Vdr

Summary

Gene Symbol: Vdr
Description: vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor
Alias: Nr1i1, vitamin D3 receptor, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 1, vitamin D receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Vdr

Top Publications

  1. Yu S, Cantorna M. The vitamin D receptor is required for iNKT cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show that expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is required for normal development and function of iNKT cells...
  2. Zinser G, Sundberg J, Welsh J. Vitamin D(3) receptor ablation sensitizes skin to chemically induced tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:2103-9 pubmed
    ..1,25D(3)) is the biologically active form of vitamin D(3) that interacts with the nuclear vitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) to modulate gene expression in a tissue-specific fashion...
  3. Van Cromphaut S, Dewerchin M, Hoenderop J, Stockmans I, Van Herck E, Kato S, et al. Duodenal calcium absorption in vitamin D receptor-knockout mice: functional and molecular aspects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13324-9 pubmed
    Rickets and hyperparathyroidism caused by a defective vitamin D receptor (VDR) can be prevented in humans and animals by high calcium intake, suggesting that intestinal calcium absorption is critical for 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)..
  4. Xiang W, Kong J, Chen S, Cao L, Qiao G, Zheng W, et al. Cardiac hypertrophy in vitamin D receptor knockout mice: role of the systemic and cardiac renin-angiotensin systems. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;288:E125-32 pubmed
    ..Genetic disruption of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) results in overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), leading to high blood pressure and ..
  5. Keisala T, Minasyan A, Lou Y, Zou J, Kalueff A, Pyykko I, et al. Premature aging in vitamin D receptor mutant mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;115:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For this, we used vitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) "Tokyo" knockout (KO) mice (fed with a special rescue diet) and analyzed their growth, skin and ..
  6. Yu S, Bruce D, Froicu M, Weaver V, Cantorna M. Failure of T cell homing, reduced CD4/CD8alphaalpha intraepithelial lymphocytes, and inflammation in the gut of vitamin D receptor KO mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20834-9 pubmed publisher
    Specific pathogen-free IL-10 KO mice failed to develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whereas IL-10/vitamin D receptor (VDR) double KO mice developed fulminating IBD...
  7. Gascon Barre M, Demers C, Mirshahi A, Néron S, Zalzal S, Nanci A. The normal liver harbors the vitamin D nuclear receptor in nonparenchymal and biliary epithelial cells. Hepatology. 2003;37:1034-42 pubmed
    The liver is generally considered negative for the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR(n)), even though several studies have shown significant effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) on liver cell physiology...
  8. Sakai Y, Kishimoto J, Demay M. Metabolic and cellular analysis of alopecia in vitamin D receptor knockout mice. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:961-6 pubmed
    Targeted ablation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) results in hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, rickets, osteomalacia, and alopecia--the last a consequence of defective anagen initiation...
  9. Wu S, Liao A, Xia Y, Li Y, Li J, Sartor R, et al. Vitamin D receptor negatively regulates bacterial-stimulated NF-kappaB activity in intestine. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:686-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays an essential role in gastrointestinal inflammation...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Froicu M, Weaver V, Wynn T, McDowell M, Welsh J, Cantorna M. A crucial role for the vitamin D receptor in experimental inflammatory bowel diseases. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2386-92 pubmed
    ..The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is required for all known biologic effects of vitamin D...
  2. Froicu M, Zhu Y, Cantorna M. Vitamin D receptor is required to control gastrointestinal immunity in IL-10 knockout mice. Immunology. 2006;117:310-8 pubmed
    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear receptor expressed in a number of different cells of the immune system...
  3. Wittke A, Weaver V, Mahon B, August A, Cantorna M. Vitamin D receptor-deficient mice fail to develop experimental allergic asthma. J Immunol. 2004;173:3432-6 pubmed
    ..investigate the role of vitamin D in Th2 cell-directed diseases, experimental allergic asthma was induced in vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout and in wild-type (WT) mice...
  4. Tsujikawa H, Kurotaki Y, Fujimori T, Fukuda K, Nabeshima Y. Klotho, a gene related to a syndrome resembling human premature aging, functions in a negative regulatory circuit of vitamin D endocrine system. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2393-403 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that klotho may participate in a negative regulatory circuit of the vitamin D endocrine system, through the regulation of 1alpha-hydroxylase gene expression...
