Ucp3

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ucp3
Description: uncoupling protein 3 (mitochondrial, proton carrier)
Alias: AI645527, Slc25a9, UCP-3, mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, UCP 3, solute carrier family 25 member 9, uncoupling protein 3, mitochondrial
Species: mouse
Products:     Ucp3

Top Publications

  1. Anderson E, Yamazaki H, Neufer P. Induction of endogenous uncoupling protein 3 suppresses mitochondrial oxidant emission during fatty acid-supported respiration. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31257-66 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression increases dramatically in skeletal muscle under metabolic states associated with elevated lipid metabolism, yet the function of UCP3 in a physiological context remains controversial...
  2. Nabben M, Hoeks J, Briedé J, Glatz J, Moonen Kornips E, Hesselink M, et al. The effect of UCP3 overexpression on mitochondrial ROS production in skeletal muscle of young versus aged mice. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:4147-52 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is suggested to protect mitochondria against aging and lipid-induced damage, possibly via modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
  3. Bezaire V, Hofmann W, Kramer J, Kozak L, Harper M. Effects of fasting on muscle mitochondrial energetics and fatty acid metabolism in Ucp3(-/-) and wild-type mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281:E975-82 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial carrier protein of as yet undefined physiological function...
  4. Lu Z, Sack M. ATF-1 is a hypoxia-responsive transcriptional activator of skeletal muscle mitochondrial-uncoupling protein 3. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23410-8 pubmed publisher
    Hypoxia induces oxidative damage in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is the skeletal muscle enriched uncoupling protein and has previously been shown to confer resistance against oxidative stress...
  5. Seifert E, Bezaire V, Estey C, Harper M. Essential role for uncoupling protein-3 in mitochondrial adaptation to fasting but not in fatty acid oxidation or fatty acid anion export. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25124-31 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein expressed most abundantly in skeletal muscle and to a lesser extent in heart and brown adipose tissue...
  6. Perrino C, Schiattarella G, Sannino A, Pironti G, Petretta M, Cannavo A, et al. Genetic deletion of uncoupling protein 3 exaggerates apoptotic cell death in the ischemic heart leading to heart failure. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000086 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein 3 (ucp3) is a member of the mitochondrial anion carrier superfamily of proteins uncoupling mitochondrial respiration...
  7. Cline G, Vidal Puig A, Dufour S, Cadman K, Lowell B, Shulman G. In vivo effects of uncoupling protein-3 gene disruption on mitochondrial energy metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:20240-4 pubmed
    To clarify the role of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) in skeletal muscle, we used NMR and isotopic labeling experiments to evaluate the effect of UCP3 knockout (UCP3KO) in mice on the regulation of energy metabolism in vivo...
  8. Young M, Patil S, Ying J, Depre C, Ahuja H, Shipley G, et al. Uncoupling protein 3 transcription is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (alpha) in the adult rodent heart. FASEB J. 2001;15:833-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in the adult rodent heart, UCP-3 expression is regulated by PPARalpha. In contrast, cardiac UCP-2 expression is regulated in part by a fatty acid-dependent, PPARalpha-independent mechanism. ..
  9. Echtay K, Roussel D, St Pierre J, Jekabsons M, Cadenas S, Stuart J, et al. Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Nature. 2002;415:96-9 pubmed
    ..The functions of its homologues, UCP2 and UCP3, in other tissues are debated...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Vidal Puig A, Grujic D, Zhang C, Hagen T, Boss O, Ido Y, et al. Energy metabolism in uncoupling protein 3 gene knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:16258-66 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a member of the mitochondrial anion carrier superfamily...
  2. Clapham J, Arch J, Chapman H, Haynes A, Lister C, Moore G, et al. Mice overexpressing human uncoupling protein-3 in skeletal muscle are hyperphagic and lean. Nature. 2000;406:415-8 pubmed
    ..This provides evidence that skeletal muscle UCP-3 has the potential to influence metabolic rate and glucose homeostasis in the whole animal. ..
  3. Anedda A, López Bernardo E, Acosta Iborra B, Saadeh Suleiman M, Landazuri M, Cadenas S. The transcription factor Nrf2 promotes survival by enhancing the expression of uncoupling protein 3 under conditions of oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;61:395-407 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a member of the mitochondrial inner membrane carrier superfamily that modulates energy efficiency by catalyzing proton conductance and thus decreasing the production of superoxide anion...
