Gene Symbol: Vamp2
Description: vesicle-associated membrane protein 2
Alias: Syb-2, Syb2, Vamp-2, sybII, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, synaptobrevin II, synaptobrevin-2, vesicle-associated membrane 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Vamp2

Top Publications

  1. Peng X, Jia Z, Zhang Y, Ware J, Trimble W. The septin CDCrel-1 is dispensable for normal development and neurotransmitter release. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:378-87 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that CDCrel-1 is not essential for neuronal development or function, and that changes in expression of other septins may account for its functional redundancy. ..
  2. Oh E, Thurmond D. Munc18c depletion selectively impairs the sustained phase of insulin release. Diabetes. 2009;58:1165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Munc18c depletion ablated the glucose-stimulated VAMP2-Syntaxin 4 association as well as Syntaxin 4 activation, correlating with the deficit in insulin release...
  3. Nevins A, Thurmond D. A direct interaction between Cdc42 and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 regulates SNARE-dependent insulin exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1944-52 pubmed
    ..interactions among the target SNARE protein Syntaxin 1A and the vesicle-associated membrane SNARE protein (VAMP2) with Cdc42 and compared these structural interactions with their functional importance to glucose-stimulated ..
  4. Ke B, Oh E, Thurmond D. Doc2beta is a novel Munc18c-interacting partner and positive effector of syntaxin 4-mediated exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21786-97 pubmed
    ..All changes in secretion correlated with parallel alterations in VAMP2 granule docking with Syntaxin 4...
  5. Hui E, Johnson C, Yao J, Dunning F, Chapman E. Synaptotagmin-mediated bending of the target membrane is a critical step in Ca(2+)-regulated fusion. Cell. 2009;138:709-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, bending of flat membranes by adding an N-BAR domain rescued the function of the tubulation-deficient syt mutant. Hence, syt-mediated membrane bending is a critical step in membrane fusion. ..
  6. Burgalossi A, Jung S, Meyer G, Jockusch W, Jahn O, Taschenberger H, et al. SNARE protein recycling by ?SNAP and ?SNAP supports synaptic vesicle priming. Neuron. 2010;68:473-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis of ?- and ?SNAP deletion mutant neurons shows that the two NSF cofactors support synaptic vesicle priming by determining the availability of free SNARE components, particularly during phases of high synaptic activity. ..
  7. Martin S, Tellam J, Livingstone C, Slot J, Gould G, James D. The glucose transporter (GLUT-4) and vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2) are segregated from recycling endosomes in insulin-sensitive cells. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:625-35 pubmed
    ..In addition, GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 are selectively enriched in a postendocytic compartment. Further study is required to elucidate the function of this latter compartment in insulin-responsive cells. ..
  8. Newell Litwa K, Salazar G, Smith Y, Faundez V. Roles of BLOC-1 and adaptor protein-3 complexes in cargo sorting to synaptic vesicles. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1441-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that lysosomal and lysosome-related organelle biogenesis mechanisms regulate steady-state synaptic vesicle protein composition from shared early endosomes. ..
  9. Ren Q, Barber H, Crawford G, Karim Z, Zhao C, Choi W, et al. Endobrevin/VAMP-8 is the primary v-SNARE for the platelet release reaction. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:24-33 pubmed
    ..These data imply a ranked redundancy of v-SNARE usage in platelets and suggest that VAMP-8-/- mice will be a useful in vivo model to study platelet exocytosis in hemostasis and vascular inflammation. ..

More Information


  1. Bhalla A, Chicka M, Tucker W, Chapman E. Ca(2+)-synaptotagmin directly regulates t-SNARE function during reconstituted membrane fusion. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:323-30 pubmed
    ..Ca(2+)-syt drove assembly of SNAP-25 onto membrane-embedded syntaxin, providing direct evidence that Ca(2+)-syt alters t-SNARE structure. ..
  2. Zhao P, Yang L, Lopez J, Fan J, Burchfield J, Bai L, et al. Variations in the requirement for v-SNAREs in GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects could be rescued by re-expression of VAMP2, VAMP3 or VAMP8 alone, but not VAMP7...