  5. Ishizawa M, Iwasaki K, Kato S, Makishima M. Hypergravity modulates vitamin D receptor target gene mRNA expression in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Although 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha(OH)D(3)] treatment induced the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) target genes in the kidney of 2G-exposed ICR mice to similar levels as controls, 1alpha(OH)D(3) ..
  6. Erben R, Soegiarto D, Weber K, Zeitz U, Lieberherr M, Gniadecki R, et al. Deletion of deoxyribonucleic acid binding domain of the vitamin D receptor abrogates genomic and nongenomic functions of vitamin D. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1524-37 pubmed
    ..Using gene targeting, we sought to generate vitamin D receptor (VDR) null mutant mice carrying the reporter gene lacZ driven by the endogenous VDR promoter...
  7. Ding N, Yu R, Subramaniam N, Sherman M, Wilson C, Rao R, et al. A vitamin D receptor/SMAD genomic circuit gates hepatic fibrotic response. Cell. 2013;153:601-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligands inhibit HSC activation by TGF?1 and abrogate liver fibrosis, whereas Vdr knockout mice ..
  8. Kalueff A, Lou Y, Laaksi I, Tuohimaa P. Impaired motor performance in mice lacking neurosteroid vitamin D receptors. Brain Res Bull. 2004;64:25-9 pubmed
    ..to various neurological and behavioural disorders, we studied whether genetic ablation of vitamin D receptors (VDR) may be associated with motor impairments in mice subjected to several behavioural tests...
  9. Baroni E, Biffi M, Benigni F, Monno A, Carlucci D, Carmeliet G, et al. VDR-dependent regulation of mast cell maturation mediated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:250-62 pubmed
    ..by expression of c-kit, FcepsilonRI, and IL-3 receptor-alpha chain, and depends on the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
  10. Vertino A, Bula C, Chen J, Almeida M, Han L, Bellido T, et al. Nongenotropic, anti-apoptotic signaling of 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 and analogs through the ligand binding domain of the vitamin D receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes. Mediation by Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-, and JNK kinases. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14130-7 pubmed
    ..action of their classical receptors, we have explored the possibility that the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) might exhibit similar nongenotropic actions...
  11. Li Y, Kong J, Wei M, Chen Z, Liu S, Cao L. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) is a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:229-38 pubmed
    ..We show here that renin expression and plasma angiotensin II production were increased severalfold in vitamin D receptor-null (VDR-null) mice, leading to hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and increased water intake...
  12. Ordóñez Morán P, Larriba M, Palmer H, Valero R, Barbachano A, Duñach M, et al. RhoA-ROCK and p38MAPK-MSK1 mediate vitamin D effects on gene expression, phenotype, and Wnt pathway in colon cancer cells. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:697-710 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation of colon cancer cells through the activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily...
  13. Johnson L, DeLuca H. Vitamin D receptor null mutant mice fed high levels of calcium are fertile. J Nutr. 2001;131:1787-91 pubmed
    b>Vitamin D receptor (VDR) null mutant mice provide a model to investigate the possible effect of vitamin D on female reproduction...
  14. Olivares Navarrete R, Sutha K, Hyzy S, Hutton D, Schwartz Z, MCDEVITT T, et al. Osteogenic differentiation of stem cells alters vitamin D receptor expression. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:1726-35 pubmed publisher
    ..1,25D acts on osteoblasts via classical vitamin D receptors (VDR) and via a membrane 1,25D-binding protein [protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3)], which activates ..
  15. Yoshizawa T, Handa Y, Uematsu Y, Takeda S, Sekine K, Yoshihara Y, et al. Mice lacking the vitamin D receptor exhibit impaired bone formation, uterine hypoplasia and growth retardation after weaning. Nat Genet. 1997;16:391-6 pubmed
    ..such as calcium homeostasis and bone formation, which are thought to be mediated by the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily...
  16. Sitara D, Razzaque M, St Arnaud R, Huang W, Taguchi T, Erben R, et al. Genetic ablation of vitamin D activation pathway reverses biochemical and skeletal anomalies in Fgf-23-null animals. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:2161-70 pubmed
  17. Li Y, Pirro A, Amling M, Delling G, Baron R, Bronson R, et al. Targeted ablation of the vitamin D receptor: an animal model of vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9831-5 pubmed
    Vitamin D, the major steroid hormone that controls mineral ion homeostasis, exerts its actions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
  18. Wong K, Szeto F, Zhang W, Ye H, Kong J, Zhang Z, et al. Involvement of the vitamin D receptor in energy metabolism: regulation of uncoupling proteins. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E820-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mutant mice...