  4. Ozcan C, Palmeri M, Horvath T, Russell K, Russell R. Role of uncoupling protein 3 in ischemia-reperfusion injury, arrhythmias, and preconditioning. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;304:H1192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiac UCP3 knockout (UCP3(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice hearts were subjected to ex vivo and in vivo models of I/R injury and ..
  5. Gong D, He Y, Karas M, Reitman M. Uncoupling protein-3 is a mediator of thermogenesis regulated by thyroid hormone, beta3-adrenergic agonists, and leptin. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24129-32 pubmed
    ..We have cloned a third member of the UCP family, UCP3. UCP3 is expressed at high levels in muscle and rodent brown adipose tissue...
  6. Mailloux R, Dumouchel T, Aguer C, Dekemp R, Beanlands R, Harper M. Hexokinase II acts through UCP3 to suppress mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and maintain aerobic respiration. Biochem J. 2011;437:301-11 pubmed publisher
    b>UCP3 (uncoupling protein-3) mitigates mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, but the mechanisms are poorly understood...
  7. Echtay K, Esteves T, Pakay J, Jekabsons M, Lambert A, Portero Otin M, et al. A signalling role for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling. EMBO J. 2003;22:4103-10 pubmed
    ..and other 2-alkenals) specifically induce uncoupling of mitochondria through the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 and the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)...
  8. Talbot D, Brand M. Uncoupling protein 3 protects aconitase against inactivation in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1709:150-6 pubmed
    ..Activators include superoxide and reactive alkenals, suggesting new physiological functions for UCP2 and UCP3: their activation by superoxide when protonmotive force is high causes mild uncoupling, which lowers protonmotive ..
  9. Gong D, Monemdjou S, Gavrilova O, Leon L, Marcus Samuels B, Chou C, et al. Lack of obesity and normal response to fasting and thyroid hormone in mice lacking uncoupling protein-3. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:16251-7 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial protein that can diminish the mitochondrial membrane potential. Levels of muscle Ucp3 mRNA are increased by thyroid hormone and fasting...
  10. Almeida L, Goto R, Neto M, Sousa L, Curti C, Leopoldino A. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;458:300-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements,..
  11. Mailloux R, Xuan J, Beauchamp B, Jui L, Lou M, Harper M. Glutaredoxin-2 is required to control proton leak through uncoupling protein-3. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8365-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we showed that the glutathionylation state of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) modulates the leak of protons back into the mitochondrial matrix, thus controlling reactive oxygen species ..
  12. Solmonson A, Mills E. Uncoupling Proteins and the Molecular Mechanisms of Thyroid Thermogenesis. Endocrinology. 2016;157:455-62 pubmed publisher
  13. Tsuboyama Kasaoka N, Tsunoda N, Maruyama K, Takahashi M, Kim H, Cooke D, et al. Overexpression of GLUT4 in mice causes up-regulation of UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;258:187-93 pubmed
    b>Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is expressed in skeletal muscles. We have hypothesized that increased glucose flux in skeletal muscles may lead to increased UCP3 expression...
  14. Higuchi K, Masaki T, Gotoh K, Chiba S, Katsuragi I, Tanaka K, et al. Apelin, an APJ receptor ligand, regulates body adiposity and favors the messenger ribonucleic acid expression of uncoupling proteins in mice. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2690-7 pubmed
    ..increased mRNA expression of UCP1, a marker of peripheral energy expenditure, in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and of UCP3, a regulator of fatty acid export, in skeletal muscle...
  15. Zolfaghari P, Carré J, Parker N, Curtin N, Duchen M, Singer M. Skeletal muscle dysfunction is associated with derangements in mitochondrial bioenergetics (but not UCP3) in a rodent model of sepsis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;308:E713-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased abundance of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) in sepsis suggests increased mitochondrial proton leak, which may reduce mitochondrial coupling efficiency but ..
  16. Harmancey R, Haight D, Watts K, Taegtmeyer H. Chronic Hyperinsulinemia Causes Selective Insulin Resistance and Down-regulates Uncoupling Protein 3 (UCP3) through the Activation of Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein (SREBP)-1 Transcription Factor in the Mouse Heart. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:30947-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We and others have shown previously that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) improves functional recovery of the rodent heart during reperfusion...