  3. Chandra S, Gallardo G, Fernandez Chacon R, Schlüter O, Sudhof T. Alpha-synuclein cooperates with CSPalpha in preventing neurodegeneration. Cell. 2005;123:383-96 pubmed
  4. Deak F, Schoch S, Liu X, Sudhof T, Kavalali E. Synaptobrevin is essential for fast synaptic-vesicle endocytosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:1102-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, synaptobrevin is essential for two fast synapse-specific membrane trafficking reactions: fast exocytosis for neurotransmitter release and fast endocytosis that mediates rapid reuse of synaptic vesicles. ..
  5. Wang C, Ng C, Lu L, Atlashkin V, Zhang W, Seet L, et al. A role of VAMP8/endobrevin in regulated exocytosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Dev Cell. 2004;7:359-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a major physiological role of VAMP8 in regulated exocytosis of pancreatic acinar cells by serving as a v-SNARE of zymogen granules. ..
  6. Burré J, Sharma M, Tsetsenis T, Buchman V, Etherton M, Südhof T. Alpha-synuclein promotes SNARE-complex assembly in vivo and in vitro. Science. 2010;329:1663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..synuclein directly bound to the SNARE-protein synaptobrevin-2/vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) and promoted SNARE-complex assembly...
  7. Cotrufo T, Perez Branguli F, Muhaisen A, Ros O, Andres R, Baeriswyl T, et al. A signaling mechanism coupling netrin-1/deleted in colorectal cancer chemoattraction to SNARE-mediated exocytosis in axonal growth cones. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14463-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence of a new signaling mechanism that couples chemotropic Netrin-1/DCC axonal guidance and Sytx1/TI-VAMP SNARE proteins regulating membrane turnover and exocytosis. ..
  8. Schoch S, Deak F, Königstorfer A, Mozhayeva M, Sara Y, Sudhof T, et al. SNARE function analyzed in synaptobrevin/VAMP knockout mice. Science. 2001;294:1117-22 pubmed
    ..In the absence of synaptobrevin 2, spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion and fusion induced by hypertonic sucrose were decreased approximately 10-..
  9. Martin L, Shewan A, Millar C, Gould G, James D. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 plays a specific role in the insulin-dependent trafficking of the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1444-52 pubmed
    Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) has been implicated in the insulin-regulated trafficking of GLUT4 in adipocytes. It has been proposed that VAMP2 co-localizes with GLUT4 in a postendocytic storage compartment (Martin, S...
  10. Washbourne P, Thompson P, Carta M, Costa E, Mathews J, Lopez Bendito G, et al. Genetic ablation of the t-SNARE SNAP-25 distinguishes mechanisms of neuroexocytosis. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:19-26 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the development of neurotransmission requires the recruitment of a specialized SNARE core complex to meet the demands of regulated exocytosis. ..
  11. James D, Kowalchyk J, Daily N, Petrie M, Martin T. CAPS drives trans-SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion through syntaxin interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current work, we reconstituted CAPS function in a SNARE-dependent liposome fusion assay using VAMP2-containing donor and syntaxin-1/SNAP-25-containing acceptor liposomes...
  12. Deak F, Shin O, Kavalali E, Sudhof T. Structural determinants of synaptobrevin 2 function in synaptic vesicle fusion. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6668-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the fusion reactions underlying evoked and spontaneous release differ mechanistically. ..
  13. Williams D, Pessin J. Mapping of R-SNARE function at distinct intracellular GLUT4 trafficking steps in adipocytes. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:375-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this approach, we confirm the requirement of VAMP2 and VAMP7 for insulin and osmotic shock trafficking from the vesicle storage sites, respectively, and fusion with ..
  14. Liu L, Fujino K, Nishimura M. Pre-synaptic localization of the γ-secretase-inhibiting protein p24α2 in the mammalian brain. J Neurochem. 2015;133:422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..p24α2 expression is highest in the post-natal period and gradually decreases with age. Our results suggest a novel function for p24α2 at the synapse, including the regulation of brain Aβ generation. ..
