Gene Symbol: Vip
Description: vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
Alias: VIP peptides, PHI, peptide histidine isoleucine
Species: mouse
Products:     Vip

Top Publications

  1. Natarajan D, Grigoriou M, Marcos Gutierrez C, Atkins C, Pachnis V. Multipotential progenitors of the mammalian enteric nervous system capable of colonising aganglionic bowel in organ culture. Development. 1999;126:157-68 pubmed
    ..Our data show the NC-derived RET+ population of fetal gut in mammalian embryos consists of multipotential progenitors capable of colonising efficiently both wild-type and RET-deficient aganglionic bowel in organ culture. ..
  2. Girard B, Lelievre V, Braas K, Razinia T, Vizzard M, Ioffe Y, et al. Noncompensation in peptide/receptor gene expression and distinct behavioral phenotypes in VIP- and PACAP-deficient mice. J Neurochem. 2006;99:499-513 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are closely related neurotrophic peptides of the secretin/glucagon family...
  3. Lim M, Stack C, Cuasay K, Stone M, McFarlane H, Waschek J, et al. Regardless of genotype, offspring of VIP-deficient female mice exhibit developmental delays and deficits in social behavior. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2008;26:423-34 pubmed publisher
    Pharmacological studies indicate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be necessary for normal embryonic development in the mouse...
  4. Hill J. Vasoactive intestinal peptide in neurodevelopmental disorders: therapeutic potential. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:1079-89 pubmed
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mediates important events during the development of the nervous system...
  5. Aton S, Colwell C, Harmar A, Waschek J, Herzog E. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythmicity and synchrony in mammalian clock neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:476-83 pubmed
    ..Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and the VIP receptor VPAC(2) (encoded by the gene Vipr2) may mediate rhythms in individual SCN neurons, synchrony ..
  6. Szema A, Hamidi S, Lyubsky S, Dickman K, Mathew S, Abdel Razek T, et al. Mice lacking the VIP gene show airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation, partially reversible by VIP. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L880-6 pubmed
    The mechanisms leading to asthma, and those guarding against it, are yet to be fully defined. The neuropeptide VIP is a cotransmitter, together with nitric oxide (NO), of airway relaxation, and a modulator of immune and inflammatory ..
  7. Colwell C, Michel S, Itri J, Rodriguez W, Tam J, Lelievre V, et al. Disrupted circadian rhythms in VIP- and PHI-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R939-49 pubmed
    The related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) are expressed at high levels in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but their function in the regulation of circadian ..
  8. Jinno S, Kosaka T. Patterns of expression of neuropeptides in GABAergic nonprincipal neurons in the mouse hippocampus: Quantitative analysis with optical disector. J Comp Neurol. 2003;461:333-49 pubmed
    ..neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM), cholecystokinin (CCK), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)] in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons of the mouse hippocampus, with particular reference to the areal ..
  9. Taniguchi H, He M, Wu P, Kim S, Paik R, Sugino K, et al. A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2011;71:995-1013 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, this approach will accelerate the study of GABAergic circuits throughout the mammalian brain. ..

More Information


  1. Brown T, Colwell C, Waschek J, Piggins H. Disrupted neuronal activity rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-deficient mice. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:2553-8 pubmed
    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), acting via the VPAC(2) receptor, is a key signaling pathway in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock controlling daily rhythms in mammals...
  2. Said S, Hamidi S, Dickman K, Szema A, Lyubsky S, Lin R, et al. Moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension in male mice lacking the vasoactive intestinal peptide gene. Circulation. 2007;115:1260-8 pubmed
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a pulmonary vasodilator and inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, has been reported absent in pulmonary arteries from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)...
  3. Li J, Southerland L, Hossain M, Giver C, Wang Y, Darlak K, et al. Absence of vasoactive intestinal peptide expression in hematopoietic cells enhances Th1 polarization and antiviral immunity in mice. J Immunol. 2011;187:1057-65 pubmed publisher
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) induces regulatory dendritic cells (DC) in vitro that inhibit cellular immune responses...
  4. Hamidi S, Prabhakar S, Said S. Enhancement of pulmonary vascular remodelling and inflammatory genes with VIP gene deletion. Eur Respir J. 2008;31:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present authors recently reported that mice with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene disruption show a spontaneous phenotype of PAH, with pulmonary vascular remodelling and lung inflammation...