  17. Asami D, McDonald R, Hagopian K, Horwitz B, Warman D, Hsiao A, et al. Effect of aging, caloric restriction, and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) on mitochondrial proton leak in mice. Exp Gerontol. 2008;43:1069-76 pubmed publisher
    ..mice fed ad-libitum (WT-Control) or a 30% calorie-restricted (WT-CR) diet, and in mice overexpressing UCP2 and UCP3 (Positive-TG), their non-overexpressing littermates (Negative-TG) and UCP3 knockout mice (UCP3KO)...
  18. Hirasaka K, Mills E, Haruna M, Bando A, Ikeda C, Abe T, et al. UCP3 is associated with Hax-1 in mitochondria in the presence of calcium ion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;472:108-13 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is known to regulate energy dissipation, proton leakage, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative stress. To identify the putative protein regulators of UCP3, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens...
  19. Fan Y, Futawaka K, Koyama R, Fukuda Y, Hayashi M, Imamoto M, et al. Vitamin D3/VDR resists diet-induced obesity by modulating UCP3 expression in muscles. J Biomed Sci. 2016;23:56 pubmed publisher
    ..calcitriol)/VDR-regulated genes involved in energy and lipid metabolism, such as of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), by using qRT-PCR in the liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and C2C12, L6, and H-EMC-SS cells...
  20. Kim D, Jitrapakdee S, Thompson M. Differential regulation of the promoter activity of the mouse UCP2 and UCP3 genes by MyoD and myogenin. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;40:921-7 pubmed
    UCP2 and UCP3 are members of the uncoupling protein family, which may play roles in energy homeostasis...
  21. Singh R, Braga M, Reddy S, Lee S, Parveen M, Grijalva V, et al. Follistatin Targets Distinct Pathways To Promote Brown Adipocyte Characteristics in Brown and White Adipose Tissues. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1217-1230 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results indicate that Fst promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in both WAT and BAT depots in vivo through distinct mechanisms. ..
  22. Liu Q, Bai C, Chen F, Wang R, MacDonald T, Gu M, et al. Uncoupling protein-3: a muscle-specific gene upregulated by leptin in ob/ob mice. Gene. 1998;207:1-7 pubmed
    We identified and partially characterized another member of the uncoupling protein termed UCP3. Human and mouse UCP3 protein sequences are 86% identical to each other, and 73% and 59% identical to UCP2 and UCP1, respectively...
  23. Hoeks J, Hesselink M, Sluiter W, Schaart G, Willems J, Morrisson A, et al. The effect of high-fat feeding on intramuscular lipid and lipid peroxidation levels in UCP3-ablated mice. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:1371-5 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) has been suggested to protect against lipid-induced oxidative damage...
  24. Hodny Z, Kolárová P, Rossmeisl M, Horakova M, Nibbelink M, Penicaud L, et al. High expression of uncoupling protein 2 in foetal liver. FEBS Lett. 1998;425:185-90 pubmed
    ..Neither UCP1 nor UCP3 mRNA was expressed in foetal liver...
  25. Rance K, Fustin J, Dalgleish G, Hambly C, Bunger L, Speakman J. A paternally imprinted QTL for mature body mass on mouse chromosome 8. Mamm Genome. 2005;16:567-77 pubmed
  26. Almind K, Kulkarni R, Lannon S, Kahn C. Identification of interactive loci linked to insulin and leptin in mice with genetic insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2003;52:1535-43 pubmed
  27. Harper M, Himms Hagen J. Mitochondrial efficiency: lessons learned from transgenic mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1504:159-72 pubmed
    ..Many studies have also shown that genetic background can affect phenotypic outcomes, and that the upregulated expression of genes that are related to the modified gene often complicates the interpretation of findings. ..
  28. Borowiec A, Sion B, Chalmel F, D Rolland A, Lemonnier L, De Clerck T, et al. Cold/menthol TRPM8 receptors initiate the cold-shock response and protect germ cells from cold-shock-induced oxidation. FASEB J. 2016;30:3155-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Dewailly, E., Slomianny, C., Mauduit, C., Benahmed, M., Roudbaraki, M., Jégou, B., Prevarskaya, N., Bidaux, G. Cold/menthol TRPM8 receptors initiate the cold-shock response and protect germ cells from cold-shock-induced oxidation. ..