  15. Shimojo M, Courchet J, Pieraut S, Torabi Rander N, Sando R, Polleux F, et al. SNAREs Controlling Vesicular Release of BDNF and Development of Callosal Axons. Cell Rep. 2015;11:1054-66 pubmed publisher
    At presynaptic active zones, exocytosis of neurotransmitter vesicles (SVs) is driven by SNARE complexes that recruit Syb2 and SNAP25...
  16. Fritzius T, Frey A, Schweneker M, Mayer D, Moelling K. WD-repeat-propeller-FYVE protein, ProF, binds VAMP2 and protein kinase Czeta. FEBS J. 2007;274:1552-66 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) as interaction partner of ProF...
  17. Barber M, Arai Y, Morishita Y, Vigier L, Causeret F, Borello U, et al. Migration Speed of Cajal-Retzius Cells Modulated by Vesicular Trafficking Controls the Size of Higher-Order Cortical Areas. Curr Biol. 2015;25:2466-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus identify novel roles for neuronal migration and VAMP3-dependent vesicular trafficking in cortical wiring. ..
  18. Gordon S, Harper C, Smillie K, Cousin M. A Fine Balance of Synaptophysin Levels Underlies Efficient Retrieval of Synaptobrevin II to Synaptic Vesicles. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149457 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptobrevin II (sybII) is a vesicular soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein that is essential for neurotransmitter release, and thus its correct trafficking to synaptic vesicles (SVs) is critical to render them fusion ..
  19. Gerber S, Rah J, Min S, Liu X, de Wit H, Dulubova I, et al. Conformational switch of syntaxin-1 controls synaptic vesicle fusion. Science. 2008;321:1507-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the closed conformation of syntaxin-1 gates the initiation of the synaptic vesicle fusion reaction, which is then mediated by SNARE-complex/Munc18-1 assemblies. ..
  20. Jurado S, Goswami D, Zhang Y, Molina A, Sudhof T, Malenka R. LTP requires a unique postsynaptic SNARE fusion machinery. Neuron. 2013;77:542-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the R-SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2 contributes to both regulated and constitutive AMPAR exocytosis...
  21. Wentzel C, Sommer J, Nair R, Stiefvater A, Sibarita J, Scheiffele P. mSYD1A, a mammalian synapse-defective-1 protein, regulates synaptogenic signaling and vesicle docking. Neuron. 2013;78:1012-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mSYD1A is a regulator of presynaptic release sites at central synapses. ..
  22. Gorini G, Ponomareva O, Shores K, Person M, Harris R, Mayfield R. Dynamin-1 co-associates with native mouse brain BKCa channels: proteomics analysis of synaptic protein complexes. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel interactions offer valuable insight into the protein-protein interaction network in intact synapses that could advance understanding of vesicle trafficking, release, and recycling. ..
  23. Bolis A, Corbetta S, Cioce A, de Curtis I. Differential distribution of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in the developing mouse brain: implications for a role of Rac3 in Purkinje cell differentiation. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:2417-24 pubmed
    ..Our data implicate Rac3 in neuronal differentiation, and support a specific role of this GTPase in actin-mediated remodelling of Purkinje cell neuritic terminals at time of synaptogenesis. ..
  24. Quetglas S, Iborra C, Sasakawa N, De Haro L, Kumakura K, Sato K, et al. Calmodulin and lipid binding to synaptobrevin regulates calcium-dependent exocytosis. EMBO J. 2002;21:3970-9 pubmed
    ..release involves the assembly of a heterotrimeric SNARE complex composed of the vesicle protein synaptobrevin (VAMP 2) and two plasma membrane partners, syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25...
