rab8a-mediated anterograde transport of Gpr177 (wntless), a Wnt-specific transmembrane transporter...
  21. Bae C, Kim T, Ko S, Lee J, Yang X, Cho E. Wntless regulates dentin apposition and root elongation in the mandibular molar. J Dent Res. 2015;94:439-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that odontoblast-specific disruption of Wntless (Wls), a chaperon protein that regulates Wnt sorting and secretion, leads to severe defects in dentin formation and root ..
  22. Yang J, Mowry L, Nejak Bowen K, Okabe H, Diegel C, Lang R, et al. ?-catenin signaling in murine liver zonation and regeneration: a Wnt-Wnt situation!. Hepatology. 2014;60:964-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To address the source of Wnt proteins in liver, we investigated conditional Wntless (Wls) KO mice, which lacked the ability to secrete Wnts from either liver epithelial cells (Wls-LKO), or macrophages ..
  23. Cao J, Zhang L, Wan Y, Li H, Zhou R, Ding H, et al. Ablation of Wntless in endosteal niches impairs lymphopoiesis rather than HSCs maintenance. Eur J Immunol. 2015;45:2650-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated hematopoiesis in mice with Wntless (Wls) deficiency in osteoblasts or Nestin-positive mesenchymal progenitor cells, which presumptively block Wnt secretion ..
  24. Chen S, Tang J, Cheng J, Hao X, Wang Y, Wang X, et al. Does murine spermatogenesis require WNT signalling? A lesson from Gpr177 conditional knockout mouse models. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2281 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of the Gpr177 gene (the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wntless), which is required for the secretion of various WNTs, makes it ..
  25. Neophytou P, Muir E, Hutton J. A subtractive cloning approach to the identification of mRNAs specifically expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. 1996;45:127-33 pubmed
    ..When combined with functional or immunological screening procedures, the approach will be useful for the isolation of beta-cell-specific molecules for immunological and genetic investigations of beta-cell function and pathology. ..
  26. Cornett B, Snowball J, Varisco B, Lang R, Whitsett J, Sinner D. Wntless is required for peripheral lung differentiation and pulmonary vascular development. Dev Biol. 2013;379:38-52 pubmed publisher
    Wntless (Wls), a gene highly conserved across the animal kingdom, encodes for a transmembrane protein that mediates Wnt ligand secretion. Wls is expressed in developing lung, wherein Wnt signaling is necessary for pulmonary morphogenesis...
  27. Takeo M, Chou W, Sun Q, Lee W, Rabbani P, Loomis C, et al. Wnt activation in nail epithelium couples nail growth to digit regeneration. Nature. 2013;499:228-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a link between NSC differentiation and digit regeneration, and suggest that NSCs may have the potential to contribute to the development of novel treatments for amputees. ..
  28. Zhu X, Liu Y, Zhao P, Dai Z, Yang X, Li Y, et al. Gpr177-mediated Wnt Signaling is Required for Fungiform Placode Initiation. J Dent Res. 2014;93:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, by Shh (Cre) -mediated oral epithelial deletion of Wntless (Gpr177), a regulator essential for intracellular Wnt trafficking, we demonstrate that an overall function of Wnts is ..
  29. Zhong Z, Zahatnansky J, Snider J, Van Wieren E, Diegel C, Williams B. Wntless spatially regulates bone development through β-catenin-dependent and independent mechanisms. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:1347-55 pubmed publisher
    Canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways both play pivotal roles in bone development. Wntless/GPR177 is a chaperone protein that is required for secretion of all Wnt ligands...
  30. Biechele S, Cockburn K, Lanner F, Cox B, Rossant J. Porcn-dependent Wnt signaling is not required prior to mouse gastrulation. Development. 2013;140:2961-71 pubmed publisher
  31. Petko J, Justice Bitner S, Jin J, Wong V, Kittanakom S, Ferraro T, et al. MOR is not enough: identification of novel mu-opioid receptor interacting proteins using traditional and modified membrane yeast two-hybrid screens. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67608 pubmed publisher
  32. Liu Y, Wang M, Zhao W, Yuan X, Yang X, Li Y, et al. Gpr177-mediated Wnt Signaling Is Required for Secondary Palate Development. J Dent Res. 2015;94:961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Gpr177, a highly conserved transmembrane protein essential for Wnt trafficking, is required for secondary palate ..
