Gene Symbol: Vangl2
Description: VANGL planar cell polarity 2
Alias: C530001F03Rik, Lootl, Lpp1, Ltap, Vang1l2, loop-tail, ska17, ska, stbm, strabismus, vang-like protein 2, loop tail associated protein, loop-tail protein 1, van Gogh-like protein 2, vang-like 2 (van gogh, Drosophila)
Species: mouse
Products:     Vangl2

Top Publications

  1. VandenBerg A, Sassoon D. Non-canonical Wnt signaling regulates cell polarity in female reproductive tract development via van gogh-like 2. Development. 2009;136:1559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-canonical Wnt signaling protein van gogh-like 2 is mutated in loop-tail (Lp) mutant mice (Vangl2(Lp)), which display defects in multiple tissues...
  2. Wansleeben C, Feitsma H, Montcouquiol M, Kroon C, Cuppen E, Meijlink F. Planar cell polarity defects and defective Vangl2 trafficking in mutants for the COPII gene Sec24b. Development. 2010;137:1067-73 pubmed publisher
    ..isoforms are thought to be directly involved in cargo selection, and we present evidence that Sec24b deficiency specifically affects transport of the PCP core protein Vangl2, based on experiments in embryos and in cultured primary cells.
  3. Wolff T, Rubin G. Strabismus, a novel gene that regulates tissue polarity and cell fate decisions in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1149-59 pubmed
    ..We have identified a novel gene, strabismus (stbm), which is required to establish polarity in the eye, legs and bristles of Drosophila...
  4. Henderson D, Conway S, Greene N, Gerrelli D, Murdoch J, Anderson R, et al. Cardiovascular defects associated with abnormalities in midline development in the Loop-tail mouse mutant. Circ Res. 2001;89:6-12 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the double-sided arch arises as a primary defect in the Lp mutant, unrelated to the alignment defects, perhaps reflecting a role for the (as-yet-unknown) Lp gene in maintenance/regression of the aortic arch system. ..
  5. Andre P, Wang Q, Wang N, Gao B, Schilit A, Halford M, et al. The Wnt coreceptor Ryk regulates Wnt/planar cell polarity by modulating the degradation of the core planar cell polarity component Vangl2. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:44518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Ryk interacts with Vangl2 genetically and biochemically, and such interaction is potentiated by Wnt5a...
  6. Torban E, Wang H, Patenaude A, Riccomagno M, Daniels E, Epstein D, et al. Tissue, cellular and sub-cellular localization of the Vangl2 protein during embryonic development: effect of the Lp mutation. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:346-54 pubmed
    ..Lp) mice show a very severe neural tube defect, craniorachischisis, which is caused by mis-sense mutations in the Vangl2 gene...
  7. Ybot Gonzalez P, Savery D, Gerrelli D, Signore M, Mitchell C, Faux C, et al. Convergent extension, planar-cell-polarity signalling and initiation of mouse neural tube closure. Development. 2007;134:789-99 pubmed
    ..extension in this defect, we vitally labelled the midline of loop-tail (Lp) embryos mutant for the PCP gene Vangl2. Injection of DiI into the node, and electroporation of a GFP expression vector into the midline neural plate, ..
  8. Ross A, May Simera H, Eichers E, Kai M, Hill J, Jagger D, et al. Disruption of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ciliary proteins perturbs planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1135-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we identify genetic interactions between BBS genes and a PCP gene in both mouse (Ltap, also called Vangl2) and zebrafish (vangl2)...
  9. Jones C, Roper V, Foucher I, Qian D, Banizs B, Petit C, et al. Ciliary proteins link basal body polarization to planar cell polarity regulation. Nat Genet. 2008;40:69-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data uncover a distinct requirement for ciliary genes in basal body positioning and morphological polarization during PCP regulation. ..

More Information


  1. Torban E, Wang H, Groulx N, Gros P. Independent mutations in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52703-13 pubmed
    ..Vangl1 and Vangl2 are highly conserved membrane proteins that have evolved from a single ancestral protein Strabismus/Van Gogh found in Drosophila...
  2. Carroll E, Gerrelli D, Gasca S, Berg E, Beier D, Copp A, et al. Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation. Dev Biol. 2003;262:16-31 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that cobl interacts with the neurulation gene Vangl2 to facilitate midbrain neural tube closure, demonstrating roles for both cobl and Vangl2 in midbrain neurulation.