  5. An S, Harang R, Meeker K, Granados Fuentes D, Tsai C, Mazuski C, et al. A neuropeptide speeds circadian entrainment by reducing intercellular synchrony. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Paradoxically, we found that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a neuropeptide implicated in synchrony among SCN cells, can also desynchronize them...
  6. Waschek J, Ellison J, Bravo D, Handley V. Embryonic expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP receptor genes. J Neurochem. 1996;66:1762-5 pubmed
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exhibits pronounced effects on the growth rate of cultured mouse embryonic day (E) 9.5 embryos and acts in tissue culture as a potent glial mitogen and neuron survival factor...
  7. Maywood E, Chesham J, O Brien J, Hastings M. A diversity of paracrine signals sustains molecular circadian cycling in suprachiasmatic nucleus circuits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:14306-11 pubmed publisher restore cellular synchrony and amplitude of pacemaking in SCN circuits lacking vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)...
  8. Azim E, Jabaudon D, Fame R, Macklis J. SOX6 controls dorsal progenitor identity and interneuron diversity during neocortical development. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that SOX6 is a central regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development. ..
  9. Abad C, Tan Y, Lopez R, Nobuta H, Dong H, Phan P, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide loss leads to impaired CNS parenchymal T-cell infiltration and resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19555-60 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been shown to inhibit macrophage proinflammatory actions, promote a positive Th2/Th1 balance, and stimulate regulatory T-cell production...
  10. Batista Brito R, Rossignol E, Hjerling Leffler J, Denaxa M, Wegner M, Lefebvre V, et al. The cell-intrinsic requirement of Sox6 for cortical interneuron development. Neuron. 2009;63:466-81 pubmed publisher
    ..It is, however, necessary for their normal positioning and maturation. As a consequence, the specific removal of Sox6 from this population results in a severe epileptic encephalopathy. ..
  11. Lamperti E, Rosen K, Villa Komaroff L. Characterization of the gene and messages for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in rat and mouse. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1991;9:217-31 pubmed
    We have studied the structure and expression of the gene for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in rodents. We used a human cDNA to identify and clone a fragment of the rat VIP gene...
  12. Cogliati T, Delgado Romero P, Norwitz E, Guduric Fuchs J, Kaiser U, Wray S, et al. Pubertal impairment in Nhlh2 null mice is associated with hypothalamic and pituitary deficiencies. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:3013-27 pubmed
  13. Miller J, Granados Fuentes D, Wang T, Marpegan L, Holy T, Herzog E. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythms in mammalian olfactory bulb and olfaction. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6040-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that circadian rhythms in gene expression and odor detection performance require vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or its receptor VPAC2R...
  14. Bell L, Bell K, McQuiston A. Activation of muscarinic receptors by ACh release in hippocampal CA1 depolarizes VIP but has varying effects on parvalbumin-expressing basket cells. J Physiol. 2015;593:197-215 pubmed publisher
    ..ACh) from medial septal afferents activates muscarinic receptors on both vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing (VIP) and parvalbumin-expressing (PV) basket cells (BCs) in mouse hippocampal CA1...
  15. Kim M, Joo K, Chung Y, Lee Y, Kim J, Lee B, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP mRNA decrease in the cerebral cortex of nNOS knock-out(-/-) mice. Brain Res. 2003;978:233-40 pubmed
    Although there is much evidence showing that NO regulates the release of VIP in several areas, there is no report about the influence of NO on VIP in the cerebral cortex...
  16. Bell L, Bell K, McQuiston A. Acetylcholine release in mouse hippocampal CA1 preferentially activates inhibitory-selective interneurons via α4β2* nicotinic receptor activation. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:115 pubmed publisher
    ..Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons that selectively innervate other interneurons (VIP/IS) were excited by ACh through the ..
  17. Parsons M, Brancaccio M, Sethi S, Maywood E, Satija R, Edwards J, et al. The Regulatory Factor ZFHX3 Modifies Circadian Function in SCN via an AT Motif-Driven Axis. Cell. 2015;162:607-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, by cloning Zfhx3(Sci), we have uncovered a circadian transcriptional axis that determines the period and robustness of behavioral and SCN molecular rhythms. ..