  29. Cadenas S, Echtay K, Harper J, Jekabsons M, Buckingham J, Grau E, et al. The basal proton conductance of skeletal muscle mitochondria from transgenic mice overexpressing or lacking uncoupling protein-3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2773-8 pubmed
    The ability of native uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is controversial...
  30. Nowinski S, Solmonson A, Rundhaug J, Rho O, Cho J, Lago C, et al. Mitochondrial uncoupling links lipid catabolism to Akt inhibition and resistance to tumorigenesis. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8137 pubmed publisher
    ..Here using a UCP3 transgene targeted to the basal epidermis, we show that forced mitochondrial uncoupling inhibits skin ..
  31. Kim S, Lee J, Merrins M, Gavrilova O, Bisteau X, Kaldis P, et al. Loss of Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2 in the Pancreas Links Primary ?-Cell Dysfunction to Progressive Depletion of ?-Cell Mass and Diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:3841-3853 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CDK2 serves as an important nexus linking primary ?-cell dysfunction to progressive ?-cell mass deterioration in diabetes. ..
  32. Komatsu S, Kiyosawa H, Yoshiki A, Okazaki Y, Yoshino M, Tomaru Y, et al. Identification of seven loci for static glucokinesis and dynamic glucokinesis in mice. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:293-8 pubmed
    ..Bwt1k was linked to obesity. Thus, the genetic factors for static glucokinesis and those for dynamic glucokinesis partially overlapped. ..
  33. O Leary A, O Halloran K. Diaphragm muscle weakness and increased UCP-3 gene expression following acute hypoxic stress in the mouse. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2016;226:76-80 pubmed publisher
    ..regulating mitochondrial function and a time-dependent progressive increase in the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3) with concomitant changes in genes encoding sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release proteins...
  34. Kim H, Ryoo Z, Choi S, Lee S. Gene expression profiles reveal effect of a high-fat diet on the development of white and brown adipose tissues. Gene. 2015;565:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Network analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that Trim30 and Ucp3 play pivotal roles in energy balance and glucose homeostasis...
  35. Costford S, Chaudhry S, Crawford S, Salkhordeh M, Harper M. Long-term high-fat feeding induces greater fat storage in mice lacking UCP3. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E1018-24 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane protein highly expressed in skeletal muscle...
  36. Moore G, Himms Hagen J, Harper M, Clapham J. Overexpression of UCP-3 in skeletal muscle of mice results in increased expression of mitochondrial thioesterase mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;283:785-90 pubmed
    ..The large increase in MTE-1 both confirms the importance of this gene in situations where mitochondrial beta-oxidation is increased and supports the hypothesis that UCP-3 exports fatty acids generated by MTE-1 in the mitochondrion. ..
  37. Azzu V, Mookerjee S, Brand M. Rapid turnover of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3. Biochem J. 2010;426:13-7 pubmed publisher
    b>UCP3 (uncoupling protein 3) and its homologues UCP2 and UCP1 are regulators of mitochondrial function. UCP2 is known to have a short half-life of approx...
  38. Mailloux R, Seifert E, Bouillaud F, Aguer C, Collins S, Harper M. Glutathionylation acts as a control switch for uncoupling proteins UCP2 and UCP3. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21865-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular control mechanism(s) governing these proteins remains elusive. Here we reveal that UCP2 and UCP3 contain reactive cysteine residues that can be conjugated to glutathione...
  39. Aguer C, Fiehn O, Seifert E, Bézaire V, Meissen J, Daniels A, et al. Muscle uncoupling protein 3 overexpression mimics endurance training and reduces circulating biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation. FASEB J. 2013;27:4213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein highly selectively expressed in skeletal muscle...
  40. Banke N, Lewandowski E. Impaired cytosolic NADH shuttling and elevated UCP3 contribute to inefficient citric acid cycle flux support of postischemic cardiac work in diabetic hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;79:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..ISC/REP also increased UCP3 transcription, indicating potential for greater uncoupling...
  41. Zhang N, Fu Z, Linke S, Chicher J, Gorman J, Visk D, et al. The asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF-1alpha is an essential regulator of metabolism. Cell Metab. 2010;11:364-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that FIH acts to a significant degree through the nervous system to regulate metabolism. ..