  3. Copley C, Duncan J, Liu C, Cheng H, Deans M. Postnatal refinement of auditory hair cell planar polarity deficits occurs in the absence of Vangl2. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14001-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the core planar cell polarity gene Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) result in hair cells that fail to properly orient their stereociliary bundles along the mediolateral axis of the ..
  4. Gao B, Song H, Bishop K, Elliot G, Garrett L, English M, et al. Wnt signaling gradients establish planar cell polarity by inducing Vangl2 phosphorylation through Ror2. Dev Cell. 2011;20:163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Wnt signaling gradient provides directional information to a field of cells. Vangl2, a core component in planar cell polarity, forms Wnt-induced receptor complex with Ror2 to sense Wnt dosages...
  5. Belotti E, Puvirajesinghe T, Audebert S, Baudelet E, Camoin L, Pierres M, et al. Molecular characterisation of endogenous Vangl2/Vangl1 heteromeric protein complexes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46213 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) core gene Vangl2 cause the most severe neural tube defects (NTD) in mice and humans. Genetic studies show that the Vangl2 gene genetically interacts with a close homologue Vangl1...
  6. Phillips H, Murdoch J, Chaudhry B, Copp A, Henderson D. Vangl2 acts via RhoA signaling to regulate polarized cell movements during development of the proximal outflow tract. Circ Res. 2005;96:292-9 pubmed
    ..mice develop double outlet right ventricle and aortic arch defects, and the defects are caused by mutations in the Vangl2 gene...
  7. Montcouquiol M, Sans N, Huss D, Kach J, Dickman J, Forge A, et al. Asymmetric localization of Vangl2 and Fz3 indicate novel mechanisms for planar cell polarity in mammals. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5265-75 pubmed
    ..To begin to elucidate the mechanisms of PCP in vertebrates, the localization of the protein Vangl2 (Van Gogh-like) was determined during the development of the mammalian cochlea...
  8. Greene N, Gerrelli D, van Straaten H, Copp A. Abnormalities of floor plate, notochord and somite differentiation in the loop-tail (Lp) mouse: a model of severe neural tube defects. Mech Dev. 1998;73:59-72 pubmed
    ..Comparison with other mouse mutants suggests that the enlarged floor plate may be responsible for the failure of neural tube closure in Lp/Lp embryos. ..
  9. Zhou W, Lin L, Majumdar A, Li X, Zhang X, Liu W, et al. Modulation of morphogenesis by noncanonical Wnt signaling requires ATF/CREB family-mediated transcriptional activation of TGFbeta2. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1225-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that transcriptional readout mediated at least in part by a Wnt11 --> ATF/CREB --> TGFbeta2 pathway is critical in regulating morphogenesis in response to noncanonical Wnt signaling. ..
  10. Stanier P, Henson J, Eddleston J, Moore G, Copp A. Genetic basis of neural tube defects: the mouse gene loop-tail maps to a region of chromosome 1 syntenic with human 1q21-q23. Genomics. 1995;26:473-8 pubmed
  11. Kibar Z, Vogan K, Groulx N, Justice M, Underhill D, Gros P. Ltap, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh, is altered in the mouse neural tube mutant Loop-tail. Nat Genet. 2001;28:251-5 pubmed
    ..One of these genes, Ltap, encodes a homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh (Stbm/Vang), a component of the frizzled/dishevelled tissue polarity pathway...
  12. Le Grand F, Jones A, Seale V, Scime A, Rudnicki M. Wnt7a activates the planar cell polarity pathway to drive the symmetric expansion of satellite stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:535-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt7a signaling induced the polarized distribution of the planar cell polarity effector Vangl2. Silencing of Vangl2 inhibited Wnt7a action on satellite stem cell expansion...
  13. Williams M, Yen W, Lu X, Sutherland A. Distinct apical and basolateral mechanisms drive planar cell polarity-dependent convergent extension of the mouse neural plate. Dev Cell. 2014;29:34-46 pubmed publisher
    ..of mediolateral intercalation in embryos mutant for two proteins associated with planar cell polarity signaling: Vangl2 and Ptk7...
  14. Guyot M, Bosoi C, Kharfallah F, Reynolds A, Drapeau P, Justice M, et al. A novel hypomorphic Looptail allele at the planar cell polarity Vangl2 gene. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:839-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Vangl2 forms part of the planar cell polarity signalling pathway and is the gene defective in the Looptail (Lp) mouse mutant...
