Gene Symbol: Wif1
Description: Wnt inhibitory factor 1
Alias: AW107799, WIF-1, wnt inhibitory factor 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Wif1

Top Publications

  1. Keil K, Mehta V, Branam A, Abler L, Buresh Stiemke R, Joshi P, et al. Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) is regulated by androgens and enhances androgen-dependent prostate development. Endocrinology. 2012;153:6091-103 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that WNT inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) mRNA is more abundant in male vs...
  2. Hsieh J, Kodjabachian L, Rebbert M, Rattner A, Smallwood P, Samos C, et al. A new secreted protein that binds to Wnt proteins and inhibits their activities. Nature. 1999;398:431-6 pubmed
  3. Xu B, Chen C, Chen H, Zheng S, Bringas P, Xu M, et al. Smad1 and its target gene Wif1 coordinate BMP and Wnt signaling activities to regulate fetal lung development. Development. 2011;138:925-35 pubmed publisher
    ..By combining cDNA microarray with ChIP-chip analyses, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) was identified as a novel target gene of Smad1 in the developing mouse lung epithelial cells...
  4. Surmann Schmitt C, Widmann N, Dietz U, Saeger B, Eitzinger N, Nakamura Y, et al. Wif-1 is expressed at cartilage-mesenchyme interfaces and impedes Wnt3a-mediated inhibition of chondrogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..is generally regulated at the extracellular level by factors like the Dkk family, sFRPs, Cerberus and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif-1)...
  5. Hunter D, Zhang M, Ferguson J, Koch M, Brunken W. The extracellular matrix component WIF-1 is expressed during, and can modulate, retinal development. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;27:477-88 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that WIF-1 and Wnt4, both components of the ECM, regulate mammalian photoreceptor development. ..
  6. Osmundsen H, Landin M, From S, Kolltveit K, Risnes S. Changes in gene-expression during development of the murine molar tooth germ. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:803-13 pubmed
    ..Such data is therefore useful in directing attention towards genes, or cellular activities, which likely are worthy of further studies as regards their involvement in odontogenesis...
  7. Hu Y, Gu X, Liu J, Yang Y, Yan Y, Zhao C. Expression pattern of Wnt inhibitor factor 1(Wif1) during the development in mouse CNS. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:515-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the expression pattern of Wif1 throughout the development of the mouse central nervous system (CNS)...
  8. Buermans H, van Wijk B, Hulsker M, Smit N, den Dunnen J, van Ommen G, et al. Comprehensive gene-expression survey identifies wif1 as a modulator of cardiomyocyte differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15504 pubmed publisher
    ..recombinant-protein incubation in PE-explant cultures indicated that the early upregulated Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (Wif1), stimulates cardiomyocyte differentiation in a similar manner as Wnt stimulation...
  9. Kansara M, Tsang M, Kodjabachian L, Sims N, Trivett M, Ehrich M, et al. Wnt inhibitory factor 1 is epigenetically silenced in human osteosarcoma, and targeted disruption accelerates osteosarcomagenesis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:837-51 pubmed publisher
    ..cell lines in a high-throughput screen for epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes and identified Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), which encodes an endogenous secreted Wnt pathway antagonist, as a candidate tumor suppressor gene...

More Information


  1. Qin X, Zhang H, Zhou X, Wang C, Zhang H, Zhang X, et al. Proliferation and migration mediated by Dkk-1/Wnt/beta-catenin cascade in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Transl Res. 2007;150:281-94 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that Dkk-1/Wnt/beta-catenin cascade may mediate the proliferation and migration of HCC cells during the metastasis process. ..
  2. Landin M, Shabestari M, Babaie E, Reseland J, Osmundsen H. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development. Front Genet. 2012;3:139 pubmed publisher
    ..Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors. ..
  3. Fantauzzo K, Christiano A. Trps1 activates a network of secreted Wnt inhibitors and transcription factors crucial to vibrissa follicle morphogenesis. Development. 2012;139:203-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify Trps1 as a novel regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway and of early hair follicle progenitors in the developing vibrissa follicle. ..
  4. Clavel C, Grisanti L, Zemla R, Rezza A, Barros R, Sennett R, et al. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning BMP signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Dev Cell. 2012;23:981-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data identify Sox2 as a key regulator of hair growth that controls progenitor migration by fine-tuning BMP-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial crosstalk...
