Gene Symbol: Vegfb
Description: vascular endothelial growth factor B
Alias: VEGF-B, Vrf, vascular endothelial growth factor B, VEGF-related factor
Species: mouse
Products:     Vegfb

Top Publications

  1. Olofsson B, Pajusola K, Kaipainen A, von Euler G, Joukov V, Saksela O, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2576-81 pubmed
    We have isolated and characterized a novel growth factor for endothelial cells, vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B), with structural similarities to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor...
  2. Olofsson B, Pajusola K, von Euler G, Chilov D, Alitalo K, Eriksson U. Genomic organization of the mouse and human genes for vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) and characterization of a second splice isoform. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:19310-7 pubmed
    A second isoform and the genomic structures of mouse and human vascular endothelial growth factor B are described. Both genes consist of seven coding exons and span about 4 kilobases of DNA...
  3. Li Y, Zhang F, Nagai N, Tang Z, Zhang S, Scotney P, et al. VEGF-B inhibits apoptosis via VEGFR-1-mediated suppression of the expression of BH3-only protein genes in mice and rats. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:913-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that VEGF-B may potentially offer a new therapeutic option for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  4. Aase K, Lymboussaki A, Kaipainen A, Olofsson B, Alitalo K, Eriksson U. Localization of VEGF-B in the mouse embryo suggests a paracrine role of the growth factor in the developing vasculature. Dev Dyn. 1999;215:12-25 pubmed
    b>Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) is structurally closely related to VEGF and binds one of its receptors, VEGFR-1...
  5. Hagberg C, Mehlem A, Falkevall A, Muhl L, Fam B, Ortsäter H, et al. Targeting VEGF-B as a novel treatment for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2012;490:426-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently it was found that vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) controls endothelial uptake and transport of fatty acids in heart and skeletal muscle...
  6. Hagberg C, Falkevall A, Wang X, Larsson E, Huusko J, Nilsson I, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor B controls endothelial fatty acid uptake. Nature. 2010;464:917-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Bioinformatic analysis showed that Vegfb was tightly co-expressed with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes across a large variety of physiological ..
  7. Bry M, Kivela R, Holopainen T, Anisimov A, Tammela T, Soronen J, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-B acts as a coronary growth factor in transgenic rats without inducing angiogenesis, vascular leak, or inflammation. Circulation. 2010;122:1725-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Because cardiomyocyte damage in myocardial ischemia begins in the subendocardial myocardium, the VEGF-B-induced increased arterial supply to this area could have therapeutic potential in ischemic heart disease. ..
  8. Anisimov A, Leppänen V, Tvorogov D, Zarkada G, Jeltsch M, Holopainen T, et al. The basis for the distinct biological activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 ligands. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra52 pubmed publisher
  9. Li X, Tjwa M, Van Hove I, Enholm B, Neven E, Paavonen K, et al. Reevaluation of the role of VEGF-B suggests a restricted role in the revascularization of the ischemic myocardium. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF-B appears to have a relatively restricted angiogenic activity in the ischemic heart. These insights might offer novel therapeutic opportunities. ..

More Information


  1. Bellomo D, Headrick J, Silins G, Paterson C, Thomas P, Gartside M, et al. Mice lacking the vascular endothelial growth factor-B gene (Vegfb) have smaller hearts, dysfunctional coronary vasculature, and impaired recovery from cardiac ischemia. Circ Res. 2000;86:E29-35 pubmed
    ..To further study the in vivo function of VEGF-B, we have generated Vegfb knockout mice (Vegfb(-/-))...
  2. Kivela R, Bry M, Robciuc M, Räsänen M, Taavitsainen M, Silvola J, et al. VEGF-B-induced vascular growth leads to metabolic reprogramming and ischemia resistance in the heart. EMBO Mol Med. 2014;6:307-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that VEGF-B could be used to increase the coronary vasculature and to reprogram myocardial metabolism to improve cardiac function in ischemic heart disease. ..
  3. Aase K, von Euler G, Li X, Ponten A, Thoren P, Cao R, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-B-deficient mice display an atrial conduction defect. Circulation. 2001;104:358-64 pubmed
    ..VEGF-B seems to be required for normal heart function in adult animals but is not required for proper development of the cardiovascular system either during development or for angiogenesis in adults. ..