  15. Song M, Shirasaki R, Cai C, Ruiz E, Evans S, Lee S, et al. T-Box transcription factor Tbx20 regulates a genetic program for cranial motor neuron cell body migration. Development. 2006;133:4945-55 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that Tbx20 programs a variety of hindbrain motor neurons for migration, independent of directionality, and in facial neurons is a positive regulator of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  16. Murdoch J, Henderson D, Doudney K, Gaston Massuet C, Phillips H, Paternotte C, et al. Disruption of scribble (Scrb1) causes severe neural tube defects in the circletail mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:87-98 pubmed
    ..circletail genetically interacts with the loop-tail mutant, and we reveal overlapping expression of Scrb1 with Vangl2, the gene mutated in loop-tail...
  17. Torban E, Patenaude A, Leclerc S, Rakowiecki S, Gauthier S, Andelfinger G, et al. Genetic interaction between members of the Vangl family causes neural tube defects in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we have documented independent association of Vangl1 and Vangl2 gene mutations with NTDs...
  18. Satoh W, Matsuyama M, Takemura H, Aizawa S, Shimono A. Sfrp1, Sfrp2, and Sfrp5 regulate the Wnt/beta-catenin and the planar cell polarity pathways during early trunk formation in mouse. Genesis. 2008;46:92-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Sfrps regulation of the canonical and noncanonical pathways is essential for proper trunk formation. ..
  19. Caddy J, Wilanowski T, Darido C, Dworkin S, Ting S, Zhao Q, et al. Epidermal wound repair is regulated by the planar cell polarity signaling pathway. Dev Cell. 2010;19:138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice carrying mutant alleles of PCP genes Vangl2, Celsr1, PTK7, and Scrb1, and the transcription factor Grhl3, interact genetically, exhibiting failed wound ..
  20. Smith L, Stein K. Axial elongation in the mouse and its retardation in homozygous looptail mice. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1962;10:73-87 pubmed
  21. Tao H, Inoue K, Kiyonari H, Bassuk A, Axelrod J, Sasaki H, et al. Nuclear localization of Prickle2 is required to establish cell polarity during early mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;364:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell polarity phenotype was efficiently rescued by nuclear but not cytoplasmic Pk2, demonstrating the nuclear localization of Pk2 is critical for its function. ..
  22. Vladar E, Bayly R, Sangoram A, Scott M, Axelrod J. Microtubules enable the planar cell polarity of airway cilia. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2203-12 pubmed publisher
  23. GARCIA GARCIA M, Shibata M, Anderson K. Chato, a KRAB zinc-finger protein, regulates convergent extension in the mouse embryo. Development. 2008;135:3053-62 pubmed publisher
  24. Pryor S, Massa V, Savery D, Andre P, Yang Y, Greene N, et al. Vangl-dependent planar cell polarity signalling is not required for neural crest migration in mammals. Development. 2014;141:3153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vangl2(Lp/Lp) mouse embryos lack PCP signalling and undergo almost complete failure of neural tube closure...
  25. Phillips H, Hildreth V, Peat J, Murdoch J, Kobayashi K, Chaudhry B, et al. Non-cell-autonomous roles for the planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 in development of the coronary circulation. Circ Res. 2008;102:615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..formation of the coronary vasculature in the loop-tail (Lp) mutant in which the planar cell polarity (PCP) gene, Vangl2, is disrupted...
  26. Yao R, Natsume Y, Noda T. MAGI-3 is involved in the regulation of the JNK signaling pathway as a scaffold protein for frizzled and Ltap. Oncogene. 2004;23:6023-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we also demonstrate that MAGI-3 interacts with Ltap, a mouse homolog of the Drosophila PCP protein, stbm, and that these three molecules can form a ternary complex...
  27. Lu X, Borchers A, Jolicoeur C, Rayburn H, Baker J, Tessier Lavigne M. PTK7/CCK-4 is a novel regulator of planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Nature. 2004;430:93-8 pubmed
    ..a 'core' group of PCP genes including frizzled (fz), flamingo/starry night, dishevelled (dsh), Van Gogh/strabismus and prickle, function to regulate wing hair, bristle and ommatidial polarity...
