Ung

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ung
Description: uracil DNA glycosylase
Alias: UNG1, UNG2, uracil-DNA glycosylase, UDG, uracil-DNA glycosylase nuclear isoform
Species: mouse
Products:     Ung

Top Publications

  1. Schrader C, Linehan E, Mochegova S, Woodland R, Stavnezer J. Inducible DNA breaks in Ig S regions are dependent on AID and UNG. J Exp Med. 2005;202:561-8 pubmed
    ..Repair of the uracils is proposed to lead to DNA breaks required for recombination. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) is required for most CSR activity although its role is disputed...
  2. Shen H, Tanaka A, Bozek G, Nicolae D, Storb U. Somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in Msh6(-/-)Ung(-/-) double-knockout mice. J Immunol. 2006;177:5386-92 pubmed
    ..Deficiencies in Ung, Msh2, or Msh6 affect SHM and CSR...
  3. Liu M, Duke J, Richter D, Vinuesa C, Goodnow C, Kleinstein S, et al. Two levels of protection for the B cell genome during somatic hypermutation. Nature. 2008;451:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that AID acts broadly on the genome, with the ultimate distribution of mutations determined by a balance between high-fidelity and error-prone DNA repair. ..
  4. Rada C, Williams G, Nilsen H, Barnes D, Lindahl T, Neuberger M. Immunoglobulin isotype switching is inhibited and somatic hypermutation perturbed in UNG-deficient mice. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1748-55 pubmed
    ..Deficiency in UNG uracil-DNA glycosylase alone is sufficient to distort the pathway of hypermutation in mice...
  5. Begum N, Kinoshita K, Kakazu N, Muramatsu M, Nagaoka H, Shinkura R, et al. Uracil DNA glycosylase activity is dispensable for immunoglobulin class switch. Science. 2004;305:1160-3 pubmed
    ..In the second instance, DNA cleavage depends on uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) for removal of U...
  6. Ramiro A, Jankovic M, Callen E, Difilippantonio S, Chen H, McBride K, et al. Role of genomic instability and p53 in AID-induced c-myc-Igh translocations. Nature. 2006;440:105-9 pubmed
    ..Translocation also requires uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), which removes uracil from DNA to create abasic sites that are then processed to double-strand ..
  7. An Q, Robins P, Lindahl T, Barnes D. C --> T mutagenesis and gamma-radiation sensitivity due to deficiency in the Smug1 and Ung DNA glycosylases. EMBO J. 2005;24:2205-13 pubmed
    ..The Ung and Smug1 enzymes excise uracil from DNA to effect repair in mammalian cells, and gene-targeted Ung(-/-) mice ..
  8. Begum N, Izumi N, Nishikori M, Nagaoka H, Shinkura R, Honjo T. Requirement of non-canonical activity of uracil DNA glycosylase for class switch recombination. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:731-42 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) are required for class switch recombination (CSR). AID is involved in the DNA cleavage step of CSR, but the precise role of UNG is not yet understood...
  9. Nilsen H, Stamp G, Andersen S, Hrivnak G, Krokan H, Lindahl T, et al. Gene-targeted mice lacking the Ung uracil-DNA glycosylase develop B-cell lymphomas. Oncogene. 2003;22:5381-6 pubmed
    Mice deficient in the Ung uracil-DNA glycosylase have an increased level of uracil in their genome, consistent with a major role of Ung counteracting U:A base pairs arising by misincorporation of dUMP during DNA replication...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Maul R, Saribasak H, Martomo S, McClure R, Yang W, Vaisman A, et al. Uracil residues dependent on the deaminase AID in immunoglobulin gene variable and switch regions. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate their presence by determining the sensitivity of DNA to digestion with uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) and abasic endonuclease...
  2. Doseth B, Visnes T, Wallenius A, Ericsson I, Sarno A, Pettersen H, et al. Uracil-DNA glycosylase in base excision repair and adaptive immunity: species differences between man and mouse. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16669-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore suggest that SMUG1 may work as a weak backup activity for UNG2 during class switch recombination in Ung(-/-) mice...