  18. Mikkelsen J, Fahrenkrug J. Concentrations and distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) and peptide histidine valine (PHV) in the cerebral cortex and the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the mouse. Brain Res. 1994;656:95-107 pubmed
    Prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide (prepro-VIP) is processed to at least three biologically active peptides: VIP, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) and an extended PHI, peptide histidine valine (PHV)...
  19. Ciarleglio C, Gamble K, Axley J, Strauss B, Cohen J, Colwell C, et al. Population encoding by circadian clock neurons organizes circadian behavior. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1670-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the SCN encode circadian phase as a temporal population vector of its constituent neurons; such that as the neuronal population becomes desynchronized, phase information becomes ambiguous. ..
  20. Tompkins J, Girard B, Vizzard M, Parsons R. VIP and PACAP effects on mouse major pelvic ganglia neurons. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;42:390-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has previously been observed in the MPG, and VIP knockout animals have impaired micturition reflexes suggesting a ..
  21. Gomez Arroyo J, Saleem S, Mizuno S, Syed A, Bogaard H, Abbate A, et al. A brief overview of mouse models of pulmonary arterial hypertension: problems and prospects. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L977-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Anatomical, cellular, and genetic differences distinguish mice and rats, and pharmacogenomics may explain the degree of PH and the particular mode of pulmonary vascular adaptation and also the response of the right ventricle. ..
  22. Denaxa M, Kalaitzidou M, Garefalaki A, Achimastou A, Lasrado R, Maes T, et al. Maturation-promoting activity of SATB1 in MGE-derived cortical interneurons. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1351-62 pubmed publisher
  23. Pi H, Hangya B, Kvitsiani D, Sanders J, Huang Z, Kepecs A. Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control. Nature. 2013;503:521-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a class of interneurons that express vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) mediates disinhibitory control in multiple areas of neocortex and is recruited by reinforcement signals...
  24. Walker F, Mock M, Feyerabend M, Guy J, Wagener R, Schubert D, et al. Parvalbumin- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing neocortical interneurons impose differential inhibition on Martinotti cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13664 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse primary somatosensory cortex are inhibited by both parvalbumin (PV)- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing cells. Paired recordings revealed stronger synaptic input onto MC from PV cells than from VIP cells...
  25. Kojima M, Ito T, Oono T, Hisano T, Igarashi H, Arita Y, et al. VIP attenuation of the severity of experimental pancreatitis is due to VPAC1 receptor-mediated inhibition of cytokine production. Pancreas. 2005;30:62-70 pubmed
    b>VIP receptor has been clarified to exist on immune cells, indicating its possible involvement in immunity and inflammatory response...
  26. Loh D, Abad C, Colwell C, Waschek J. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is critical for circadian regulation of glucocorticoids. Neuroendocrinology. 2008;88:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..A variety of recent evidence indicates that the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is critical for normal functioning of the SCN...
  27. Giladi E, Hill J, Dresner E, Stack C, Gozes I. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) expression in vivo. J Mol Neurosci. 2007;33:278-83 pubmed
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important mediator of development during the neural tube closure period of embryogenesis and may regulate, in part, the expression of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), which is ..
  28. Samarasinghe A, Hoselton S, Schuh J. Spatio-temporal localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and neutral endopeptidase in allergic murine lungs. Regul Pept. 2010;164:151-7 pubmed publisher
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with cytokine properties that is abundant in the lung...
  29. Parisi M, Baldessari A, Iida M, Clarke C, Doggett B, Shirasawa S, et al. Genetic background modifies intestinal pseudo-obstruction and the expression of a reporter gene in Hox11L1-/- mice. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:1428-40 pubmed
    ..Expression of the transgene by enteric neurons and penetrance of pseudo-obstruction in Hox11L1-null animals are influenced by one or more modifier genes, counterparts of which may play a similar role in human disease. ..
  30. Arnhold S, When M, Labbe D, Andressen C, Addicks K. Transient expression of NOS-II during development of the murine enteric nervous system. J Mol Histol. 2004;35:741-8 pubmed
  31. Bechtold D, Brown T, Luckman S, Piggins H. Metabolic rhythm abnormalities in mice lacking VIP-VPAC2 signaling. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R344-51 pubmed
    ..Recently, we showed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor, VPAC(2) are critical to the intercellular communication between individual SCN neurons, and ..