  42. Aguer C, Piccolo B, Fiehn O, Adams S, Harper M. A novel amino acid and metabolomics signature in mice overexpressing muscle uncoupling protein 3. FASEB J. 2017;31:814-827 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly selectively expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle ..
  43. Guigal N, Rodriguez M, Cooper R, Dromaint S, Di Santo J, Mouly V, et al. Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) mRNA expression in reconstituted human muscle after myoblast transplantation in RAG2-/-/gamma c/C5(-) immunodeficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47407-11 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), which is expressed abundantly in skeletal muscle, is one of the carrier proteins dissipating the transmitochondrial electrochemical gradient as heat and has therefore been implicated in the regulation of ..
  44. Flandin P, Donati Y, Barazzone Argiroffo C, Muzzin P. Hyperoxia-mediated oxidative stress increases expression of UCP3 mRNA and protein in skeletal muscle. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3411-5 pubmed
    The uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial protein expressed mainly in skeletal muscle. Among several hypotheses for its physiological function, UCP3 has been proposed to prevent excessive production of reactive oxygen species...
  45. Mills E, Banks M, Sprague J, Finkel T. Pharmacology: uncoupling the agony from ecstasy. Nature. 2003;426:403-4 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that UCP-3 is important in MDMA-induced hyperthermia and point to a new therapeutic direction for solving an increasing public-health problem. ..
  46. Bezaire V, Spriet L, Campbell S, Sabet N, Gerrits M, Bonen A, et al. Constitutive UCP3 overexpression at physiological levels increases mouse skeletal muscle capacity for fatty acid transport and oxidation. FASEB J. 2005;19:977-9 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression is directly correlated to fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. UCP3 has been hypothesized to facilitate high rates of fatty acid oxidation, but evidence thus far is lacking...
  47. Cha S, Hu Z, Lane M. Long-term effects of a fatty acid synthase inhibitor on obese mice: food intake, hypothalamic neuropeptides, and UCP3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;317:301-8 pubmed
  48. Mazzatti D, Smith M, Oita R, Lim F, White A, Reid M. Muscle unloading-induced metabolic remodeling is associated with acute alterations in PPARdelta and UCP-3 expression. Physiol Genomics. 2008;34:149-61 pubmed publisher
  49. Hilse K, Kalinovich A, Rupprecht A, Smorodchenko A, Zeitz U, Staniek K, et al. The expression of UCP3 directly correlates to UCP1 abundance in brown adipose tissue. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1857:72-78 pubmed publisher
    UCP1 and UCP3 are members of the uncoupling protein (UCP) subfamily and are localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane...
  50. Costford S, Chaudhry S, Salkhordeh M, Harper M. Effects of the presence, absence, and overexpression of uncoupling protein-3 on adiposity and fuel metabolism in congenic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E1304-12 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a poorly understood mitochondrial inner membrane protein expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle...
  51. Ji F, Shen T, Zou W, Jiao J. UCP2 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis via ROS-Mediated Yap Alternation in the Developing Neocortex. Stem Cells. 2017;35:1479-1492 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that UCP2 regulates embryonic neurogenesis through ROS-mediated Yap alternation, thus shedding new sight on mitochondrial metabolism involved in embryonic neurogenesis. Stem Cells 2017;35:1479-1492. ..
  52. Amat R, Solanes G, Giralt M, Villarroya F. SIRT1 is involved in glucocorticoid-mediated control of uncoupling protein-3 gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34066-76 pubmed
    b>UCP3 (uncoupling protein-3) is a mitochondrial membrane transporter expressed preferentially in skeletal muscle...
  53. Riley C, Dao C, Kenaston M, Muto L, Kohno S, Nowinski S, et al. The complementary and divergent roles of uncoupling proteins 1 and 3 in thermoregulation. J Physiol. 2016;594:7455-7464 pubmed publisher
    Both uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP3 are important for mammalian thermoregulation. UCP1 and UCP3 in brown adipose tissue mediate early and late phases of sympathomimetic thermogenesis, respectively...
  54. McDonald R, Walker K, Warman D, Griffey S, Warden C, Ramsey J, et al. Characterization of survival and phenotype throughout the life span in UCP2/UCP3 genetically altered mice. Exp Gerontol. 2008;43:1061-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Positive-TG), their non-overexpressing littermates (Negative-TG), mice that do not expression UCP2 (UCP2KO) or UCP3 (UCP3KO), and wild-type C57BL/6J mice (WT-Control)...