  4. Qiu Y, Bevan H, Weeraperuma S, Wratting D, Murphy D, Neal C, et al. Mammary alveolar development during lactation is inhibited by the endogenous antiangiogenic growth factor isoform, VEGF165b. FASEB J. 2008;22:1104-12 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first evidence for the role of endogenous antiangiogenic VEGF isoforms in normal physiology--their down-regulation is required for effective milk production. ..
  5. Kishimoto K, Nishizuka M, Ueda T, Kajita K, Ugawa S, Shimada S, et al. Indispensable role of factor for adipocyte differentiation 104 (fad104) in lung maturation. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2110-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that fad104 has an indispensable role in lung maturation, especially the maturation and differentiation of ATII cells. ..
  6. Dijkstra M, Pirinen E, Huusko J, Kivelä R, Schenkwein D, Alitalo K, et al. Lack of cardiac and high-fat diet induced metabolic phenotypes in two independent strains of Vegf-b knockout mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6238 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that VEGF-B is dispensable for normal cardiac function under unstressed conditions and for HFD-induced metabolic changes. ..
  7. Rennie M, Detmar J, Whiteley K, Jurisicova A, Adamson S, Sled J. Expansion of the fetoplacental vasculature in late gestation is strain dependent in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;302:H1261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In both strains, enlargement of the fetoplacental arterial tree occurred primarily by increased arterial diameters with no change in segment numbers in late gestation. ..
  8. Guaiquil V, Pan Z, Karagianni N, Fukuoka S, Alegre G, Rosenblatt M. VEGF-B selectively regenerates injured peripheral neurons and restores sensory and trophic functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:17272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These selective effects of VEGF-B on injured nerves and its lack of angiogenic activity makes VEGF-B a suitable therapeutic target to treat nerve injury. ..
  9. Hick A, Delmarcelle A, Bouquet M, Klotz S, Copetti T, Forez C, et al. Reciprocal epithelial:endothelial paracrine interactions during thyroid development govern follicular organization and C-cells differentiation. Dev Biol. 2013;381:227-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, endothelial cells control epithelial reorganization in follicles and C-cells differentiation. ..
  10. Louzier V, Raffestin B, Leroux A, Branellec D, Caillaud J, Levame M, et al. Role of VEGF-B in the lung during development of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;284:L926-37 pubmed
    ..However, when overexpressed in the lung, VEGF-B can be as potent as VEGF-A in attenuating pulmonary hypertension, although it has no effect on eNOS expression or vascular permeability. ..
  11. Silvestre J, Tamarat R, Ebrahimian T, Le Roux A, Clergue M, Emmanuel F, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-B promotes in vivo angiogenesis. Circ Res. 2003;93:114-23 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates for the first time that VEGF-B, in part through its receptor VEGF-R1, promotes angiogenesis in association with an activation of Akt and eNOS-related pathways. ..
  12. Zhang F, Tang Z, Hou X, Lennartsson J, Li Y, Koch A, et al. VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth but critical for their survival, and VEGF-B targeting inhibits pathological angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6152-7 pubmed publisher
  13. Poesen K, Lambrechts D, Van Damme P, Dhondt J, Bender F, Frank N, et al. Novel role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1 and its ligand VEGF-B in motor neuron degeneration. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuroprotective activity of VEGF-B, in combination with its negligible angiogenic/permeability activity, offers attractive opportunities for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  14. Huss W, Hanrahan C, Barrios R, Simons J, Greenberg N. Angiogenesis and prostate cancer: identification of a molecular progression switch. Cancer Res. 2001;61:2736-43 pubmed
  15. Mehlem A, Palombo I, Wang X, Hagberg C, Eriksson U, Falkevall A. PGC-1α Coordinates Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity and Muscular Fatty Acid Uptake via Regulation of VEGF-B. Diabetes. 2016;65:861-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulatory mechanisms controlling Vegfb expression have remained unidentified...
  16. Banerjee I, Zhang J, Moore Morris T, Lange S, Shen T, Dalton N, et al. Thymosin beta 4 is dispensable for murine cardiac development and function. Circ Res. 2012;110:456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..5-Cre and ?MHC-Cre, were also found to have no phenotype. We conclude that T?4 is dispensable for embryonic viability, heart development, coronary vessel development, and adult myocardial function. ..
  17. Muhl L, Moessinger C, Adzemovic M, Dijkstra M, Nilsson I, Zeitelhofer M, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B and its receptor (VEGFR1) in murine heart, lung and kidney. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;365:51-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the cell-type-specific expression pattern of Vegfb and its receptor (VEGFR1, gene Flt1) remains unclear...