  25. Jamain S, Radyushkin K, Hammerschmidt K, Granon S, Boretius S, Varoqueaux F, et al. Reduced social interaction and ultrasonic communication in a mouse model of monogenic heritable autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1710-5 pubmed publisher
  26. Felkl M, Leube R. Interaction assays in yeast and cultured cells confirm known and identify novel partners of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin. Neuroscience. 2008;156:344-52 pubmed publisher
  27. Sando R, Gounko N, Pieraut S, Liao L, Yates J, Maximov A. HDAC4 governs a transcriptional program essential for synaptic plasticity and memory. Cell. 2012;151:821-834 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies elucidate a mechanism of experience-dependent plasticity and define the biological role of HDAC4 in the brain. ..
  28. Fang Q, Zhao Y, Lindau M. Juxtamembrane tryptophans of synaptobrevin 2 control the process of membrane fusion. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:67-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2), syntaxin (Sx1A), and SNAP-25, generate a force to induce fusion pore formation. The v-SNARE, Syb2, is anchored to the vesicle membrane by a single transmembrane domain...
  29. Nouvian R, Neef J, Bulankina A, Reisinger E, Pangr i T, Frank T, et al. Exocytosis at the hair cell ribbon synapse apparently operates without neuronal SNARE proteins. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:411-3 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA, but no synaptically localized protein, of neuronal SNAREs was present in IHCs. Thus, IHC exocytosis is unconventional and may operate independently of neuronal SNAREs...
  30. Hager H, Roberts R, Cross E, Proux Gillardeaux V, Bader D. Identification of a novel Bves function: regulation of vesicular transport. EMBO J. 2010;29:532-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study establishes a newly identified role for Bves in vesicular transport and reveals a novel, broadly applied mechanism governing SNARE protein function...
  31. Zylbersztejn K, Petkovic M, Burgo A, Deck M, Garel S, Marcos S, et al. The vesicular SNARE Synaptobrevin is required for Semaphorin 3A axonal repulsion. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The exocytic vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2) is known for mediating neurotransmitter release in mature neurons, but its potential role in axonal ..
  32. Kioumourtzoglou D, Gould G, Bryant N. Insulin stimulates syntaxin4 SNARE complex assembly via a novel regulatory mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1271-9 pubmed publisher the plasma membrane is mediated by formation of functional SNARE complexes containing syntaxin4, SNAP23, and VAMP2. Here we have used an in situ proximity ligation assay to integrate these two observations by demonstrating for ..
  33. Min J, Okada S, Kanzaki M, Elmendorf J, Coker K, Ceresa B, et al. Synip: a novel insulin-regulated syntaxin 4-binding protein mediating GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. Mol Cell. 1999;3:751-60 pubmed
    Insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation require regulated interactions between the v-SNARE, VAMP2, and the t-SNARE, syntaxin 4...
  34. Sinha R, Ahmed S, Jahn R, Klingauf J. Two synaptobrevin molecules are sufficient for vesicle fusion in central nervous system synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:14318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..complex assembly formed by the coil-coiling of three members of this protein family: vesicle SNARE protein, synaptobrevin 2 (syb2), and the presynaptic membrane SNAREs syntaxin-1A and SNAP-25...
  35. Shen C, Rathore S, Yu H, Gulbranson D, Hua R, Zhang C, et al. The trans-SNARE-regulating function of Munc18-1 is essential to synaptic exocytosis. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8852 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the trans-SNARE-regulating function of Munc18-1 is compromised by a mutation associated with Ohtahara Syndrome, a severe form of epilepsy. ..
  36. Lin Y, Sun Z. Thyroid hormone promotes insulin-induced glucose uptake by enhancing Akt phosphorylation and VAMP2 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..was to test a hypothesis that T3 promotes glucose uptake via enhancing insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and VAMP2 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
  37. Kawaguchi T, Tamori Y, Kanda H, Yoshikawa M, Tateya S, Nishino N, et al. The t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 but not v-SNARE VAMP2 are indispensable to tether GLUT4 vesicles at the plasma membrane in adipocyte. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1336-41 pubmed publisher
    SNARE proteins (VAMP2, syntaxin4, and SNAP23) have been thought to play a key role in GLUT4 trafficking by mediating the tethering, docking and subsequent fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane...