  28. Tao H, Suzuki M, Kiyonari H, Abe T, Sasaoka T, Ueno N. Mouse prickle1, the homolog of a PCP gene, is essential for epiblast apical-basal polarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show mpk1 genetically interacts with another core PCP gene Vangl2/stbm in the epiblast formation, suggesting that PCP components are commonly required for the establishment and/or ..
  29. Copp A, Checiu I, Henson J. Developmental basis of severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail (Lp) mutant mouse: use of microsatellite DNA markers to identify embryonic genotype. Dev Biol. 1994;165:20-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, polymorphisms can be detected using the polymerase chain reaction, making it possible to determine the genotype of very early embryos when only small amounts of material are available. ..
  30. Montcouquiol M, Rachel R, Lanford P, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Kelley M. Identification of Vangl2 and Scrb1 as planar polarity genes in mammals. Nature. 2003;423:173-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a mutation in Vangl2, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila PCP gene Strabismus/Van Gogh, results in significant disruptions in the polarization of stereociliary bundles in mouse cochlea as a ..
  31. Lake B, Sokol S. Strabismus regulates asymmetric cell divisions and cell fate determination in the mouse brain. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..of Lp/Lp (Loop-tail) mice deficient in the essential PCP mediator Vangl2, homologue of Drosophila melanogaster Strabismus (Stbm), revealed precocious differentiation of neural progenitors into early-born neurons at the expense of late-..
  32. Paudyal A, Damrau C, Patterson V, Ermakov A, Formstone C, Lalanne Z, et al. The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung development and abnormal planar cell polarity in the ear. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:87 pubmed publisher
    ..This mutant provides a useful tool to allow future studies aimed at understanding the molecular function of Ptk7. ..
  33. Merte J, Jensen D, Wright K, Sarsfield S, Wang Y, Schekman R, et al. Sec24b selectively sorts Vangl2 to regulate planar cell polarity during neural tube closure. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:41-6; sup pp 1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vangl2, a key component of the PCP-signalling pathway critical for convergent extension, is selectively sorted into COPII ..
  34. Yin H, Copley C, Goodrich L, Deans M. Comparison of phenotypes between different vangl2 mutants demonstrates dominant effects of the Looptail mutation during hair cell development. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31988 pubmed publisher
    Experiments utilizing the Looptail mutant mouse, which harbors a missense mutation in the vangl2 gene, have been essential for studies of planar polarity and linking the function of the core planar cell polarity proteins to other ..
  35. Wang Y, Chang H, Nathans J. When whorls collide: the development of hair patterns in frizzled 6 mutant mice. Development. 2010;137:4091-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Physical systems that undergo an analogous ordering of vector components suggest potential mechanisms that might apply to the patterning of hair follicles and related biological structures...
  36. Wang Y, Guo N, Nathans J. The role of Frizzled3 and Frizzled6 in neural tube closure and in the planar polarity of inner-ear sensory hair cells. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2147-56 pubmed
    ..Vangl2, one of two mammalian homologs of the Drosophila planar cell polarity (PCP) gene van Gogh/Strabismus, is also required for correct hair bundle orientation on a subset of auditory sensory cells and on all ..
  37. Tissir F, Qu Y, Montcouquiol M, Zhou L, Komatsu K, Shi D, et al. Lack of cadherins Celsr2 and Celsr3 impairs ependymal ciliogenesis, leading to fatal hydrocephalus. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:700-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The membrane distribution of Vangl2 and Fzd3, two key planar cell polarity proteins, was disturbed in Celsr2 mutants, and even more so in Celsr2 and ..
  38. Deans M, Antic D, Suyama K, Scott M, Axelrod J, Goodrich L. Asymmetric distribution of prickle-like 2 reveals an early underlying polarization of vestibular sensory epithelia in the inner ear. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3139-47 pubmed
  39. Kibar Z, Underhill D, Canonne Hergaux F, Gauthier S, Justice M, Gros P. Identification of a new chemically induced allele (Lp(m1Jus)) at the loop-tail locus: morphology, histology, and genetic mapping. Genomics. 2001;72:331-7 pubmed
    ..Based on these phenotypic and genetic data, Lp(m1Jus) is most likely allelic to Lp, thereby representing a valuable additional tool for the positional cloning of the Lp gene and its subsequent molecular characterization. ..
