Gene Symbol: Tyrp1
Description: tyrosinase-related protein 1
Alias: Oca3, TRP-1, TRP1, Tyrp, brown, isa, 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid oxidase, DHICA oxidase, brown locus protein, catalase B, iris stromal atrophy
Species: mouse
Products:     Tyrp1

Top Publications

  1. del Marmol V, Beermann F. Tyrosinase and related proteins in mammalian pigmentation. FEBS Lett. 1996;381:165-8 pubmed
    ..We will discuss recent findings on genomic organization, and on the proteins and their presumed function, which is important for eumelanin synthesis in mouse and man. ..
  2. Zhou X, Li F, Kong L, Tomita H, Li C, Cao W. Involvement of inflammation, degradation, and apoptosis in a mouse model of glaucoma. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:31240-8 pubmed
    ..The possibility that altered IL-18 expression in the eye of DBA/2J mice initiates and/or amplifies the pathogenesis of pigmentary glaucoma requires further investigation. ..
  3. Anderson M, Smith R, Savinova O, Hawes N, Chang B, Zabaleta A, et al. Genetic modification of glaucoma associated phenotypes between AKXD-28/Ty and DBA/2J mice. BMC Genet. 2001;2:1 pubmed
    ..reported glaucoma in DBA/2J mice caused by recessive alleles at two loci, isa and ipd, that cause iris stromal atrophy and iris pigment dispersion, respectively...
  4. Milatovich A, Bolger G, Michaeli T, Francke U. Chromosome localizations of genes for five cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases in man and mouse. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1994;20:75-86 pubmed
  5. Quezada S, Simpson T, Peggs K, Merghoub T, Vider J, Fan X, et al. Tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells develop cytotoxic activity and eradicate large established melanoma after transfer into lymphopenic hosts. J Exp Med. 2010;207:637-50 pubmed publisher
  6. Smyth I, Wilming L, Lee A, Taylor M, Gautier P, Barlow K, et al. Genomic anatomy of the Tyrp1 (brown) deletion complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3704-9 pubmed
    Chromosome deletions in the mouse have proven invaluable in the dissection of gene function. The brown deletion complex comprises >28 independent genome rearrangements, which have been used to identify several functional loci on ..
  7. Costin G, Valencia J, Vieira W, Lamoreux M, Hearing V. Tyrosinase processing and intracellular trafficking is disrupted in mouse primary melanocytes carrying the underwhite (uw) mutation. A model for oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) type 4. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3203-12 pubmed
    ..to be constantly secreted into the medium dark vesicles that contain tyrosinase and two other melanogenic enzymes, Tyrp1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1) and Dct (DOPAchrome tautomerase); this secretory process is not seen in wild-type ..
  8. Libby R, Li Y, Savinova O, Barter J, Smith R, Nickells R, et al. Susceptibility to neurodegeneration in a glaucoma is modified by Bax gene dosage. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:17-26 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a need to understand axon-specific degeneration pathways in glaucoma, and they suggest that distinct somal and axonal degeneration pathways may need to be targeted to save vision. ..
  9. Anderson M, Libby R, Mao M, Cosma I, Wilson L, Smith R, et al. Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma. BMC Biol. 2006;4:20 pubmed
    ..Mutant alleles of the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 genes are necessary for the iris disease, but it is unknown whether alleles of other D2 gene(s) are necessary for ..

More Information


  1. Setty S, Tenza D, Truschel S, Chou E, Sviderskaya E, Theos A, et al. BLOC-1 is required for cargo-specific sorting from vacuolar early endosomes toward lysosome-related organelles. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:768-80 pubmed
    ..BLOC-1-deficient melanocytes accumulate the melanosomal protein tyrosinase-related protein-1 (Tyrp1), but not other melanosomal proteins, in endosomal vacuoles and the cell surface due to failed biosynthetic ..