  32. Alcantara S, Ruiz M, D ARCANGELO G, Ezan F, de Lecea L, Curran T, et al. Regional and cellular patterns of reelin mRNA expression in the forebrain of the developing and adult mouse. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7779-99 pubmed
    ..This complex pattern of cellular and regional expression is consistent with Reelin having multiple roles in brain development and adult brain function. ..
  33. Flore G, Cioffi S, Bilio M, Illingworth E. Cortical Development Requires Mesodermal Expression of Tbx1, a Gene Haploinsufficient in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:2210-2225 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that mesoderm-specific inactivation of Tbx1 is sufficient to recapitulate the brain phenotype indicating that Tbx1 exerts a cell nonautonomous role in cortical development from the mesoderm. ..
  34. Szema A, Hamidi S, Koller A, Martin D. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Knockout (VIP KO) mouse model of sulfite-sensitive asthma: up-regulation of novel lung carbonyl reductase. BMC Immunol. 2011;12:66 pubmed publisher
    We earlier reported spontaneous features of asthma in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide knockout mice (VIP KO): 1) peribronchiolar airway inflammation, with accumulation of lymphocytes and eosinophils, 2) pro-inflammatory cytokine production ..
  35. Cichon J, Blanck T, Gan W, Yang G. Activation of cortical somatostatin interneurons prevents the development of neuropathic pain. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:1122-1132 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal cortical circuit changes that arise during the development of neuropathic pain and identify the activation of specific cortical interneurons as therapeutic targets for chronic pain treatment. ..
  36. Vogt D, Hunt R, Mandal S, Sandberg M, Silberberg S, Nagasawa T, et al. Lhx6 directly regulates Arx and CXCR7 to determine cortical interneuron fate and laminar position. Neuron. 2014;82:350-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These data define the molecular identity of Lhx6 mutants and introduce technologies to test mechanisms in GABAergic interneuron differentiation. ..
  37. Girard B, Tompkins J, Parsons R, May V, Vizzard M. Effects of CYP-induced cystitis on PACAP/VIP and receptor expression in micturition pathways and bladder function in mice with overexpression of NGF in urothelium. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:730-43 pubmed
    ..Quantitative PCR was used to determine PACAP/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P, galanin, and receptor transcript expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium, detrusor) in mice ..
  38. Neske G, Patrick S, Connors B. Contributions of diverse excitatory and inhibitory neurons to recurrent network activity in cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2015;35:1089-105 pubmed publisher
    ..pyramidal cells and interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), or neuropeptide Y...
  39. Abad C, Cheung Lau G, Coûté Monvoisin A, Waschek J. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-deficient mice exhibit reduced pathology in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2015;22:203-12 pubmed publisher
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an immunomodulatory neuropeptide with therapeutic properties in multiple murine models of inflammatory disease including the trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-colitis model of Crohn's disease...
  40. Hauk V, Calafat M, Larocca L, Fraccaroli L, Grasso E, Ramhorst R, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide/vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor relative expression in salivary glands as one endogenous modulator of acinar cell apoptosis in a murine model of Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;166:309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the vasodilator, prosecretory and trophic effects of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on acini as well as its anti-inflammatory properties we hypothesized that the local expression of VIP/vasoactive ..
  41. Erickson C, Zaitoun I, Haberman K, Gosain A, Druckenbrod N, Epstein M. Sacral neural crest-derived cells enter the aganglionic colon of Ednrb-/- mice along extrinsic nerve fibers. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:620-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Extrinsic nerve fibers serve as a route of entry for both rodent and avian sacral crest into the hindgut. ..
  42. Li J, Hossain M, Southerland L, Waller E. Pharmacological inhibition of VIP signaling enhances antiviral immunity and improves survival in murine cytomegalovirus-infected allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients. Blood. 2013;121:2347-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) suppresses Th1 immunity...
  43. Szliter E, Lighvani S, Barrett R, Hazlett L. Vasoactive intestinal peptide balances pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected cornea and protects against corneal perforation. J Immunol. 2007;178:1105-14 pubmed
    ..To determine whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) played a role in development of the resistant response, protein expression levels were tested by ..