  40. Sinha T, Wang B, Evans S, Wynshaw Boris A, Wang J. Disheveled mediated planar cell polarity signaling is required in the second heart field lineage for outflow tract morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;370:135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutating the core PCP gene Vangl2 and non-canonical Wnt gene Wnt5a recapitulated the OFT morphogenesis defects observed in Dvl1/2 mutants...
  41. Ybot Gonzalez P, Copp A, Greene N. Expression pattern of glypican-4 suggests multiple roles during mouse development. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1013-7 pubmed
    ..Glypican-4 expression is not detected in the midline of the embryo at the stage of initiation of neural tube closure, suggesting that glypican-4 is unlikely to play an essential role in convergent extension in the mouse. ..
  42. Song H, Hu J, Chen W, Elliott G, Andre P, Gao B, et al. Planar cell polarity breaks bilateral symmetry by controlling ciliary positioning. Nature. 2010;466:378-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, by removing both Vangl1 and Vangl2, the two mouse homologues of a Drosophila core planar cell polarity (PCP) gene Van Gogh (Vang), we reveal a ..
  43. Murdoch J, Doudney K, Paternotte C, Copp A, Stanier P. Severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail mouse result from mutation of Lpp1, a novel gene involved in floor plate specification. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:2593-601 pubmed
    ..LP: Lpp1 encodes a protein of 521 amino acids, with four transmembrane domains related to the Drosophila protein strabismus/van gogh (vang)...
  44. Gravel M, Iliescu A, Horth C, Apuzzo S, Gros P. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neural tube defects in the loop-tail mutant mouse. Biochemistry. 2010;49:3445-55 pubmed publisher
    Loop-tail (Lp) mice show a very severe neural tube defect (craniorachischisis) caused by mutations in the Vangl2 gene (D255E, S464N)...
  45. Lindqvist M, Horn Z, Bryja V, Schulte G, Papachristou P, Ajima R, et al. Vang-like protein 2 and Rac1 interact to regulate adherens junctions. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:472-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the function of the mammalian PCP protein Vang-like protein 2 (Vangl2)...
  46. Mahaffey J, Grego Bessa J, Liem K, Anderson K. Cofilin and Vangl2 cooperate in the initiation of planar cell polarity in the mouse embryo. Development. 2013;140:1262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that cofilin 1 (Cfl1), an actin-severing protein, and Vangl2, a core PCP protein, cooperate to control PCP in the early mouse embryo...
  47. Devenport D, Fuchs E. Planar polarization in embryonic epidermis orchestrates global asymmetric morphogenesis of hair follicles. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Hair follicle initiation coincides with asymmetric redistribution of Vangl2, Celsr1 and Fzd6 within the embryonic epidermal basal layer...
  48. Phillips H, Rhee H, Murdoch J, Hildreth V, Peat J, Anderson R, et al. Disruption of planar cell polarity signaling results in congenital heart defects and cardiomyopathy attributable to early cardiomyocyte disorganization. Circ Res. 2007;101:137-45 pubmed
    ..Mislocalization of Vangl2 in Crc/Crc cardiomyocytes suggests Scrib is acting in the planar cell polarity pathway in this tissue...
  49. Yates L, Schnatwinkel C, Hazelwood L, Chessum L, Paudyal A, Hilton H, et al. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell-cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. Dev Biol. 2013;373:267-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically we show that Scrib genetically interacts with the core PCP gene Vangl2 in the developing lung and that the distribution of PCP pathway proteins and Rho mediated cytoskeletal ..
  50. Murdoch J, Rachel R, Shah S, Beermann F, Stanier P, Mason C, et al. Circletail, a new mouse mutant with severe neural tube defects: chromosomal localization and interaction with the loop-tail mutation. Genomics. 2001;78:55-63 pubmed
    ..This phenotype is seen in very few other mutants, the best characterized of which is loop-tail (Ltap(Lp), referred to hereafter as Lp)...
  51. Murdoch J, Eddleston J, Leblond Bourget N, Stanier P, Copp A. Sequence and expression analysis of Nhlh1: a basic helix-loop-helix gene implicated in neurogenesis. Dev Genet. 1999;24:165-77 pubmed
    ..Nhlh1 has been implicated previously as a candidate for the neural tube defect mutant loop-tail (Lp); here, we present sequence and expression data indicating that Nhlh1 is unlikely to be responsible for the Lp mutation. ..