  2. Howell G, Libby R, Marchant J, Wilson L, Cosma I, Smith R, et al. Absence of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice homozygous for wild-type versions of Gpnmb and Tyrp1. BMC Genet. 2007;8:45 pubmed
    ..We have shown previously that mutations in two genes, Gpnmb and Tyrp1, initiate the iris disease...
  3. Zdarsky E, Favor J, Jackson I. The molecular basis of brown, an old mouse mutation, and of an induced revertant to wild type. Genetics. 1990;126:443-9 pubmed
    ..The protein is essential for production of black rather than brown hair pigment. We show that skin of mutant brown mice contains the same amount of TRP-1 mRNA as wild type...
  4. Muranski P, Boni A, Antony P, Cassard L, Irvine K, Kaiser A, et al. Tumor-specific Th17-polarized cells eradicate large established melanoma. Blood. 2008;112:362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This principle should be considered in designing clinical trials involving adoptive transfer-based immunotherapy of human malignancies. ..
  5. Cornall R, Friedman J, Todd J. Mouse microsatellites from a flow-sorted 4:6 Robertsonian chromosome. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:620-4 pubmed
    ..Eight (62%) of the 13 repeats that have been mapped lie on Chromosomes (Chr) 4 and 6. This approach is an effective way of generating informative markers on specific chromosomes. ..
  6. Brandmaier A, Leitner W, Ha S, Sidney J, Restifo N, Touloukian C. High-avidity autoreactive CD4+ T cells induce host CTL, overcome T(regs) and mediate tumor destruction. J Immunother. 2009;32:677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that high-avidity CD4+ T cells can overcome endogenous conditions and mediate their antitumor effects exclusively through the elicitation of CD8+ T cell immunity...
  7. Xie Y, Akpinarli A, Maris C, Hipkiss E, Lane M, Kwon E, et al. Naive tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells differentiated in vivo eradicate established melanoma. J Exp Med. 2010;207:651-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data provide a platform for designing immunotherapies that incorporate tumor/self-reactive CD4(+) T cells...
  8. Rausch M, Irvine K, Antony P, Restifo N, Cresswell P, Hastings K. GILT accelerates autoimmunity to the melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein 1. J Immunol. 2010;185:2828-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Melanoma patients generate CD4(+) T cells that specifically recognize these proteins. TRP1 contains internal disulfide bonds and is presented by MHC class II molecules...
  9. Kobayashi T, Urabe K, Winder A, Jimenez Cervantes C, Imokawa G, Brewington T, et al. Tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1) functions as a DHICA oxidase in melanin biosynthesis. EMBO J. 1994;13:5818-25 pubmed
    ..to the enzymatic regulation of melanin production in mammals have recently been cloned and mapped to the albino, brown and slaty loci in mice...
  10. Inman D, Sappington R, Horner P, Calkins D. Quantitative correlation of optic nerve pathology with ocular pressure and corneal thickness in the DBA/2 mouse model of glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:986-96 pubmed
    ..In young mice with elevated IOP, the loss of axons resembled that of older animals with similar IOP. Whether corneal thickness is a byproduct of elevated IOP remains unknown, but it may be useful as an index of optic nerve degeneration. ..
  11. John S, Anderson M, Smith R. Mouse genetics: a tool to help unlock the mechanisms of glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 1999;8:400-12 pubmed
    ..This article summarizes the recent use of mice and the future potential of applying approaches of mouse genetics to intraocular pressure and glaucoma research. ..
  12. Chang B, Smith R, Hawes N, Anderson M, Zabaleta A, Savinova O, et al. Interacting loci cause severe iris atrophy and glaucoma in DBA/2J mice. Nat Genet. 1999;21:405-9 pubmed
    ..Progeny homozygous for the D2 allele of a different locus on chromosome 4 (called isa) develop an iris stromal atrophy phenotype (ISA)...
  13. Baumann H, Held W, Berger F. The acute phase response of mouse liver. Genetic analysis of the major acute phase reactants. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:566-73 pubmed
    ..Further analysis of these genetic variants should provide novel insights into the acute phase response and the factors that mediate it. ..