  3. Di Noia J, Williams G, Chan D, Buerstedde J, Baldwin G, Neuberger M. Dependence of antibody gene diversification on uracil excision. J Exp Med. 2007;204:3209-19 pubmed
    ..pathways of antibody diversification that are largely dependent on uracil-DNA glycosylase (uracil-N-glycolase [UNG])...
  4. Rada C, Di Noia J, Neuberger M. Mismatch recognition and uracil excision provide complementary paths to both Ig switching and the A/T-focused phase of somatic mutation. Mol Cell. 2004;16:163-71 pubmed
    ..a base foreign to DNA and is, thus, recognized by proteins from both base excision (uracil-DNA glycosylase, UNG) and mismatch recognition (MSH2/MSH6) pathways...
  5. Xue K, Rada C, Neuberger M. The in vivo pattern of AID targeting to immunoglobulin switch regions deduced from mutation spectra in msh2-/- ung-/- mice. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2085-94 pubmed
    ..In the absence of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) and the homologue of bacterial MutS (MSH)-2 mismatch recognition protein, the resultant U:G lesions are not ..
  6. Nilsen H, Rosewell I, Robins P, Skjelbred C, Andersen S, Slupphaug G, et al. Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-deficient mice reveal a primary role of the enzyme during DNA replication. Mol Cell. 2000;5:1059-65 pubmed
    Gene-targeted knockout mice have been generated lacking the major uracil-DNA glycosylase, UNG. In contrast to ung- mutants of bacteria and yeast, such mice do not exhibit a greatly increased spontaneous mutation frequency...
  7. Longerich S, Tanaka A, Bozek G, Nicolae D, Storb U. The very 5' end and the constant region of Ig genes are spared from somatic mutation because AID does not access these regions. J Exp Med. 2005;202:1443-54 pubmed
    ..because error-prone repair does not gain access? The distribution of mutations was compared between uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung)-deficient and wild-type mice in endogenous Ig genes and in an Ig transgene...
  8. Pettersen H, Visnes T, Vågbø C, Svaasand E, Doseth B, Slupphaug G, et al. UNG-initiated base excision repair is the major repair route for 5-fluorouracil in DNA, but 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity depends mainly on RNA incorporation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:8430-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that in human cancer cells, base excision repair (BER) initiated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG is the major route for FU-DNA repair in vitro and in vivo...
  9. Di Noia J, Rada C, Neuberger M. SMUG1 is able to excise uracil from immunoglobulin genes: insight into mutation versus repair. EMBO J. 2006;25:585-95 pubmed
    ..One of them (UNG) plays a critical role in antibody gene diversification, as UNG deficiency alone is sufficient to perturb the ..
  10. Nilsen H, Otterlei M, Haug T, Solum K, Nagelhus T, Skorpen F, et al. Nuclear and mitochondrial uracil-DNA glycosylases are generated by alternative splicing and transcription from different positions in the UNG gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:750-5 pubmed
    ..UNG2 differs from the previously known form (UNG1, ORF 304 amino acid residues) in the 44 amino acids of the N-terminal sequence, which is not necessary for ..
  11. Jadavji N, Farr T, Lips J, Khalil A, Boehm Sturm P, Foddis M, et al. Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, deficiencies in dietary folic acid and uracil-DNA glycosylase impair learning in a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment. Behav Brain Res. 2015;283:215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..that elevated levels of plasma homocysteine in mice deficient for a DNA repair enzyme, uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), result in neurodegeneration...
  12. Hakim O, Resch W, Yamane A, Klein I, Kieffer Kwon K, Jankovic M, et al. DNA damage defines sites of recurrent chromosomal translocations in B lymphocytes. Nature. 2012;484:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, non-targeted rearrangements reflect nuclear organization whereas DNA break formation governs the location and frequency of recurrent translocations, including those driving B-cell malignancies. ..
  13. Krijger P, Langerak P, van den Berk P, Jacobs H. Dependence of nucleotide substitutions on Ung2, Msh2, and PCNA-Ub during somatic hypermutation. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Current models suggest a separation in the generation of G/C transversions by the Ung2-dependent pathway and the generation of A/T mutations by the Msh2/ubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (..