  52. Wang J, Hamblet N, Mark S, Dickinson M, Brinkman B, Segil N, et al. Dishevelled genes mediate a conserved mammalian PCP pathway to regulate convergent extension during neurulation. Development. 2006;133:1767-78 pubmed
    ..Dvl2 genetically interacts with Loop-tail, a point mutation in the mammalian PCP gene Vangl2, during neurulation...
  53. Yates L, Schnatwinkel C, Murdoch J, Bogani D, Formstone C, Townsend S, et al. The PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for normal lung branching morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2251-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mutations in the planar cell polarity (PCP) genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 lead to disrupted lung development and defects in lung architecture...
  54. Etheridge S, Ray S, Li S, Hamblet N, Lijam N, Tsang M, et al. Murine dishevelled 3 functions in redundant pathways with dishevelled 1 and 2 in normal cardiac outflow tract, cochlea, and neural tube development. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000259 pubmed publisher
    ..the organ of Corti, a phenotype that was enhanced with the additional loss of a single allele of the PCP component Vangl2/Ltap (LtapLp/+)...
  55. Wang J, Mark S, Zhang X, Qian D, Yoo S, Radde Gallwitz K, et al. Regulation of polarized extension and planar cell polarity in the cochlea by the vertebrate PCP pathway. Nat Genet. 2005;37:980-5 pubmed
  56. Tissir F, Goffinet A. Expression of planar cell polarity genes during development of the mouse CNS. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:597-607 pubmed
    ..b>Vangl2 and Dvl2 were preferentially expressed in ventricular zones, in keeping with their role during neural tube closure,..
  57. Chen B, Mao H, Chen L, Zhang F, Li K, Xue Z. Loop-tail phenotype in heterozygous mice and neural tube defects in homozygous mice result from a nonsense mutation in the Vangl2 gene. Genet Mol Res. 2013;12:3157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a C57BL/6J Lp mouse generated by ENU-induced mutagenesis. The mutation was mapped to the Vangl2 gene on chromosome 1, near markers D1Mit113 and D1Mit149...
  58. Yamamoto S, Nishimura O, Misaki K, Nishita M, Minami Y, Yonemura S, et al. Cthrc1 selectively activates the planar cell polarity pathway of Wnt signaling by stabilizing the Wnt-receptor complex. Dev Cell. 2008;15:23-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Cthrc1 null mutant mice appeared normal, the introduction of a heterozygous mutation of a PCP gene, Vangl2, resulted in abnormalities characteristic of PCP mutants...
  59. Saburi S, Hester I, Fischer E, Pontoglio M, Eremina V, Gessler M, et al. Loss of Fat4 disrupts PCP signaling and oriented cell division and leads to cystic kidney disease. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1010-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Fat4 genetically interacts with the PCP genes Vangl2 and Fjx1 in cyst formation...
  60. Shafer B, Onishi K, Lo C, Colakoglu G, Zou Y. Vangl2 promotes Wnt/planar cell polarity-like signaling by antagonizing Dvl1-mediated feedback inhibition in growth cone guidance. Dev Cell. 2011;20:177-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vangl2 antagonizes that by reducing Frizzled3 phosphorylation and promotes its internalization...
  61. Qian D, Jones C, Rzadzinska A, Mark S, Zhang X, Steel K, et al. Wnt5a functions in planar cell polarity regulation in mice. Dev Biol. 2007;306:121-33 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that Wnt5a is required for proper subcellular distribution of a PCP protein, Ltap/Vangl2, and that Wnt5a interacts genetically with Ltap/Vangl2 for uniform orientation of stereocilia, cochlear extension, ..
  62. Babayeva S, Zilber Y, Torban E. Planar cell polarity pathway regulates actin rearrangement, cell shape, motility, and nephrin distribution in podocytes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F549-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In reciprocal experiments, siRNA depletion of the core PCP gene Vangl2 reduced the number of cell projections and decreased stress fibers and cell motility...
  63. Escobedo N, Contreras O, Muñoz R, Farías M, Carrasco H, Hill C, et al. Syndecan 4 interacts genetically with Vangl2 to regulate neural tube closure and planar cell polarity. Development. 2013;140:3008-17 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse development, we evaluated a possible interaction between a null mutation of Sdc4 and the loop-tail allele of Vangl2. Sdc4 is expressed in multiple tissues, but particularly in the non-neural ectoderm, hindgut and otic vesicles...