  18. Lavine K, White A, Park C, Smith C, Choi K, Long F, et al. Fibroblast growth factor signals regulate a wave of Hedgehog activation that is essential for coronary vascular development. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1651-66 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this, activation of HH signaling in the adult heart leads to an increase in coronary vessel density. ..
  19. Malik A, Baldwin M, Peale F, Fuh G, Liang W, Lowman H, et al. Redundant roles of VEGF-B and PlGF during selective VEGF-A blockade in mice. Blood. 2006;107:550-7 pubmed
    ..The absence of compensatory VEGFR-1 signaling by VEGF-B and PlGF may have important implications for the development of anticancer strategies targeting the VEGF ligand/receptor system. ..
  20. Ambati B, Nozaki M, Singh N, Takeda A, Jani P, Suthar T, et al. Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1. Nature. 2006;443:993-7 pubmed
  21. Mould A, Greco S, Cahill M, Tonks I, Bellomo D, Patterson C, et al. Transgenic overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor-B isoforms by endothelial cells potentiates postnatal vessel growth in vivo and in vitro. Circ Res. 2005;97:e60-70 pubmed
  22. Chintala H, Krupska I, Yan L, LAU L, Grant M, Chaqour B. The matricellular protein CCN1 controls retinal angiogenesis by targeting VEGF, Src homology 2 domain phosphatase-1 and Notch signaling. Development. 2015;142:2364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight novel functions of CCN1 as a naturally optimized molecule, fine-controlling key processes in physiological angiogenesis and safeguarding against aberrant angiogenic responses. ..
  23. Hiratsuka S, Nakao K, Nakamura K, Katsuki M, Maru Y, Shibuya M. Membrane fixation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 ligand-binding domain is important for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:346-54 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the membrane-fixed ligand-binding region of VEGFR1 traps VEGF for the appropriate regulation of VEGF signaling in vascular endothelial cells during early embryogenesis. ..
  24. Brunskill E, Witte D, Yutzey K, Potter S. Novel cell lines promote the discovery of genes involved in early heart development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:507-20 pubmed
    ..The results show that the 1H and ECL-2 cell lines can be used to discover novel genes expressed in the early cardiomyocyte. ..
  25. Sun Y, Jin K, Childs J, Xie L, Mao X, Greenberg D. Increased severity of cerebral ischemic injury in vascular endothelial growth factor-B-deficient mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004;24:1146-52 pubmed
    Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VegfB) is an angiogenic protein related to VegfA, although it acts on a different set of tyrosine kinase receptors. Like VegfA, VegfB is expressed in the brain and is induced at sites of brain injury...
  26. Mould A, Tonks I, Cahill M, Pettit A, Thomas R, Hayward N, et al. Vegfb gene knockout mice display reduced pathology and synovial angiogenesis in both antigen-induced and collagen-induced models of arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2660-9 pubmed
    To determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) in 2 mouse models of arthritis, antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)...
  27. Wanstall J, Gambino A, Jeffery T, Cahill M, Bellomo D, Hayward N, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-B-deficient mice show impaired development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;55:361-8 pubmed
    ..d. 50-150 and 151-420 microm) were determined in Vegfb knockout mice (Vegfb(-/-); n=17) and corresponding wild-type mice (Vegfb(+/+); n=17) exposed to chronic hypoxia (..
  28. van Tuyl M, Groenman F, Wang J, Kuliszewski M, Liu J, Tibboel D, et al. Angiogenic factors stimulate tubular branching morphogenesis of sonic hedgehog-deficient lungs. Dev Biol. 2007;303:514-26 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of vascularization with angiogenic factors such as Fgf2 and Ang1 partially restored tubular growth and branching in Shh-deficient lungs, suggesting that vascularization is required for branching morphogenesis. ..
  29. Lagercrantz J, Farnebo F, Larsson C, Tvrdik T, Weber G, Piehl F. A comparative study of the expression patterns for vegf, vegf-b/vrf and vegf-c in the developing and adult mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1398:157-63 pubmed
    ..There are at present at least three specific effectors of vascular proliferation with clear differences in their expression. ..