  19. Bikle D, Elalieh H, Chang S, Xie Z, Sundberg J. Development and progression of alopecia in the vitamin D receptor null mouse. J Cell Physiol. 2006;207:340-53 pubmed
    Humans with selected mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and mouse models lacking VDR develop alopecia. Mice null for the Vdr gene are born with a normal coat of hair, but fail to initiate normal hair follicle cycling...
  20. Yu X, Sabbagh Y, Davis S, Demay M, White K. Genetic dissection of phosphate- and vitamin D-mediated regulation of circulating Fgf23 concentrations. Bone. 2005;36:971-7 pubmed
    ..7 pg/ml (P < 0.01). To genetically separate the effects of phosphate and vitamin D on Fgf23, we examined vitamin D receptor null (VDR(-/-)) mice, which are hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic secondary to hyperparathyroidism...
  21. Wu S, Xia Y, Liu X, Sun J. Vitamin D receptor deletion leads to reduced level of IkappaBalpha protein through protein translation, protein-protein interaction, and post-translational modification. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:329-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Vitamin D receptor plays an essential role in the regulation of inflammation. Previous studies demonstrate that vitamin D receptor negatively modulates the proinflammatory NF-kappaB pathway...
  22. Xie Z, Komuves L, Yu Q, Elalieh H, Ng D, Leary C, et al. Lack of the vitamin D receptor is associated with reduced epidermal differentiation and hair follicle growth. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118:11-6 pubmed
    The active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, acting through the vitamin D receptor, regulates the expression of genes in a variety of vitamin D-responsive tissues, including the epidermis...
  23. Liu W, Chen Y, Golan M, Annunziata M, Du J, Dougherty U, et al. Intestinal epithelial vitamin D receptor signaling inhibits experimental colitis. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:3983-96 pubmed publisher
    The inhibitory effects of vitamin D on colitis have been previously documented. Global vitamin D receptor (VDR) deletion exaggerates colitis, but the relative anticolitic contribution of epithelial and nonepithelial VDR signaling is ..
  24. Narvaez C, Matthews D, Broun E, Chan M, Welsh J. Lean phenotype and resistance to diet-induced obesity in vitamin D receptor knockout mice correlates with induction of uncoupling protein-1 in white adipose tissue. Endocrinology. 2009;150:651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous studies, we noted that 18-month-old normocalcemic vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout (VDRKO) mice exhibited atrophy of the mammary adipose compartment relative to wild-type (WT) ..
  25. Zhu Y, Mahon B, Froicu M, Cantorna M. Calcium and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 target the TNF-alpha pathway to suppress experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:217-24 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, fulminating IBD in vitamin D receptor/IL-10 double-KO mice corresponded with the increased expression of TNF-alpha and LITAF in the colon...
  26. Gardiner E, Baldock P, Thomas G, Sims N, Henderson N, Hollis B, et al. Increased formation and decreased resorption of bone in mice with elevated vitamin D receptor in mature cells of the osteoblastic lineage. FASEB J. 2000;14:1908-16 pubmed
    ..Transgenic mice overexpressing the vitamin D receptor solely in mature cells of the osteoblastic bone-forming lineage were generated to test the potential ..
  27. Endo I, Inoue D, Mitsui T, Umaki Y, Akaike M, Yoshizawa T, et al. Deletion of vitamin D receptor gene in mice results in abnormal skeletal muscle development with deregulated expression of myoregulatory transcription factors. Endocrinology. 2003;144:5138-44 pubmed
    ..To determine physiological roles of vitamin D actions through vitamin D receptor (VDR) in skeletal muscle development, we examined skeletal muscle in VDR gene deleted (VDR -/-) mice, an ..
  28. Hesse M, Fröhlich L, Zeitz U, Lanske B, Erben R. Ablation of vitamin D signaling rescues bone, mineral, and glucose homeostasis in Fgf-23 deficient mice. Matrix Biol. 2007;26:75-84 pubmed
    ..D axis for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) signaling, we mated Fgf-23 deficient (Fgf-23(-/-)) mice and vitamin D receptor (VDR) mutant mice with a non-functioning VDR...