  14. Maul R, Cao Z, VENKATARAMAN L, Giorgetti C, PRESS J, Denizot Y, et al. Spt5 accumulation at variable genes distinguishes somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells from ex vivo-activated cells. J Exp Med. 2014;211:2297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a model where mutations are prevalent in germinal center cells, but not in ex vivo cells, because the initiating form of polymerase is retained, which affects Spt5 and AID recruitment. ..
  15. Zivojnovic M, Delbos F, Girelli Zubani G, Julé A, Alcais A, Weill J, et al. Somatic hypermutation at A/T-rich oligonucleotide substrates shows different strand polarities in Ung-deficient or -proficient backgrounds. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The A/T bias was strikingly altered in an Ung(-/-) background, which provides the first experimental evidence supporting a concerted action of Ung and Msh2/6 ..
  16. Schrader C, Guikema J, Linehan E, Selsing E, Stavnezer J. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent DNA breaks in class switch recombination occur during G1 phase of the cell cycle and depend upon mismatch repair. J Immunol. 2007;179:6064-71 pubmed
    ..cytidine deaminase (AID) converts cytosines in S regions to uracils, which are excised by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG)...
  17. Keil K, Altmann H, Mehta V, Abler L, Elton E, Vezina C. Catalog of mRNA expression patterns for DNA methylating and demethylating genes in developing mouse lower urinary tract. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Future investigation into how DNA methylation patterns are established, maintained and remodeled during the course of embryonic prostatic bud formation may provide insight into prostate morphogenesis and disease. ..
  18. Zan H, Casali P. AID- and Ung-dependent generation of staggered double-strand DNA breaks in immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination: a post-cleavage role for AID. Mol Immunol. 2008;46:45-61 pubmed publisher
    ..critical for CSR and would be generated through deamination of dC by AID, subsequent dU deglycosylation by uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) and nicking by apurinic/apyrimidic endonuclease (APE) of nearby abasic sites on opposite DNA strands...
  19. Li S, Zhao Y, Wang J. Analysis of Ig gene hypermutation in Ung(-/-)Polh(-/-) mice suggests that UNG and A:T mutagenesis pathway target different U:G lesions. Mol Immunol. 2013;53:214-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, U can be excised by the uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) and the replication/processing of the resulting abasic site leads to transversions and transitions ..
  20. Andersen S, Ericsson M, Dai H, Pena Diaz J, Slupphaug G, Nilsen H, et al. Monoclonal B-cell hyperplasia and leukocyte imbalance precede development of B-cell malignancies in uracil-DNA glycosylase deficient mice. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1432-41 pubmed
    b>Ung-deficient mice have reduced class switch recombination, skewed somatic hypermutation, lymphatic hyperplasia and a 22-fold increased risk of developing B-cell lymphomas...
  21. Eckart S, Hortnagl H, Kronenberg G, Gertz K, Hörster H, Endres M, et al. Reduced nerve growth factor levels in stress-related brain regions of folate-deficient mice. Neuroscience. 2013;245:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In a 2×2 design, aged mice lacking uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (Ung(-/-)) versus wild-type (Ung(+/+)) controls were subjected to a folate-deficient diet versus a regular diet for ..
  22. Nilsen H, Steinsbekk K, Otterlei M, Slupphaug G, Aas P, Krokan H. Analysis of uracil-DNA glycosylases from the murine Ung gene reveals differential expression in tissues and in embryonic development and a subcellular sorting pattern that differs from the human homologues. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:2277-85 pubmed
    The murine UNG: gene encodes both mitochondrial (Ung1) and nuclear (Ung2) forms of uracil-DNA glyco-sylase. The gene contains seven exons organised like the human counterpart...
  23. Vuong B, Herrick Reynolds K, Vaidyanathan B, Pucella J, Ucher A, Donghia N, et al. A DNA break- and phosphorylation-dependent positive feedback loop promotes immunoglobulin class-switch recombination. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:1183-1189 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a positive feedback loop for the amplification of DNA breaks at S regions through the phosphorylation- and ATM-dependent interaction of AID with APE1. ..