  30. Carmeliet P, Ng Y, Nuyens D, Theilmeier G, Brusselmans K, Cornelissen I, et al. Impaired myocardial angiogenesis and ischemic cardiomyopathy in mice lacking the vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms VEGF164 and VEGF188. Nat Med. 1999;5:495-502 pubmed
  31. Xu M, Jin Y, Song Q, Wu J, Philbrick M, Cully B, et al. The endothelium-dependent effect of RTEF-1 in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy: role of VEGF-B. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;90:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the RTEF-1-driven increase of VEGF-B plays an important role in communication between the endothelium and myocardium. ..
  32. Albrecht I, Kopfstein L, Strittmatter K, Schomber T, Falkevall A, Hagberg C, et al. Suppressive effects of vascular endothelial growth factor-B on tumor growth in a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14109 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF-B by the generation of mouse models of cancer with transgenic expression of VEGF-B or homozygous deletion of Vegfb. Ectopic expression of VEGF-B in the insulin-producing ?-cells of the pancreas did not alter the abundance or ..
  33. Yang X, Zhang Y, Hosaka K, Andersson P, Wang J, Tholander F, et al. VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A-independent mechanism and serves as a marker of poor prognosis for cancer patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E2900-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate that VEGF-B is a vascular remodeling factor promoting cancer metastasis and that targeting VEGF-B may be an important therapeutic approach for cancer metastasis. ..
  34. Liu Z, Xu J, Colvin J, Ornitz D. Coordination of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis by fibroblast growth factor 18. Genes Dev. 2002;16:859-69 pubmed
    ..Signaling to multiple FGFRs positions FGF18 to coordinate chondrogenesis in the growth plate with osteogenesis in cortical and trabecular bone. ..
  35. Watanabe T, Koibuchi N, Chin M. Transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 regulates coronary vascular maturation. Mech Dev. 2010;127:418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CHF1/Hey2 regulates the later steps of coronary vascular development in both a myocardial-dependent, non-cell autonomous fashion and likely a vascular cell-specific effect as well. ..
  36. Hu M, Sun X, Zhang Y, Kuang Y, Hu C, Wu W, et al. Histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase Hypb/Setd2 is required for embryonic vascular remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2956-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that Hypb is required for embryonic vascular remodeling and provide a tool to study the function of H3K36 methylation in vasculogenesis/angiogenesis. ..
  37. Reinert R, Brissova M, Shostak A, Pan F, Poffenberger G, Cai Q, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-a and islet vascularization are necessary in developing, but not adult, pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 2013;62:4154-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that VEGF-A and islet vascularization have a lesser role in adult islet function and ?-cell mass. ..
  38. Wu S, Dong X, Regan J, Su C, Majesky M. Tbx18 regulates development of the epicardium and coronary vessels. Dev Biol. 2013;383:307-20 pubmed publisher
  39. Hiratsuka S, Kataoka Y, Nakao K, Nakamura K, Morikawa S, Tanaka S, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is involved in guidance of VEGF receptor-positive cells to the anterior portion of early embryos. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:355-63 pubmed
  40. Huang X, Gao X, Diaz Trelles R, Ruiz Lozano P, Wang Z. Coronary development is regulated by ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling component BAF180. Dev Biol. 2008;319:258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data reveal for the first time that BAF180 is critical for coronary vessel formation. ..
  41. Falkevall A, Mehlem A, Palombo I, Heller Sahlgren B, Ebarasi L, He L, et al. Reducing VEGF-B Signaling Ameliorates Renal Lipotoxicity and Protects against Diabetic Kidney Disease. Cell Metab. 2017;25:713-726 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) controls muscle lipid accumulation through regulation of endothelial fatty acid transport...
  42. Lagercrantz J, Larsson C, Grimmond S, Fredriksson M, Weber G, Piehl F. Expression of the VEGF-related factor gene in pre- and postnatal mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;220:147-52 pubmed
    ..The human VEGF related factor (VRF) gene was initially isolated using an 11q13 specific cosmid probe (D11S750)...
  43. Dhondt J, Peeraer E, Verheyen A, Nuydens R, Buysschaert I, Poesen K, et al. Neuronal FLT1 receptor and its selective ligand VEGF-B protect against retrograde degeneration of sensory neurons. FASEB J. 2011;25:1461-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this indicates that VEGF-B, instead of acting as an angiogenic factor, exerts direct neuroprotective effects through FLT1. These findings also suggest a clinically relevant role for VEGF-B in preventing distal neuropathies...