  29. Li M, Hener P, Zhang Z, Kato S, Metzger D, Chambon P. Topical vitamin D3 and low-calcemic analogs induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin in mouse keratinocytes and trigger an atopic dermatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11736-41 pubmed
    ..that topical application of the physiologically active ligand [1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3); calcitriol] of the vitamin D receptor, or of its low-calcemic analog MC903 (calcipotriol; Dovonex), induces TSLP expression in epidermal ..
  30. Bruce D, Yu S, Ooi J, Cantorna M. Converging pathways lead to overproduction of IL-17 in the absence of vitamin D signaling. Int Immunol. 2011;23:519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..pathways converge to result in the overexpression of T(h)17 cells in the absence of either vitamin D or the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
  31. Zanello L, Norman A. Rapid modulation of osteoblast ion channel responses by 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 requires the presence of a functional vitamin D nuclear receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1589-94 pubmed
    ..D(3) (1,25D) modulates osteoblast gene expression of bone matrix proteins via a nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also modifies the electrical state of the plasma membrane through rapid nongenomic mechanisms ..
  32. Zinser G, Suckow M, Welsh J. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) ablation alters carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in mammary gland, epidermis and lymphoid tissues. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97:153-64 pubmed
    The Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its ligand, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in vitro, yet the physiological significance of this regulation is unclear...
  33. Andrukhova O, Zeitz U, Goetz R, Mohammadi M, Lanske B, Erben R. FGF23 acts directly on renal proximal tubules to induce phosphaturia through activation of the ERK1/2-SGK1 signaling pathway. Bone. 2012;51:621-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Mayne C, Spanier J, Relland L, Williams C, Hayes C. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 acts directly on the T lymphocyte vitamin D receptor to inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:822-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated whether 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) inhibits EAE via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in T lymphocytes...
  35. Haussler M, Haussler C, Whitfield G, Hsieh J, Thompson P, Barthel T, et al. The nuclear vitamin D receptor controls the expression of genes encoding factors which feed the "Fountain of Youth" to mediate healthful aging. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121:88-97 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), its high affinity renal endocrine ligand, to signal intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption plus bone remodeling, generating a mineralized skeleton free of ..
  36. Buitrago C, Boland R. Caveolae and caveolin-1 are implicated in 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3-dependent modulation of Src, MAPK cascades and VDR localization in skeletal muscle cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation assays corroborated these observations. Changes in VDR localization after 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 exposure were also investigated...
  37. Wang Y, Becklund B, DeLuca H. Identification of a highly specific and versatile vitamin D receptor antibody. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;494:166-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Biological effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are mediated through a nuclear steroid hormone receptor, known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
  38. Amling M, Priemel M, Holzmann T, Chapin K, Rueger J, Baron R, et al. Rescue of the skeletal phenotype of vitamin D receptor-ablated mice in the setting of normal mineral ion homeostasis: formal histomorphometric and biomechanical analyses. Endocrinology. 1999;140:4982-7 pubmed
    ..To address the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in skeletal homeostasis, formal histomorphometric analyses were performed in VDR null mice in the ..
  39. Forster R, Jurutka P, Hsieh J, Haussler C, Lowmiller C, Kaneko I, et al. Vitamin D receptor controls expression of the anti-aging klotho gene in mouse and human renal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;414:557-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The vitamin D receptor and its 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) ligand are also crucial for calcium and phosphate regulation at the ..
  40. Jehan F, DeLuca H. Cloning and characterization of the mouse vitamin D receptor promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10138-43 pubmed
    The gene encoding the mouse vitamin D receptor has been cloned. A new exon 1 has been found that changes the numbering established for the human VDR gene...
  41. Bruce D, Whitcomb J, August A, McDowell M, Cantorna M. Elevated non-specific immunity and normal Listeria clearance in young and old vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Int Immunol. 2009;21:113-22 pubmed publisher
    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are important regulators of autoimmunity. The effect of the VDR on the ability of mice to fight a primary or secondary infection has not been determined...
  42. Makishima M, Lu T, Xie W, Whitfield G, Domoto H, Evans R, et al. Vitamin D receptor as an intestinal bile acid sensor. Science. 2002;296:1313-6 pubmed
    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the effects of the calcemic hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]...
  43. Ellison T, Smith M, Gilliam A, MacDonald P. Inactivation of the vitamin D receptor enhances susceptibility of murine skin to UV-induced tumorigenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2508-17 pubmed publisher
    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is the biologically active ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR(-/-) mice have a hair follicle-cycling defect resulting in alopecia...