  38. Borisovska M, Zhao Y, Tsytsyura Y, Glyvuk N, Takamori S, Matti U, et al. v-SNAREs control exocytosis of vesicles from priming to fusion. EMBO J. 2005;24:2114-26 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that each of the vesicle-associated SNARE proteins (v-SNARE) of a chromaffin granule, synaptobrevin II or cellubrevin, is sufficient to support Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and to establish a pool of primed, ..
  39. Chang H, Mannebach S, Beck A, Ravichandran K, Krause E, Frohnweiler K, et al. Cytotoxic granule endocytosis depends on the Flower protein. J Cell Biol. 2018;217:667-683 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data identify Flower as a key protein mediating granule endocytosis. ..
  40. Tan G, Liu Y, Wang L, Li K, Zhang Z, Li H, et al. PRRT2 deficiency induces paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia by regulating synaptic transmission in cerebellum. Cell Res. 2018;28:90-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings identify PRRT2 as a novel regulator of the SNARE complex and provide a circuit mechanism underlying the PRRT2-related behaviors. ..
  41. Arnold M, Cross R, Singleton K, Zlatic S, Chapleau C, Mullin A, et al. The Endosome Localized Arf-GAP AGAP1 Modulates Dendritic Spine Morphology Downstream of the Neurodevelopmental Disorder Factor Dysbindin. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016;10:218 pubmed
    ..We postulate that endosomal trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders affecting dendritic spine morphology, and thus excitatory synapse structure and function. ..
  42. Vardar G, Chang S, Arancillo M, Wu Y, Trimbuch T, Rosenmund C. Distinct Functions of Syntaxin-1 in Neuronal Maintenance, Synaptic Vesicle Docking, and Fusion in Mouse Neurons. J Neurosci. 2016;36:7911-24 pubmed publisher
    ..complexes by SNARE proteins syntaxin-1 (Stx1), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), and synaptobrevin-2 (Syb2)...
  43. Bose A, Guilherme A, Robida S, Nicoloro S, Zhou Q, Jiang Z, et al. Glucose transporter recycling in response to insulin is facilitated by myosin Myo1c. Nature. 2002;420:821-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, myosin Myo1c functions in a PI(3)K-independent insulin signalling pathway that controls the movement of intracellular GLUT4-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane. ..
  44. Dhara M, Yarzagaray A, Makke M, Schindeldecker B, Schwarz Y, Shaaban A, et al. v-SNARE transmembrane domains function as catalysts for vesicle fusion. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide evidence that the synaptobrevin-2 TMD catalyzes the fusion process by its structural flexibility, actively setting the pace of fusion pore expansion. ..
  45. Rajappa R, Gauthier Kemper A, Böning D, Hüve J, Klingauf J. Synaptophysin 1 Clears Synaptobrevin 2 from the Presynaptic Active Zone to Prevent Short-Term Depression. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1369-1381 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. Here we identify self-assembly of exocytosed Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2) and Synaptophysin 1 (Syp1) by homo- and hetero-oligomerization into clusters as key mechanisms ..
  46. Chang C, Jackson M. Synaptobrevin transmembrane domain influences exocytosis by perturbing vesicle membrane curvature. Biophys J. 2015;109:76-84 pubmed publisher
    ..the possibility of manipulating C0 by mutating the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the vesicle membrane protein synaptobrevin 2 (syb2)...
  47. Liu Y, Li H, Sugiura Y, Han W, Gallardo G, Khvotchev M, et al. Ubiquitin-Synaptobrevin Fusion Protein Causes Degeneration of Presynaptic Motor Terminals in Mice. J Neurosci. 2015;35:11514-31 pubmed publisher
    ..consisting of the following: (1) Ub(G76V), GFP, and a synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin-2 (Ub(G76V)-GFP-Syb2); (2) GFP-Syb2; or (3) Ub(G76V)-GFP-Syntaxin1, all under the control of a neuron-specific Thy-1 promoter...