  5. Lapak K, Burd C. The molecular balancing act of p16(INK4a) in cancer and aging. Mol Cancer Res. 2014;12:167-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This review outlines the molecular pathways critical for proper p16(INK4a) regulation and emphasizes the indispensable functions of p16(INK4a) in cancer, aging, and human physiology that make this gene special. ..
  6. Wang N, Wang Z, Wang Y, Xie X, Shen J, Peng C, et al. Dietary compound isoliquiritigenin prevents mammary carcinogenesis by inhibiting breast cancer stem cells through WIF1 demethylation. Oncotarget. 2015;6:9854-76 pubmed
    ..Here, we report a novel function of ISL as a natural demethylation agent targeting WIF1 to prevent breast cancer...
  7. Neumann P, Koch S, Hilgarth R, Perez Chanona E, Denning P, Jobin C, et al. Gut commensal bacteria and regional Wnt gene expression in the proximal versus distal colon. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:592-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Several Wnt agonists (Wnt5a, Wnt8b, and Wnt11), the Wnt receptor frizzled family receptor 3, and the Wnt inhibitory factor 1 were differentially expressed along the colon length...
  8. Ng R, Matsumaru D, Ho A, Garcia Barcelo M, Yuan Z, Smith D, et al. Dysregulation of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) expression resulted in aberrant Wnt-?-catenin signaling and cell death of the cloaca endoderm, and anorectal malformations. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:978-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The apoptotic endoderm was closely associated with the tempo-spatial expression of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), which is an inhibitor of Wnt-?-catenin signaling...
  9. Toivanen R, Shen M. Prostate organogenesis: tissue induction, hormonal regulation and cell type specification. Development. 2017;144:1382-1398 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of prostate development, focusing on recent findings regarding sexual dimorphism, bud induction, branching morphogenesis and cellular differentiation. ..
  10. Diep D, Hoen N, Backman M, Machon O, Krauss S. Characterisation of the Wnt antagonists and their response to conditionally activated Wnt signalling in the developing mouse forebrain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;153:261-70 pubmed
    ..We also provide evidence indicating that only dkk1 and dkk4, along with two other Wnt antagonists axin2 and wif1, but not dkk2 and dkk3, are involved in a feedback mechanism to restrain Wnt signalling in transgenic mice carrying ..
  11. Zuklys S, Gill J, Keller M, Hauri Hohl M, Zhanybekova S, Balciunaite G, et al. Stabilized beta-catenin in thymic epithelial cells blocks thymus development and function. J Immunol. 2009;182:2997-3007 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that a precise regulation of canonical Wnt signaling in thymic epithelia is essential for normal thymus development and function. ..
  12. Eitzinger N, Surmann Schmitt C, Bösl M, Schett G, Engelke K, Hess A, et al. Ucma is not necessary for normal development of the mouse skeleton. Bone. 2012;50:670-80 pubmed publisher
  13. Mulligan W, Wegner K, Keil K, Mehta V, Taketo M, Vezina C. Beta-catenin and estrogen signaling collaborate to drive cyclin D1 expression in developing mouse prostate. Differentiation. 2017;93:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results are consistent with an epithelial proliferative growth mechanism linking CTNNB1-driven Ccnd1 transcription and estrogen-mediated CCND1 protein stabilization. ..
  14. Geng R, Noda T, Mulvaney J, Lin V, Edge A, Dabdoub A. Comprehensive Expression of Wnt Signaling Pathway Genes during Development and Maturation of the Mouse Cochlea. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148339 pubmed publisher
    ..The data revealed several potential key regulators for further study. ..
  15. Lu D, Dong W, Zhang X, Quan X, Bao D, Lu Y, et al. WIF1 causes dysfunction of heart in transgenic mice. Transgenic Res. 2013;22:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), a antagonists of Wnt signaling activity, its potential effects on heart development has not yet ..
  16. Lee M, Kim E, Li L, Jung H. Roles of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 during tooth morphogenesis. Cell Tissue Res. 2015;362:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), a secreted Wnt antagonist, localizes to the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during early tooth ..