  44. Shimada T, Yamazaki Y, Takahashi M, Hasegawa H, Urakawa I, Oshima T, et al. Vitamin D receptor-independent FGF23 actions in regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;289:F1088-95 pubmed
    ..To address this issue, we intravenously administered recombinant FGF23 to vitamin D receptor (VDR) null (KO) mice as a rapid bolus injection and evaluated the early effects of FGF23...
  45. Masuyama R, Stockmans I, Torrekens S, Van Looveren R, Maes C, Carmeliet P, et al. Vitamin D receptor in chondrocytes promotes osteoclastogenesis and regulates FGF23 production in osteoblasts. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:3150-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether the vitamin D receptor (VDR) has a specific role in growth-plate development and endochondral bone formation, we investigated mice ..
  46. Li Y, Amling M, Pirro A, Priemel M, Meuse J, Baron R, et al. Normalization of mineral ion homeostasis by dietary means prevents hyperparathyroidism, rickets, and osteomalacia, but not alopecia in vitamin D receptor-ablated mice. Endocrinology. 1998;139:4391-6 pubmed
    ..To determine what phenotypic abnormalities observed in vitamin D receptor (VDR)-ablated mice are secondary to impaired intestinal calcium absorption rather than receptor deficiency, ..
  47. Skorija K, Cox M, Sisk J, Dowd D, MacDonald P, Thompson C, et al. Ligand-independent actions of the vitamin D receptor maintain hair follicle homeostasis. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:855-62 pubmed
    Alopecia is a feature of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mutations in humans and in VDR null mice. This alopecia results from an inability to initiate the anagen phase of the hair cycle after follicle morphogenesis is complete...
  48. McCarthy T, Li X, Sinal C. Vitamin D receptor-dependent regulation of colon multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 gene expression by bile acids. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:23232-42 pubmed
    ..Functional analysis of a murine Mrp3 promoter reporter construct revealed vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent activation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD3), 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), and the ..
  49. Anour R, Andrukhova O, Ritter E, Zeitz U, Erben R. Klotho lacks a vitamin D independent physiological role in glucose homeostasis, bone turnover, and steady-state PTH secretion in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31376 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we crossed Klotho deficient (Kl?/?) mice with vitamin D receptor (VDR) mutant mice to examine further vitamin D independent functions of Klotho...
  50. Li Y, Pirro A, Demay M. Analysis of vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein messenger ribonucleic acid expression in mice lacking the vitamin D receptor. Endocrinology. 1998;139:847-51 pubmed
    ..proteins (calbindin-D), the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of calbindin-D9k and -28k were examined in vitamin D receptor (VDR)-ablated mice and control littermates...
  51. Panda D, Miao D, Bolivar I, Li J, Huo R, Hendy G, et al. Inactivation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptor demonstrates independent and interdependent effects of calcium and vitamin D on skeletal and mineral homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16754-66 pubmed
    ..approach to determine whether deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and deficiency of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) produce the same alterations in skeletal and calcium homeostasis and whether calcium can subserve the ..
  52. Yu S, Cantorna M. Epigenetic reduction in invariant NKT cells following in utero vitamin D deficiency in mice. J Immunol. 2011;186:1384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas both the vitamin D receptor and vitamin D regulate iNKT cells, the vitamin D receptor is required for both iNKT cell function and number,..
  53. Zinser G, Packman K, Welsh J. Vitamin D(3) receptor ablation alters mammary gland morphogenesis. Development. 2002;129:3067-76 pubmed
    ..The vitamin D(3) receptor (VDR), whose ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) is the biologically active form of vitamin D(3), has been implicated in ..
  54. Froicu M, Cantorna M. Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor are critical for control of the innate immune response to colonic injury. BMC Immunol. 2007;8:5 pubmed
    ..Here, the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1,25(OH)2D3 in acute experimental IBD was probed...
  55. Li X, Speer M, Yang H, Bergen J, Giachelli C. Vitamin D receptor activators induce an anticalcific paracrine program in macrophages: requirement of osteopontin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a macrophage/smooth muscle cell (SMC) coculture system and examined the effects of vitamin D receptor activators (VDRA), calcitriol and paricalcitol, on SMC matrix calcification...
  56. Lou Y, Molnár F, PERAKYLA M, Qiao S, Kalueff A, St Arnaud R, et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) is an agonistic vitamin D receptor ligand. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;118:162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..encoded by CYP27B1 converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) into 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), a vitamin D receptor ligand. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) has been regarded as a prohormone...