  48. Raingo J, Khvotchev M, Liu P, Darios F, Li Y, Ramirez D, et al. VAMP4 directs synaptic vesicles to a pool that selectively maintains asynchronous neurotransmission. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:738-45 pubmed publisher
    ..With the exception of synaptobrevin2, or VAMP2 (syb2), which is directly involved in vesicle fusion, the role of these SNAREs in neurotransmission is unclear...
  49. Procino G, Barbieri C, Tamma G, De Benedictis L, Pessin J, Svelto M, et al. AQP2 exocytosis in the renal collecting duct -- involvement of SNARE isoforms and the regulatory role of Munc18b. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Both VAMP2 and VAMP3 were associated with immunoisolated AQP2 vesicles, whereas syntaxin 3 (Stx3), SNAP23 and Munc18 were ..
  50. Rotolo T, Smallwood P, Williams J, Nathans J. Genetically-directed, cell type-specific sparse labeling for the analysis of neuronal morphology. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4099 pubmed publisher
    ..light chain (NFL)-IRES-CreER], or broadly in neurons and some glia [vesicle-associated membrane protein2 (VAMP2)-IRES-CreER]...
  51. Mendez M, Gross K, Glenn S, Garvin J, Carretero O. Vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP2) mediates cAMP-stimulated renin release in mouse juxtaglomerular cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28608-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The vesicle SNARE proteins VAMP2 (vesicle associated membrane protein 2) and VAMP3 mediate cAMP-stimulated exocytosis in other endocrine cells...
  52. Florian C, Vecsey C, Halassa M, Haydon P, Abel T. Astrocyte-derived adenosine and A1 receptor activity contribute to sleep loss-induced deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6956-62 pubmed publisher
  53. Pin C, Rukstalis J, Johnson C, Konieczny S. The bHLH transcription factor Mist1 is required to maintain exocrine pancreas cell organization and acinar cell identity. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:519-30 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we propose that Mist1(KO) mice represent a new genetic model for chronic pancreas injury and that the Mist1 protein serves as a key regulator of acinar cell function, stability, and identity. ..
  54. Pooley R, Moynihan K, Soukoulis V, Reddy S, Francis R, Lo C, et al. Murine CENPF interacts with syntaxin 4 in the regulation of vesicular transport. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrate that murine CENPF and syntaxin 4 colocalize with components of plasma membrane recycling: SNAP-25 and VAMP2. Depletion of endogenous CENPF disrupts GLUT4 trafficking whereas expression of a dominant-negative form of CENPF ..
  55. Deng D, Djalali S, Holtje M, Grosse G, Stroh T, Voigt I, et al. Embryonic and postnatal development of the serotonergic raphe system and its target regions in 5-HT1A receptor deletion or overexpressing mouse mutants. Neuroscience. 2007;147:388-402 pubmed
    ..They may nonetheless contribute to the establishment of increased or reduced anxiety-like behavior, respectively, in adult mice. ..
  56. Williams D, Vicogne J, Zaitseva I, McLaughlin S, Pessin J. Evidence that electrostatic interactions between vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 and acidic phospholipids may modulate the fusion of transport vesicles with the plasma membrane. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4910-9 pubmed publisher
    ..peptides corresponding to this domain determine the electrostatic and hydrophobic energies by which this domain of VAMP2 could bind to the adjacent lipid bilayer in an insulin granule or other transport vesicle...
  57. Archer B, Ozcelik T, Jahn R, Francke U, Sudhof T. Structures and chromosomal localizations of two human genes encoding synaptobrevins 1 and 2. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:17267-73 pubmed
    ..Two cosmid clones containing the human genes encoding synaptobrevins 1 and 2 (gene symbols SYB1 and SYB2, respectively) were isolated and characterized...
  58. Chang C, Hui E, Bai J, Bruns D, Chapman E, Jackson M. A structural role for the synaptobrevin 2 transmembrane domain in dense-core vesicle fusion pores. J Neurosci. 2015;35:5772-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of the SNARE complex by the vesicle SNARE synaptobrevin 2 (syb2) and the two plasma membrane SNAREs syntaxin (syx) and SNAP-25 draws the two membranes together, but ..