  17. Sun J, Chen H, Chen C, Whitsett J, Mishina Y, Bringas P, et al. Prenatal lung epithelial cell-specific abrogation of Alk3-bone morphogenetic protein signaling causes neonatal respiratory distress by disrupting distal airway formation. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:571-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data suggest that deficiency of appropriate BMP signaling in lung epithelial cells results in prenatal lung malformation, neonatal atelectasis, and respiratory failure. ..
  18. Schaniel C, Sirabella D, Qiu J, Niu X, Lemischka I, Moore K. Wnt-inhibitory factor 1 dysregulation of the bone marrow niche exhausts hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. 2011;118:2420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt signaling from the perspective of the stem cell niche by expressing the pan Wnt inhibitor, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), specifically in osteoblasts...
  19. Danopoulos S, Krainock M, Toubat O, Thornton M, Grubbs B, Al Alam D. Rac1 modulates mammalian lung branching morphogenesis in part through canonical Wnt signaling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;311:L1036-L1049 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the exact mechanisms by which Rac1 interacts with canonical Wnt in human and mouse lung requires further investigation. ..
  20. Baker E, Taylor S, Gupte A, Chalk A, Bhattacharya S, Green A, et al. Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) is a marker of osteoblastic differentiation stage and is not silenced by DNA methylation in osteosarcoma. Bone. 2015;73:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These therapies inhibit the action of negative regulators of osteoblastic Wnt signaling. The report that Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) was epigenetically silenced via promoter DNA methylation in osteosarcoma (OS) raised potential ..
  21. Roy B, Subramaniam D, Ahmed I, Jala V, Hester C, Greiner K, et al. Role of bacterial infection in the epigenetic regulation of Wnt antagonist WIF1 by PRC2 protein EZH2. Oncogene. 2015;34:4519-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed EZH2 and H3K27me3's occupancy on WIF1 (Wnt inhibitory factor 1) promoter resulting in reduced WIF1 mRNA and protein expression...
  22. Stock M, Böhm C, Scholtysek C, Englbrecht M, Fürnrohr B, Klinger P, et al. Wnt inhibitory factor 1 deficiency uncouples cartilage and bone destruction in tumor necrosis factor ?-mediated experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:2310-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that the secreted Wnt antagonist Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF-1) is mainly expressed in the upper layers of epiphyseal and articular cartilage and, to a lesser ..
  23. Jia S, Zhou J, Gao Y, Baek J, Martin J, Lan Y, et al. Roles of Bmp4 during tooth morphogenesis and sequential tooth formation. Development. 2013;140:423-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found that the Wnt inhibitors Dkk2 and Wif1 were much more abundantly expressed in the mandibular than maxillary molar mesenchyme in wild-type embryos and that ..
  24. Reid B, Yang H, Melvin V, Taketo M, Williams T. Ectodermal Wnt/?-catenin signaling shapes the mouse face. Dev Biol. 2011;349:261-9 pubmed publisher
  25. Cho S, Yang J, Sun H, Jung J, Her S, Cho H, et al. Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF)-1 inhibits osteoblastic differentiation in mouse embryonic mesenchymal cells. Bone. 2009;44:1069-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that WIF-1 plays as a negative regulator of osteoblastic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells in vitro. ..
  26. Matsunaga E, Nambu S, Oka M, Tanaka M, Taoka M, Iriki A. Identification of tool use acquisition-associated genes in the primate neocortex. Dev Growth Differ. 2015;57:484-95 pubmed publisher
    ..chain reaction and histochemical analysis, we confirmed at least three genes (ADAM19, SPON2, and WIF1) with statistically different expression levels in neurons and glial cells...
  27. Bennett C, Ross S, Longo K, Bajnok L, Hemati N, Johnson K, et al. Regulation of Wnt signaling during adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30998-1004 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that disruption of extracellular Wnt signaling by expression of secreted Frizzled related proteins causes spontaneous adipocyte conversion. ..
  28. Park J, Tanaka Y, Arango N, Zhang L, Benedict L, Roh M, et al. Induction of WNT inhibitory factor 1 expression by Müllerian inhibiting substance/antiMullerian hormone in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme is linked to Müllerian duct regression. Dev Biol. 2014;386:227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..A seven-fold increase in the expression of Wif1, an inhibitor of WNT/?-catenin signaling, was observed in the Misr2-expressing UGRs...