  55. Motloch L, Gebing T, Reda S, Schwaiger A, Wolny M, Hoppe U. UCP3 Regulates Single-Channel Activity of the Cardiac mCa1. J Membr Biol. 2016;249:577-84 pubmed publisher
    ..UCP2 and UCP3 belong to a superfamily of mitochondrial ion transporters...
  56. Katz M, Liu P, Grob Nunn S, Shibuya H, Johnson G. Characterization and chromosomal mapping of a mouse ortholog of the late-infantile ceroid-lipofuscinosis gene CLN2. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:1050-3 pubmed
    ..Characterization of the mouse Cln2 gene will facilitate generation of a mouse model for late-infantile ceroid-lipofuscinosis by gene targeting and identification of functionally important regions of the Cln2 protein. ..
  57. Brun S, Carmona M, Mampel T, Vinas O, Giralt M, Iglesias R, et al. Activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha induce the expression of the uncoupling protein-3 gene in skeletal muscle: a potential mechanism for the lipid intake-dependent activation of uncoupling protein-3 gene expression at birth. Diabetes. 1999;48:1217-22 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that the UCP-3 gene is predominantly regulated in neonatal muscle by PPAR-alpha activation. ..
  58. Busquets S, Garcia Martinez C, Olivan M, Barreiro E, Lopez Soriano F, Argiles J. Overexpression of UCP3 in both murine and human myotubes is linked with the activation of proteolytic systems: a role in muscle wasting?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:253-8 pubmed
    Overexpression of the UCP3 gene in both murine and human myotube cell cultures leads to a significant activation of the different proteolytic systems involved in muscle myofibrillar protein breakdown...
  59. Choi C, Fillmore J, Kim J, Liu Z, Kim S, Collier E, et al. Overexpression of uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle protects against fat-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1995-2003 pubmed
    ..Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been postulated to dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient and cause metabolic inefficiency...
  60. Wong K, Szeto F, Zhang W, Ye H, Kong J, Zhang Z, et al. Involvement of the vitamin D receptor in energy metabolism: regulation of uncoupling proteins. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E820-8 pubmed publisher
    ..beta-oxidation in the white adipose tissue was higher, and the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1, UCP2 and UCP3 was markedly upregulated in VDR-null mice, suggesting a higher energy expenditure in the mutant mice...
  61. Flandin P, Lehr L, Asensio C, Giacobino J, Rohner Jeanrenaud F, Muzzin P, et al. Uncoupling protein-3 as a molecular determinant of the action of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine on energy metabolism. Endocrine. 2009;36:246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the possibility that T3 might act via muscle uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), an UCP3 knockout (KO) model was used...
  62. Shabalina I, Hoeks J, Kramarova T, Schrauwen P, Cannon B, Nedergaard J. Cold tolerance of UCP1-ablated mice: a skeletal muscle mitochondria switch toward lipid oxidation with marked UCP3 up-regulation not associated with increased basal, fatty acid- or ROS-induced uncoupling or enhanced GDP effects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:968-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The content of UCP3 was increased 3-4 fold, but despite this, endogenous superoxide could not invoke a higher proton leak, and the ..
  63. Nabben M, Shabalina I, Moonen Kornips E, van Beurden D, Cannon B, Schrauwen P, et al. Uncoupled respiration, ROS production, acute lipotoxicity and oxidative damage in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria from UCP3-ablated mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:1095-105 pubmed publisher
    The function of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is still not established. Mitochondrial uncoupling, control of ROS production, protection against lipotoxicity and protection against oxidative stress are functions classically discussed...
  64. Valet P, Tavernier G, Castan Laurell I, Saulnier Blache J, Langin D. Understanding adipose tissue development from transgenic animal models. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:835-60 pubmed
    ..However, lack of phenotypes also illustrates the capacity of animals to set up adaptive mechanisms. ..
  65. Kitaoka Y, Takeda K, Tamura Y, Hatta H. Lactate administration increases mRNA expression of PGC-1? and UCP3 in mouse skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41:695-8 pubmed publisher
    ..USA). Among the top 15 genes with the largest fold change, increased expression of Ppargc1a, Pdk4, and Ucp3 was confirmed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
  66. Pedraza N, Rosell M, Villarroya J, Iglesias R, Gonzalez F, Solanes G, et al. Developmental and tissue-specific involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in the control of mouse uncoupling protein-3 gene expression. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4695-704 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family expressed preferentially in skeletal muscle and heart...