  44. Qiu Y, Ferguson J, Oltean S, Neal C, Kaura A, Bevan H, et al. Overexpression of VEGF165b in podocytes reduces glomerular permeability. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the contrasting properties of VEGF splice variants and their impact on glomerular function and phenotype. ..
  45. Zhang S, Yi Q. [Effect of VEGF-B on neuroprotection in mouse retinal ganglion cells]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2009;45:38-42 pubmed
    ..001, P < 0.01 and t = 0.001, P < 0.01, respectively). Our results indicate that VEGF-B is involved in the retinal recovery processes and plays a potent role of neuroprotection in RGCs after the optic nerve crush. ..
  46. Gerace L, Cirenei N, Cappelletti M, Petraroli R, Sebastiani F, Marziliano N. Assignment of the mouse Vegfb gene to mouse chromosome 19 B by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;95:242-3 pubmed
  47. Maes C, Carmeliet P, Moermans K, Stockmans I, Smets N, Collen D, et al. Impaired angiogenesis and endochondral bone formation in mice lacking the vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms VEGF164 and VEGF188. Mech Dev. 2002;111:61-73 pubmed
  48. Carmeliet P, Collen D. Transgenic mouse models in angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease. J Pathol. 2000;190:387-405 pubmed
    ..A selected number of molecules that have been studied in the authors' laboratory will be reviewed in more detail. ..
  49. Yonekura H, Sakurai S, Liu X, Migita H, Wang H, Yamagishi S, et al. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B and C expression in microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes. Implication in autocrine and paracrine regulation of angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35172-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, antisense inhibition of PlGF protein production lowered the endothelial cell synthesis of DNA under hypoxic conditions. The results suggest that these VEGF family members may also take active parts in angiogenesis. ..
  50. Townson S, Lagercrantz J, Grimmond S, Silins G, Nordenskjold M, Weber G, et al. Characterization of the murine VEGF-related factor gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;220:922-8 pubmed
    ..cloning and characterization of the murine homolog of the human vascular endothelial growth factor-related factor (VRF) gene...
  51. Copeland J, Feng Y, Neradugomma N, Fields P, Vivian J. Notch signaling regulates remodeling and vessel diameter in the extraembryonic yolk sac. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:12 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a role for Notch signaling in elaborating the microenvironment of the nascent arteriole, suggesting novel regulatory connections between Notch signaling and other signaling pathways during endothelial differentiation. ..
  52. Gealekman O, Burkart A, Chouinard M, Nicoloro S, Straubhaar J, Corvera S. Enhanced angiogenesis in obesity and in response to PPARgamma activators through adipocyte VEGF and ANGPTL4 production. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E1056-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of VEGFA and VEGFB, as well as of the angiopoietin-like factor-4 (ANGPTL4), was stimulated by in vivo treatment with RSG...
  53. Lavine K, Long F, Choi K, Smith C, Ornitz D. Hedgehog signaling to distinct cell types differentially regulates coronary artery and vein development. Development. 2008;135:3161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present evidence suggesting that coronary arteries and veins may be derived from distinct lineages. ..
  54. Sun Y, Jin K, Childs J, Xie L, Mao X, Greenberg D. Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGFB) stimulates neurogenesis: evidence from knockout mice and growth factor administration. Dev Biol. 2006;289:329-35 pubmed
    Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGFB) is an angiogenic and neuroprotective protein that reduces hypoxic and ischemic neuronal injury...
  55. Monastero R, García Serrano S, Lago Sampedro A, Rodríguez Pacheco F, Colomo N, Morcillo S, et al. Methylation patterns of Vegfb promoter are associated with gene and protein expression levels: the effects of dietary fatty acids. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56:715-726 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the epigenetic regulation by dietary fatty acids of Vegfb levels in rats' white adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 cells...
  56. Silins G, Grimmond S, Egerton M, Hayward N. Analysis of the promoter region of the human VEGF-related factor gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;230:413-8 pubmed
    We have characterised the promoters of the human and murine VRF (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) related factor) gene...
  57. Robciuc M, Kivelä R, Williams I, de Boer J, van Dijk T, Elamaa H, et al. VEGFB/VEGFR1-Induced Expansion of Adipose Vasculature Counteracts Obesity and Related Metabolic Complications. Cell Metab. 2016;23:712-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the unexpected finding that vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB) gene transduction into mice inhibits obesity-associated inflammation and improves metabolic ..