  44. Fan J, Zeng H, Olson D, Huber K, Gibson J, Takahashi J. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus provide sparse GABAergic outputs to local neurons with circadian regulation occurring distal to the opening of postsynaptic GABAA ionotropic receptors. J Neurosci. 2015;35:1905-20 pubmed publisher
    ..mice, we examined synaptic responses originating from the SCN neurons expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP+ neurons)...
  45. Gelman D, Griveau A, Dehorter N, Teissier A, Varela C, Pla R, et al. A wide diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons derives from the embryonic preoptic area. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with earlier findings, our results also suggest that the POA generates nearly 10% of the GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex of the mouse. ..
  46. Spiegel I, Mardinly A, Gabel H, Bazinet J, Couch C, Tzeng C, et al. Npas4 regulates excitatory-inhibitory balance within neural circuits through cell-type-specific gene programs. Cell. 2014;157:1216-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the functional outcomes of activity-induced transcriptional responses are adapted in a cell-type-specific manner to achieve a circuit-wide homeostatic response...
  47. Memic F, Knoflach V, Sadler R, Tegerstedt G, Sundström E, Guillemot F, et al. Ascl1 Is Required for the Development of Specific Neuronal Subtypes in the Enteric Nervous System. J Neurosci. 2016;36:4339-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The ratio of neurons expressing Calbindin, TH, and VIP is selectively decreased while, for instance, 5-HT(+) neurons, which previously were believed to be Ascl1-dependent,..
  48. Favuzzi E, Marques Smith A, Deogracias R, Winterflood C, Sánchez Aguilera A, Mantoan L, et al. Activity-Dependent Gating of Parvalbumin Interneuron Function by the Perineuronal Net Protein Brevican. Neuron. 2017;95:639-655.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover a molecular program through which a PNN protein facilitates appropriate behavioral responses to experience by dynamically gating PV+ interneuron function. ..
  49. Zhou X, Rickmann M, Hafner G, Staiger J. Subcellular Targeting of VIP Boutons in Mouse Barrel Cortex is Layer-Dependent and not Restricted to Interneurons. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:5353-5368 pubmed publisher
    Neocortical vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) expressing cells are a diverse subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons issuing distinct axonal projections...
  50. Studeny S, Cheppudira B, Meyers S, Balestreire E, Apodaca G, Birder L, et al. Urinary bladder function and somatic sensitivity in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-/- mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2008;36:175-87 pubmed publisher
    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an immunomodulatory neuropeptide widely distributed in neural pathways that regulate micturition...
  51. Macsai M, Szabo G, Telegdy G. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide induces analgesia and impairs the antinociceptive effect of morphine in mice. Neuropeptides. 1998;32:557-62 pubmed
    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has numerous regulatory roles in peripheral, endocrine organs and in the central nervous system...
  52. Delgado M. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibit CBP-NF-kappaB interaction in activated microglia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:1181-5 pubmed
    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), two immunomodulatory neuropeptides, act as anti-inflammatory factors for activated microglia, by inhibiting the production of pro-..
  53. Kodali S, Ding W, Huang J, Seiffert K, Wagner J, Granstein R. Vasoactive intestinal peptide modulates Langerhans cell immune function. J Immunol. 2004;173:6082-8 pubmed
    ..The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has also been found in cutaneous nerves and mRNA, for the VIP receptor vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type ..
  54. Roca V, Calafat M, Larocca L, Ramhorst R, Farina M, Franchi A, et al. Potential immunomodulatory role of VIP in the implantation sites of prediabetic nonobese diabetic mice. Reproduction. 2009;138:733-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuroimmunopeptide that has anti-inflammatory effects, promotes Th2 cytokines and CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Treg ..
  55. Martin B, Shin Y, White C, Ji S, Kim W, Carlson O, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-null mice demonstrate enhanced sweet taste preference, dysglycemia, and reduced taste bud leptin receptor expression. Diabetes. 2010;59:1143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..gut-related hormones in taste perception, including glucagon-like peptide 1 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)...
  56. Johansson J, Voss U, Kesavan G, Kostetskii I, Wierup N, Radice G, et al. N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreas development but required for beta-cell granule turnover. Genesis. 2010;48:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of insulin secretory granules is significantly reduced in N-cadherin-deficient beta-cells, and as a consequence insulin secretion is decreased. ..