  24. Krokan H, Otterlei M, Nilsen H, Kavli B, Skorpen F, Andersen S, et al. Properties and functions of human uracil-DNA glycosylase from the UNG gene. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2001;68:365-86 pubmed
    The human UNG-gene at position 12q24.1 encodes nuclear (UNG2) and mitochondrial (UNG1) forms of uracil-DNA glycosylase using differentially regulated promoters, PA and PB, and alternative splicing to produce two proteins with unique N-..
  25. Ratnam S, Bozek G, Nicolae D, Storb U. The pattern of somatic hypermutation of Ig genes is altered when p53 is inactivated. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2611-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, deletion of the Ung2 gene in addition to the deletion of p53 corrected the A mutation frequencies to those of control mice...
  26. Linhart H, Troen A, Bell G, Cantu E, Chao W, Moran E, et al. Folate deficiency induces genomic uracil misincorporation and hypomethylation but does not increase DNA point mutations. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:227-235.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Wild-type mice and those deficient in uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung(-/-)) were placed on a folate-deficient diet for 8 months...
  27. Gu X, Booth C, Liu Z, Strout M. AID-associated DNA repair pathways regulate malignant transformation in a murine model of BCL6-driven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2016;127:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Resulting uracil-guanine mismatches are processed by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG)-mediated base-excision repair and MSH2-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) to yield mutations and DNA ..
  28. Endres M, Ahmadi M, Kruman I, Biniszkiewicz D, Meisel A, Gertz K. Folate deficiency increases postischemic brain injury. Stroke. 2005;36:321-5 pubmed
    ..129/Sv mice, uracil-DNA glycosylase-deficient (Ung-/-) mice, and Ung+/+ littermate mice were exposed to a folate-deficient diet for 3 months and then subjected to 30-..
  29. Shalhout S, Haddad D, Sosin A, Holland T, al Katib A, Martin A, et al. Genomic uracil homeostasis during normal B cell maturation and loss of this balance during B cell cancer development. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:4019-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the interplay between uracil creation by AID and its removal by UNG2 glycosylase in splenocytes undergoing maturation and in B cell cancers...
  30. Yousif A, Stanlie A, Mondal S, Honjo T, Begum N. Differential regulation of S-region hypermutation and class-switch recombination by noncanonical functions of uracil DNA glycosylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1016-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), a member of the base excision repair (BER) complex, is required for CSR...
  31. Boulianne B, Rojas O, Haddad D, Zaheen A, Kapelnikov A, Nguyen T, et al. AID and caspase 8 shape the germinal center response through apoptosis. J Immunol. 2013;191:5840-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that the deletion of caspase 8 specifically in murine GC-B cells results in larger GCs and a delay in affinity maturation, demonstrating the importance of apoptosis in GC homeostasis and clonal selection. ..
  32. Svendsen P, Yee H, Winkfein R, van de Sande J. The mouse uracil-DNA glycosylase gene: isolation of cDNA and genomic clones and mapping ung to mouse chromosome 5. Gene. 1997;189:175-81 pubmed
    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is the enzyme responsible for the first step in the base-excision repair pathway that specifically removes uracil from DNA...
  33. Lauritzen K, Kleppa L, Aronsen J, Eide L, Carlsen H, Haugen Ã, et al. Impaired dynamics and function of mitochondria caused by mtDNA toxicity leads to heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;309:H434-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach provides a model with induced cardiac-restricted mtDNA damage for investigation of mtDNA-based heart disease. ..
  34. Zahn A, Daugan M, Safavi S, Godin D, Cheong C, Lamarre A, et al. Separation of function between isotype switching and affinity maturation in vivo during acute immune responses and circulating autoantibodies in UNG-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2013;190:5949-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Complementary pathways, initiated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) or the mismatch repair factor MSH2/MSH6, must process the deoxyuridine to initiate class-switch recombination (CSR)..