  33. Ha T, Swanson D, Kirova R, Yeung J, Choi K, Tong Y, et al. Genome-wide microarray comparison reveals downstream genes of Pax6 in the developing mouse cerebellum. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2888-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The candidate genes identified in this way represent direct or indirect Pax6-downstream genes involved in cerebellar development. ..
  34. Géraud C, Koch P, Zierow J, Klapproth K, Busch K, Olsavszky V, et al. GATA4-dependent organ-specific endothelial differentiation controls liver development and embryonic hematopoiesis. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:1099-1114 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also establish an essential role of the hepatic microvasculature in embryonic hematopoiesis. ..
  35. Takeo M, Hale C, Ito M. Epithelium-Derived Wnt Ligands Are Essential for Maintenance of Underlying Digit Bone. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1355-1363 pubmed publisher
    ..ligand secretion, was lacking in the β-catenin-deficient nail epithelium and that genetic deletion of Wntless (Wls) in the nail epithelium led to the lack of Wnt activation in osteoblast and osteoclast precursors and subsequently ..
  36. Maruyama E, Yu H, Jiang M, Fu J, Hsu W. Gpr177 deficiency impairs mammary development and prohibits Wnt-induced tumorigenesis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56644 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177 is essential for mammary morphogenesis...
  37. de Groot R, Farin H, Macůrková M, van Es J, Clevers H, Korswagen H. Retromer dependent recycling of the Wnt secretion factor Wls is dispensable for stem cell maintenance in the mammalian intestinal epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76971 pubmed publisher
    In C. elegans and Drosophila, retromer mediated retrograde transport of Wntless (Wls) from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is required for Wnt secretion...
  38. Yeung J, Goldowitz D. Wls expression in the rhombic lip orchestrates the embryonic development of the mouse cerebellum. Neuroscience. 2017;354:30-42 pubmed publisher
    Wntless (Wls) is implicated in the Wnt signaling pathway by regulating the secretion of Wnt molecules. During brain development, Wls is expressed in the isthmic organizer (ISO) and rhombic lip (RL)...
  39. Krol A, Roellig D, Dequéant M, Tassy O, Glynn E, Hattem G, et al. Evolutionary plasticity of segmentation clock networks. Development. 2011;138:2783-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite this conserved signaling oscillation, the identity of individual cyclic genes mostly differed between the three species, indicating a surprising evolutionary plasticity of the segmentation networks. ..
  40. Carpenter A, Smith A, Wagner H, Cohen Tayar Y, Rao S, Wallace V, et al. Wnt ligands from the embryonic surface ectoderm regulate 'bimetallic strip' optic cup morphogenesis in mouse. Development. 2015;142:972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..When these activities were suppressed by conditional deletion of wntless (Le-cre; Wls(fl/fl)) there were dramatic consequences that included a saucer-shaped optic cup, ventral coloboma, and a ..
  41. Augustin I, Gross J, Baumann D, Korn C, Kerr G, Grigoryan T, et al. Loss of epidermal Evi/Wls results in a phenotype resembling psoriasiform dermatitis. J Exp Med. 2013;210:1761-77 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of Wnt proteins in this process, we created a conditional knockout allele of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi/Gpr177/Wntless and studied mice that lacked Evi expression in the epidermis...
  42. Tan S, Senarath Yapa K, Chung M, Longaker M, WU J, Nusse R. Wnts produced by Osterix-expressing osteolineage cells regulate their proliferation and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E5262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Osterix-expressing cells produce their own Wnts that in turn induce Wnt signaling response, thereby regulating their proliferation and differentiation. ..
  43. Yeung J, Ha T, Swanson D, Choi K, Tong Y, Goldowitz D. Wls provides a new compartmental view of the rhombic lip in mouse cerebellar development. J Neurosci. 2014;34:12527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we discover that Wntless (Wls) is a novel molecular marker of the cells in the interior face of the rhombic lip throughout normal mouse ..