  57. Cianferotti L, Cox M, Skorija K, Demay M. Vitamin D receptor is essential for normal keratinocyte stem cell function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9428-33 pubmed
    The major physiological role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is the maintenance of mineral ion homeostasis. Mutation of the VDR, in humans and mice, results in alopecia...
  58. Kong J, Zhang Z, Musch M, Ning G, Sun J, Hart J, et al. Novel role of the vitamin D receptor in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G208-16 pubmed
    ..the mechanism we used the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model to investigate the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in mucosal barrier homeostasis. While VDR(+/+) mice were mostly resistant to 2...
  59. Song Y, Kato S, Fleet J. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout mice reveal VDR-independent regulation of intestinal calcium absorption and ECaC2 and calbindin D9k mRNA. J Nutr. 2003;133:374-80 pubmed
    ..role of calbindin D(9k) (CaBP) and epithelial calcium channel ECaC2 in intestinal calcium (Ca) absorption, vitamin D receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed either 0.5% Ca or a 2...
  60. Bouillon R, Carmeliet G, Verlinden L, van Etten E, Verstuyf A, Luderer H, et al. Vitamin D and human health: lessons from vitamin D receptor null mice. Endocr Rev. 2008;29:726-76 pubmed publisher
    ..D [1,25-(OH)(2)D], can now be better evaluated by critical analysis of mice with engineered deletion of the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
  61. Simpson R, Hershey S, Nibbelink K. Characterization of heart size and blood pressure in the vitamin D receptor knockout mouse. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;103:521-4 pubmed
    ..In this study we found that the heart in vitamin D receptor knockout (VDR-KO) mice is hypertrophied...
  62. Wang Y, DeLuca H. Is the vitamin d receptor found in muscle?. Endocrinology. 2011;152:354-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The question of whether the vitamin D receptor is found in muscle has been debated but not settled...
  63. Bruce D, Cantorna M. Intrinsic requirement for the vitamin D receptor in the development of CD8??-expressing T cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:2819-25 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) deficiency results in severe symptoms of experimental inflammatory bowel disease in several different models...
  64. Boyan B, Sylvia V, McKinney N, Schwartz Z. Membrane actions of vitamin D metabolites 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 are retained in growth plate cartilage cells from vitamin D receptor knockout mice. J Cell Biochem. 2003;90:1207-23 pubmed
    1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulates rat growth plate chondrocytes via nuclear vitamin D receptor (1,25-nVDR) and membrane VDR (1,25-mVDR) mechanisms...
  65. Kallay E, Pietschmann P, Toyokuni S, Bajna E, Hahn P, Mazzucco K, et al. Characterization of a vitamin D receptor knockout mouse as a model of colorectal hyperproliferation and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1429-35 pubmed
    The vitamin D receptor knockout (VDR-KO) mouse presents with a skeletal phenotype typical for complete lack of genomic 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol effects...
  66. Zinser G, Welsh J. Accelerated mammary gland development during pregnancy and delayed postlactational involution in vitamin D3 receptor null mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:2208-23 pubmed
    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in mammary gland, and VDR ablation is associated with accelerated glandular development during puberty...
  67. Srikuea R, Zhang X, Park Sarge O, Esser K. VDR and CYP27B1 are expressed in C2C12 cells and regenerating skeletal muscle: potential role in suppression of myoblast proliferation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C396-405 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there has been some controversy about the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and thus the potential role of vitamin D(3) in skeletal muscle...
  68. Salehi Tabar R, Nguyen Yamamoto L, Tavera Mendoza L, Quail T, Dimitrov V, An B, et al. Vitamin D receptor as a master regulator of the c-MYC/MXD1 network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18827-32 pubmed publisher
    ..and animal-based studies and mathematical modeling that hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) profoundly alter, through multiple mechanisms, the balance in function of c-MYC and its antagonist the ..
  69. Kong J, Qiao G, Zhang Z, Liu S, Li Y. Targeted vitamin D receptor expression in juxtaglomerular cells suppresses renin expression independent of parathyroid hormone and calcium. Kidney Int. 2008;74:1577-81 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we showed that vitamin D receptor gene knockout leads to hyperreninemia independent of calcium metabolism; however, the contribution of parathyroid hormone to renin upregulation remained unclear...