  35. Stavnezer J, Linehan E, Thompson M, Habboub G, Ucher A, Kadungure T, et al. Differential expression of APE1 and APE2 in germinal centers promotes error-prone repair and A:T mutations during somatic hypermutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:9217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..During accurate repair in nonmutating cells, uracil is excised by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), leaving abasic sites that are incised by AP endonuclease (APE) to create single-strand breaks, and ..
  36. Zan H, White C, Thomas L, Mai T, Li G, Xu Z, et al. Rev1 recruits ung to switch regions and enhances du glycosylation for immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1220-32 pubmed publisher
    ..deaminase (AID)-mediated deoxycytosine deamination, yielding deoxyuridine (dU), and dU glycosylation by uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) in antibody switch (S) region DNA...
  37. Kovalchuk A, Ansarah Sobrinho C, Hakim O, Resch W, Tolarová H, DuBois W, et al. Mouse model of endemic Burkitt translocations reveals the long-range boundaries of Ig-mediated oncogene deregulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also shed light on the origin of endemic-like chromosomal rearrangements. ..
  38. Kemmerich K, Dingler F, Rada C, Neuberger M. Germline ablation of SMUG1 DNA glycosylase causes loss of 5-hydroxymethyluracil- and UNG-backup uracil-excision activities and increases cancer predisposition of Ung-/-Msh2-/- mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:6016-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of Smug1 when combined with inactivation of the Ung uracil-DNA glycosylase gene leads to a loss of nearly all detectable uracil excision activity...
  39. Endres M, Biniszkiewicz D, Sobol R, Harms C, Ahmadi M, Lipski A, et al. Increased postischemic brain injury in mice deficient in uracil-DNA glycosylase. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:1711-21 pubmed
    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) is involved in base excision repair of aberrant uracil residues in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA...
  40. Kronenberg G, Gertz K, Overall R, Harms C, Klein J, Page M, et al. Folate deficiency increases mtDNA and D-1 mtDNA deletion in aged brain of mice lacking uracil-DNA glycosylase. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In a 2 × 2 design, 14-month-old mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung-/-) versus wild-type controls were subjected to a folate-deficient versus a regular diet for six ..
  41. Larsen E, Meza T, Kleppa L, Klungland A. Organ and cell specificity of base excision repair mutants in mice. Mutat Res. 2007;614:56-68 pubmed
    ..These models should comprise combined deficiencies of DNA glycosylases which initiate the BER pathway, to elaborate on the repair redundancy, as well as conditional models of the intermediate steps of BER. ..
  42. Kronenberg G, Harms C, Sobol R, Cardozo Pelaez F, Linhart H, Winter B, et al. Folate deficiency induces neurodegeneration and brain dysfunction in mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7219-30 pubmed publisher
    ..include uracil misincorporation and, therefore, analyzed the effects of folate deficiency in mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung-/-) versus wild-type controls...
  43. Wallenius A, Hauser J, Aas P, Sarno A, Kavli B, Krokan H, et al. Expression and recruitment of uracil-DNA glycosylase are regulated by E2A during antibody diversification. Mol Immunol. 2014;60:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2) is subsequently required for uracil processing in the generation of high affinity antibodies of different isotypes...
  44. Girelli Zubani G, Zivojnovic M, De Smet A, Albagli Curiel O, Huetz F, Weill J, et al. Pms2 and uracil-DNA glycosylases act jointly in the mismatch repair pathway to generate Ig gene mutations at A-T base pairs. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1169-1180 pubmed publisher
    ..genes, uracils introduced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase are processed by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways to generate mutations at G-C and A-T base pairs, respectively...
  45. Wang Q, Oliveira T, Jankovic M, Silva I, Hakim O, Yao K, et al. Epigenetic targeting of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:18667-72 pubmed publisher
  46. Hirst R, Gosden R, Miller D. The cyclin-like uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) of murine oocytes and its relationship to human and chimpanzee homologues. Gene. 2006;375:95-102 pubmed
    ..murine oocytes revealed the presence of a short sequence with partial homology to a cyclin-like human uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG2), a member of an important group of base-excision enzymes that remove misincorporated or cytosine-..