  57. Leinweber M, Ward D, Sobczak J, Attinger A, Keller G. A Sensorimotor Circuit in Mouse Cortex for Visual Flow Predictions. Neuron. 2017;95:1420-1432.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are consistent with a predictive coding interpretation of visual processing. ..
  58. Miyoshi G, Young A, PETROS T, Karayannis T, McKenzie Chang M, Lavado A, et al. Prox1 Regulates the Subtype-Specific Development of Caudal Ganglionic Eminence-Derived GABAergic Cortical Interneurons. J Neurosci. 2015;35:12869-89 pubmed publisher
    Neurogliaform (RELN+) and bipolar (VIP+) GABAergic interneurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex provide critical inhibition locally within the superficial layers...
  59. Scharf E, May V, Braas K, Shutz K, Mao Draayer Y. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulate murine neural progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. J Mol Neurosci. 2008;36:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate stem/progenitor cells, the responses appeared variable...
  60. Sang Q, Young H. Development of nicotinic receptor clusters and innervation accompanying the change in muscle phenotype in the mouse esophagus. J Comp Neurol. 1997;386:119-36 pubmed
    ..VAChT), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)...
  61. Hendershot T, Liu H, Sarkar A, Giovannucci D, Clouthier D, Abe M, et al. Expression of Hand2 is sufficient for neurogenesis and cell type-specific gene expression in the enteric nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:93-105 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that expression of Hand2 is sufficient and necessary for neurogenesis and expression of a subset of cell type-specific markers in the developing enteric nervous system. ..
  62. Yajima Y, Akita Y, Saito T, Kawashima S. VIP induces the translocation and degradation of the alpha subunit of Gs protein in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. J Biochem. 1998;123:1024-30 pubmed
    ..Short-term (0-80 min) incubation of rat pituitary GH4C1 cells with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, 0...
  63. Lodato S, Tomassy G, De Leonibus E, Uzcategui Y, Andolfi G, Armentano M, et al. Loss of COUP-TFI alters the balance between caudal ganglionic eminence- and medial ganglionic eminence-derived cortical interneurons and results in resistance to epilepsy. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4650-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of COUP-TFI in subventricular precursors and postmitotic cells leads to a decrease of late-born, CGE-derived, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide)- and CR (calretinin)-expressing bipolar cortical neurons, compensated by the ..
  64. Spong C, Lee S, McCune S, Gibney G, Abebe D, Alvero R, et al. Maternal regulation of embryonic growth: the role of vasoactive intestinal peptide. Endocrinology. 1999;140:917-24 pubmed
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important growth regulator of the embryonic day (E)9-E11 mouse...
  65. Rosignoli F, Pérez Leirós C. Nitric oxide synthase I and VIP-activated signaling are affected in salivary glands of NOD mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;130:109-16 pubmed
    ..As both nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are common messengers to nervous and immune systems mediating secretory and inflammatory responses, we examined ..
  66. Laemle L, Rusa R. VIP-like immunoreactivity in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of a mutant anophthalmic mouse. Brain Res. 1992;589:124-8 pubmed
    ..using light microscopic methods for cytoarchitecture and immunocytochemistry for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The SCN of the anophthalmic mice were asymmetrical, and quite variable in cytoarchitecture...
  67. Persson E, Voznesensky O, Huang Y, Lerner U. Increased expression of interleukin-6 by vasoactive intestinal peptide is associated with regulation of CREB, AP-1 and C/EBP, but not NF-kappaB, in mouse calvarial osteoblasts. Bone. 2005;37:513-29 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we have addressed the possibility that the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may regulate the production of and/or sensitivity to the IL-6 family of cytokines in mouse calvarial osteoblasts...
  68. Pfeffer C, Xue M, He M, Huang Z, Scanziani M. Inhibition of inhibition in visual cortex: the logic of connections between molecularly distinct interneurons. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1068-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, as the specificity of connections between excitatory neurons forms the basis for the cortical canonical circuit, the scheme described here outlines a standard connectivity pattern among cortical inhibitory neurons. ..
  69. Ji H, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Shen X, Gao F, Nguyen T, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide attenuates liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase a pathway. Liver Transpl. 2013;19:945-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the function and therapeutic potential of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neuropeptide in a murine model of liver warm ischemia (90 minutes) followed by reperfusion...