  67. Wang C, Almsherqi Z, McLachlan C, Matthews S, Ramachandran M, Tay S, et al. Acute starvation in C57BL/6J mice increases myocardial UCP2 and UCP3 protein expression levels and decreases mitochondrial bio-energetic function. Stress. 2011;14:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These bio-energetic functional changes were associated with increases in mitochondrial UCP2 and UCP3 protein expression...
  68. Song J, Kim H, Lee H, Kim J, Kwak Y. Protective Effect of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Is Related to Upregulation of Uncoupling Protein-3. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:3539649 pubmed publisher
    ..WY-14643 increased UCP3 expression in vivo...
  69. Kelly O, Porter R. Absence of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3: effect on thymus and spleen in the fed and fasted mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:1064-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is constitutively expressed in mitochondria from thymus and spleen of mice, and confocal microscopy has been used to visualize UCP3 in situ in mouse thymocytes...
  70. Curtin N, Clapham J, Barclay C. Excess recovery heat production by isolated muscles from mice overexpressing uncoupling protein-3. J Physiol. 2002;542:231-5 pubmed
    ..729 +/- 0.072 relative units. The extra recovery heat represents inefficient recovery in UCP-3tg fibres. This is the first direct evidence of enhanced energy dissipation as heat when UCP-3tg is overexpressed. ..
  71. López Bernardo E, Anedda A, Sánchez Pérez P, Acosta Iborra B, Cadenas S. 4-Hydroxynonenal induces Nrf2-mediated UCP3 upregulation in mouse cardiomyocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;88:427-438 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of HNE on UCP3 expression in mouse cardiomyocytes and the involvement of Nrf2...
  72. Gong D, He Y, Reitman M. Genomic organization and regulation by dietary fat of the uncoupling protein 3 and 2 genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;256:27-32 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) dissipates the transmitochondrial proton gradient as heat. UCP2 and UCP3 are two recently discovered homologues that also have uncoupling activity and thus presumably have a role in energy homeostasis...
  73. Boss O, Bachman E, Vidal Puig A, Zhang C, Peroni O, Lowell B. Role of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor and/or a putative beta(4)-adrenergic receptor on the expression of uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;261:870-6 pubmed
    ..e., mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP2 and UCP3, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1), in mouse skeletal muscle...
  74. Busquets S, Sanchis D, Alvarez B, Ricquier D, Lopez Soriano F, Argiles J. In the rat, tumor necrosis factor alpha administration results in an increase in both UCP2 and UCP3 mRNAs in skeletal muscle: a possible mechanism for cytokine-induced thermogenesis?. FEBS Lett. 1998;440:348-50 pubmed
    Since the discovery of the new members of the UCP (uncoupling protein) family, UCP2 and UCP3, very few studies have dealt with the regulation of their expression...
  75. Bevilacqua L, Seifert E, Estey C, Gerrits M, Harper M. Absence of uncoupling protein-3 leads to greater activation of an adenine nucleotide translocase-mediated proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from calorie restricted mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:1389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..by decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and increased uncoupling protein-3 protein (UCP3) expression...
  76. Charalambous M, Ferron S, da Rocha S, Murray A, Rowland T, Ito M, et al. Imprinted gene dosage is critical for the transition to independent life. Cell Metab. 2012;15:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows that appropriate dosage control at imprinted loci can act as a critical determinant in postnatal survival during phases of physiological adaptation. ..
  77. Nagai S, Ikeda K, Horie Inoue K, Shiba S, Nagasawa S, Takeda S, et al. Estrogen modulates exercise endurance along with mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 downregulation in skeletal muscle of female mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;480:758-764 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis of mouse muscles showed that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is upregulated by ovariectomy and downregulated by estrogen administration...
  78. Liu D, Huang L, Wang Y, Wang W, Wehrens X, Belousova T, et al. Human stanniocalcin-1 suppresses angiotensin II-induced superoxide generation in cardiomyocytes through UCP3-mediated anti-oxidant pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36994 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to WT mouse heart, STC1 Tg heart displays: 2-fold higher uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) levels, but no effect on UCP2 protein; 40% lower ATP levels; but similar activities of respiratory chain complexes ..