  47. Gramlich H, Reisbig T, Schatz D. AID-targeting and hypermutation of non-immunoglobulin genes does not correlate with proximity to immunoglobulin genes in germinal center B cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39601 pubmed publisher
  48. Frieder D, Larijani M, Collins C, Shulman M, Martin A. The concerted action of Msh2 and UNG stimulates somatic hypermutation at A . T base pairs. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, deficiency in uracil-N-glycolase (UNG) or mismatch repair reduced this association...
  49. Zahn A, Eranki A, Patenaude A, Methot S, Fifield H, Cortizas E, et al. Activation induced deaminase C-terminal domain links DNA breaks to end protection and repair during class switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E988-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results can explain the autosomal dominant inheritance of AID variants with truncated E5 in patients with hyper-IgM syndrome 2 and establish that AID, through the E5 domain, provides a link between DNA damage and repair during CSR. ..
  50. Kothandapani A, Dangeti V, Brown A, Banze L, Wang X, Sobol R, et al. Novel role of base excision repair in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14564-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Cisplatin induces abasic sites with a reduced accumulation in uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) null cells...
  51. Westendorp B, Major J, Nader M, Salih M, Leenen F, Tuana B. The E2F6 repressor activates gene expression in myocardium resulting in dilated cardiomyopathy. FASEB J. 2012;26:2569-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The data highlight an unprecedented role for the strict regulation of the E2F pathway in normal postnatal cardiac function. ..
  52. Pérez Durán P, Belver L, de Yebenes V, Delgado P, Pisano D, Ramiro A. UNG shapes the specificity of AID-induced somatic hypermutation. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1379-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Central to this processing is the activity of uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG), an enzyme normally involved in error-free base excision repair...
  53. Nilsen H, An Q, Lindahl T. Mutation frequencies and AID activation state in B-cell lymphomas from Ung-deficient mice. Oncogene. 2005;24:3063-6 pubmed
    B-cell lymphomas arising in lymph nodes and spleen of aging mice deficient in the Ung DNA glycosylase were recovered, dispersed, grown in short-term culture, and CD19-positive B-cells retrieved and analysed...
  54. Ranjit S, Khair L, Linehan E, Ucher A, Chakrabarti M, Schrader C, et al. AID recruits UNG and Msh2 to Ig switch regions dependent upon the AID C terminus [corrected]. J Immunol. 2011;187:2464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that AID binds cooperatively with UNG and the mismatch repair proteins Msh2-Msh6 to Ig S? and S?3 regions, and this depends on the C terminus and the ..
  55. Nagaoka H, Ito S, Muramatsu M, Nakata M, Honjo T. DNA cleavage in immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation depends on de novo protein synthesis but not on uracil DNA glycosylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2022-7 pubmed
    ..deamination hypothesis explains DNA cleavage by cytosine deamination in DNA, followed by uracil removal by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG)...
  56. Li Y, Chen D, Watkins S, Feldman A. Mitochondrial abnormalities in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced heart failure are associated with impaired DNA repair activity. Circulation. 2001;104:2492-7 pubmed
    ..6 mice). We studied mtDNA repair by measuring the uracil DNA glycosylase (mtUDG) and base excision repair activities...
  57. Xue J, Xu G, Gu T, Chen G, Han B, Xu Z, et al. Uracil-DNA Glycosylase UNG Promotes Tet-mediated DNA Demethylation. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:731-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>UNG2, one of the glycosylases known to excise uracil residues from DNA, was found to reduce DNA methylation, thus ..
  58. Cortizas E, Zahn A, Safavi S, Reed J, Vega F, Di Noia J, et al. UNG protects B cells from AID-induced telomere loss. J Exp Med. 2016;213:2459-2472 pubmed
    ..off-target substrates of AID and that B cell proliferation depends on protective repair by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)...
  59. Alsøe L, Sarno A, Carracedo S, Domanska D, Dingler F, Lirussi L, et al. Uracil Accumulation and Mutagenesis Dominated by Cytosine Deamination in CpG Dinucleotides in Mice Lacking UNG and SMUG1. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7199 pubmed publisher
    ..BER), either initiated by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) or by single-strand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase (SMUG1). The relative in vivo contributions of each glycosylase remain elusive...