  70. Chaudhury D, Loh D, Dragich J, Hagopian A, Colwell C. Select cognitive deficits in vasoactive intestinal peptide deficient mice. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:63 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is widely distributed in the adult central nervous system where this peptide functions to regulate synaptic transmission and neural excitability...
  71. Wulff B, Georg B, Fahrenkrug J. Expression and characterization of VIP and two VIP mutants in NIH 3T3 cells. FEBS Lett. 1994;341:43-8 pubmed
    Prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide (prepro VIP) was expressed in NIH 3T3 cells, and the prepro VIP-derived peptides produced by the cells were analyzed by chromatography combined with sequence-specific radio-immunoanalysis...
  72. Yusta B, Holland D, Waschek J, Drucker D. Intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) activates intestinal gene expression and growth factor-dependent pathways independent of the vasoactive intestinal peptide gene in mice. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Because recent studies invoke an important role for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) as a downstream mediator of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) action in the gut, we examined the importance of the ..
  73. Lei J, Howard M. Targeted deletion of Hand2 in enteric neural precursor cells affects its functions in neurogenesis, neurotransmitter specification and gangliogenesis, causing functional aganglionosis. Development. 2011;138:4789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Hand2 also resulted in complete loss of NOS and VIP and a significant decrease in expression of choline acetyltransferase and calretinin, demonstrating a role for ..
  74. Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Wang C, Xu Z, Liang Q, An L, et al. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Sp9 Is Required for the Development of Striatopallidal Projection Neurons. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1431-1444 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-seq and in situ hybridization reveal that Sp9 promotes expression of Adora2a, P2ry1, Gpr6, and Grik3 in the LGE and striatum. Thus, Sp9 is crucial for the generation, differentiation, and survival of striatopallidal MSNs. ..
  75. Jiang X, McClellan S, Barrett R, Zhang Y, Foldenauer M, Hazlett L. The role of VIP in cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7560-6 pubmed publisher
    Exogenous vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) down-regulates pro-inflammatory but up-regulates anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors (GFs) and Toll-like receptors promoting healing in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P...
  76. Lv B, Tang Y, Chen F, Xiao X. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and pituary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibit tissue factor expression in monocyte in vitro and in vivo. Shock. 2009;31:185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Two endogenous neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), are attractive candidates for the development of ..
  77. Itri J, Michel S, Waschek J, Colwell C. Circadian rhythm in inhibitory synaptic transmission in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. J Neurophysiol. 2004;92:311-9 pubmed
    ..We next evaluated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was responsible for the observed rhythm in IPSC frequency...
  78. Lee A, Vogt D, Rubenstein J, Sohal V. A class of GABAergic neurons in the prefrontal cortex sends long-range projections to the nucleus accumbens and elicits acute avoidance behavior. J Neurosci. 2014;34:11519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define possible functions and properties for a class of long-range projecting GABAergic neurons in the neocortex. ..
  79. Muñoz W, Tremblay R, Levenstein D, Rudy B. Layer-specific modulation of neocortical dendritic inhibition during active wakefulness. Science. 2017;355:954-959 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative weight of vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing (Vip) interneuron-mediated inhibition of distinct Sst interneurons and cholinergic modulation determined their in vivo ..
  80. Ivic I, Fulop B, Juhasz T, Reglodi D, Toth G, Hashimoto H, et al. Backup Mechanisms Maintain PACAP/VIP-Induced Arterial Relaxations in Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide-Deficient Mice. J Vasc Res. 2017;54:180-192 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide in the VIP/secretin/glucagon peptide superfamily...
  81. Lelievre V, Favrais G, Abad C, Adle Biassette H, Lu Y, Germano P, et al. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice with a targeted mutation in the gene encoding vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: a model for the study of intestinal ileus and Hirschsprung's disease. Peptides. 2007;28:1688-99 pubmed
    ..from porcine intestinal extracts with powerful vasoactive properties, and named it vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)...
  82. Jimeno R, Gomariz R, Gutierrez Cañas I, Martinez C, Juarranz Y, Leceta J. New insights into the role of VIP on the ratio of T-cell subsets during the development of autoimmune diabetes. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:734-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent with regulatory effects on activated T cells...