  59. Wilhelm A, Volknandt W, Langer D, Nolte C, Kettenmann H, Zimmermann H. Localization of SNARE proteins and secretory organelle proteins in astrocytes in vitro and in situ. Neurosci Res. 2004;48:249-57 pubmed
    ..animals revealed a punctuate immunofluorescence for secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP), SNAP-23, synaptobrevin II, and cellubrevin, to a minor extent for SNAP-25 and synaptophysin, and none for SV2...
  60. Puri N, Roche P. Mast cells possess distinct secretory granule subsets whose exocytosis is regulated by different SNARE isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that VAMP-8-deficient mast cells exhibited defects in FcepsilonRI-regulated exocytosis, whereas synaptobrevin 2- or VAMP-3-deficient mast cells did not...
  61. Ngatchou A, Kisler K, Fang Q, Walter A, Zhao Y, Bruns D, et al. Role of the synaptobrevin C terminus in fusion pore formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18463-8 pubmed publisher
    Neurotransmitter release is mediated by the SNARE proteins synaptobrevin II (sybII, also known as VAMP2), syntaxin, and SNAP-25, generating a force transfer to the membranes and inducing fusion pore formation...
  62. Liu T, Sun L, Xiong Y, Shang S, Guo N, Teng S, et al. Calcium triggers exocytosis from two types of organelles in a single astrocyte. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of the vesicle glutamate transporter or cleavage of synaptobrevin 2 and cellubrevin (both are vesicle-associated membrane proteins) with a clostridial toxin greatly inhibited ..
  63. Perez Branguli F, Mishra H, Prots I, Havlicek S, Kohl Z, Saul D, et al. Dysfunction of spatacsin leads to axonal pathology in SPG11-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:4859-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the cellular functions of spatacsin will allow deciphering mechanisms of motor cortex dysfunction in autosomal-recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia. ..
  64. Lambertsen K, Gramsbergen J, Sivasaravanaparan M, Ditzel N, Sevelsted Møller L, Oliván Viguera A, et al. Genetic KCa3.1-deficiency produces locomotor hyperactivity and alterations in cerebral monoamine levels. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47744 pubmed publisher
    ..The tranquilizing effects of low-dose SKA-31 raise the possibility to use KCa3.1/KCa2 channels as novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric hyperactivity disorders. ..
  65. Gerst J. SNAREs and SNARE regulators in membrane fusion and exocytosis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;55:707-34 pubmed
    ..g. 'SNARE-masters') in mediating events leading to membrane fusion. A model to illustrate the dynamic cycling of SNAREs between fusion-incompetent and fusion-competent states, called the SNARE cycle, is presented. ..
  66. Koo S, Kochlamazashvili G, Rost B, Puchkov D, Gimber N, Lehmann M, et al. Vesicular Synaptobrevin/VAMP2 Levels Guarded by AP180 Control Efficient Neurotransmission. Neuron. 2015;88:330-44 pubmed publisher
    ..N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex formation of vesicular synaptobrevin/VAMP2 (Syb2). Exocytic fusion is followed by endocytic SV membrane retrieval and the high-fidelity reformation of SVs...
  67. Bouwman J, Maia A, Camoletto P, Posthuma G, Roubos E, Oorschot V, et al. Quantification of synapse formation and maintenance in vivo in the absence of synaptic release. Neuroscience. 2004;126:115-26 pubmed
    ..These two observations suggest that secretion of neurotransmitters and neuromodulatory substances is required for synapse maintenance, not for synaptogenesis. Multivesicular structures may develop out of unstable synapses. ..
  68. Hikida T, Kimura K, Wada N, Funabiki K, Nakanishi S. Distinct roles of synaptic transmission in direct and indirect striatal pathways to reward and aversive behavior. Neuron. 2010;66:896-907 pubmed publisher
    ..These two pathways thus have distinct roles: the direct pathway critical for distinguishing associative rewarding stimuli from nonassociative ones and the indirect pathway for rapid memory formation to avoid aversive stimuli. ..
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