  44. Korn C, Scholz B, Hu J, Srivastava K, Wojtarowicz J, Arnsperger T, et al. Endothelial cell-derived non-canonical Wnt ligands control vascular pruning in angiogenesis. Development. 2014;141:1757-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt ligands for regulation of blood vessel formation, we conditionally deleted the Wnt secretion factor Evi in mouse ECs (Evi-ECKO)...
  45. Augustin I, Dewi D, Hundshammer J, Erdmann G, Kerr G, Boutros M. Autocrine Wnt regulates the survival and genomic stability of embryonic stem cells. Sci Signal. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..The secretion of Wnt ligands requires Evi (also known as Wls)...
  46. Pradhan Sundd T, Verheyen E. The role of Bro1- domain-containing protein Myopic in endosomal trafficking of Wnt/Wingless. Dev Biol. 2014;392:93-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Wg secretion is regulated by a specialized mechanism involving a repertoire of proteins including Wntless (Wls)...
  47. Choi Y, Zhang Y, Xu M, Yang Y, Ito M, Peng T, et al. Distinct functions for Wnt/?-catenin in hair follicle stem cell proliferation and survival and interfollicular epidermal homeostasis. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:720-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We further unexpectedly discovered a broader role for Wnt/?-catenin signaling in contributing to progenitor cell proliferation in nonhairy epithelia and interfollicular epidermis under homeostatic, but not inflammatory, conditions. ..
  48. Williams B. Genetically engineered mouse models to evaluate the role of Wnt secretion in bone development and homeostasis. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2016;172C:24-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These GEMMs were established by utilizing mice containing a conditionally inactivatable allele of Wntless/GPR177 (a gene encoding a protein required for the transport of Porcupine-modified ligand to the plasma membrane for ..
  49. Yang J, Cusimano A, Monga J, Preziosi M, Pullara F, Calero G, et al. WNT5A inhibits hepatocyte proliferation and concludes β-catenin signaling in liver regeneration. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:2194-205 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed LR in liver-specific knockouts of Wntless (Wls-LKO), a protein required for Wnt secretion from a cell...
  50. Palevski D, Levin Kotler L, Kain D, Naftali Shani N, Landa N, Ben Mordechai T, et al. Loss of Macrophage Wnt Secretion Improves Remodeling and Function After Myocardial Infarction in Mice. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of macrophage Wnts on cardiac repair, we evaluated mice lacking the essential Wnt transporter Wntless (Wls) in myeloid cells...
  51. Valenta T, Degirmenci B, Moor A, Herr P, Zimmerli D, Moor M, et al. Wnt Ligands Secreted by Subepithelial Mesenchymal Cells Are Essential for the Survival of Intestinal Stem Cells and Gut Homeostasis. Cell Rep. 2016;15:911-918 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt2b is secreted by subepithelial mesenchymal cells that co-express either Gli1 or Acta2. Subepithelial mesenchymal cells expressing high levels of Wnt2b are predominantly Gli1 positive. ..
  52. Stefater J, Rao S, Bezold K, Aplin A, Nicosia R, Pollard J, et al. Macrophage Wnt-Calcineurin-Flt1 signaling regulates mouse wound angiogenesis and repair. Blood. 2013;121:2574-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional mutants deficient in both Wntless/GPR177, the secretory transporter of Wnt ligands, and CNB1, the essential component of the nuclear factor of activated T ..
  53. Kabiri Z, Greicius G, Madan B, Biechele S, Zhong Z, Zaribafzadeh H, et al. Stroma provides an intestinal stem cell niche in the absence of epithelial Wnts. Development. 2014;141:2206-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that epithelial Wnts are dispensable and that stromal production of Wnts can fully support normal murine intestinal homeostasis. ..
  54. Zhong Z, Zylstra Diegel C, Schumacher C, Baker J, Carpenter A, Rao S, et al. Wntless functions in mature osteoblasts to regulate bone mass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..3) encoding the Wntless (Wls)/Gpr177 protein are associated significantly with reduced bone mineral density...
  55. Snowball J, Ambalavanan M, Cornett B, Lang R, Whitsett J, Sinner D. Mesenchymal Wnt signaling promotes formation of sternum and thoracic body wall. Dev Biol. 2015;401:264-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated a mouse model wherein Wntless (Wls), which encodes a cargo receptor mediating secretion of Wnt ligands, was conditionally deleted from the developing ..