  14. Kobayashi T, Imokawa G, Bennett D, Hearing V. Tyrosinase stabilization by Tyrp1 (the brown locus protein). J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31801-5 pubmed
    ..include Tyrp1 (or TRP1) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-chrome tautomerase (Dct or TRP2) encoded at the Tyrp1/brown and Dct/slaty loci, respectively...
  15. Anderson M, Smith R, Hawes N, Zabaleta A, Chang B, Wiggs J, et al. Mutations in genes encoding melanosomal proteins cause pigmentary glaucoma in DBA/2J mice. Nat Genet. 2002;30:81-5 pubmed
    ..DBA/2J (D2) mice develop a form of pigmentary glaucoma involving iris pigment dispersion (IPD) and iris stromal atrophy (ISA)...
  16. Wu X, Bowers B, Wei Q, Kocher B, Hammer J. Myosin V associates with melanosomes in mouse melanocytes: evidence that myosin V is an organelle motor. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 7):847-59 pubmed
  17. Jakobs T, Libby R, Ben Y, John S, Masland R. Retinal ganglion cell degeneration is topological but not cell type specific in DBA/2J mice. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:313-25 pubmed
    ..However, the architecture of the mouse eye seems to preclude a commonly postulated source of mechanical damage within the nerve head. ..
  18. Dumont D, Yamaguchi T, Conlon R, Rossant J, Breitman M. tek, a novel tyrosine kinase gene located on mouse chromosome 4, is expressed in endothelial cells and their presumptive precursors. Oncogene. 1992;7:1471-80 pubmed
    ..resulted in the isolation of a novel tyrosine kinase, designated tek, which maps to mouse chromosome 4 between the brown and pmv-23 loci...
  19. Shibahara S, Tomita Y, Yoshizawa M, Shibata K, Tagami H. Identification of mutations in the pigment cell-specific gene located at the brown locus in mouse. Pigment Cell Res. 1992;Suppl 2:90-5 pubmed
    The pigment cell-specific gene, located at the brown (b)-locus in mouse, encodes the protein that determines the type of melanin synthesized...
  20. Lowings P, Yavuzer U, Goding C. Positive and negative elements regulate a melanocyte-specific promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:3653-62 pubmed
    ..The possible mechanisms underlying melanocyte-specific gene expression are discussed. ..
  21. Lamoreux M, Wakamatsu K, Ito S. Interaction of major coat color gene functions in mice as studied by chemical analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin. Pigment Cell Res. 2001;14:23-31 pubmed
    ..slaty (Slt) locus that encodes tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2 also known as dopachrome tautomerase, DCT), the brown (B) locus that encodes TRP1, the silver (Si) locus that encodes a melanosomal silver protein, the agouti (A) locus ..
  22. Collins R, Hutton J. The position of autosomal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on linkage group 8 of the mouse. J Hered. 1970;61:53-4 pubmed
  23. Kawakami T, Soma Y. Tyrosinase-related protein1 in mouse melanocytes at early embryonic stage. J Dermatol Sci. 2012;67:194-6 pubmed publisher
  24. Russell L, Hunsicker P, Johnson D, Shelby M. Unlike other chemicals, etoposide (a topoisomerase-II inhibitor) produces peak mutagenicity in primary spermatocytes of the mouse. Mutat Res. 1998;400:279-86 pubmed
  25. Yao C, Jin C, Oh I, Park C, Chung J. Melia azedarach extract stimulates melanogenesis through increase of tyrosinase-related protein 1 expression in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Int J Mol Med. 2015;35:1761-6 pubmed publisher
  26. Winder A, Wittbjer A, Odh G, Rosengren E, Rorsman H. The mouse brown (b) locus protein functions as a dopachrome tautomerase. Pigment Cell Res. 1994;7:305-10 pubmed
    The mouse b locus controls black/brown coat coloration. Its product, the b-protein or TRP-1, has significant homology to tyrosinase, and this has led to suggestions that the b-protein is itself a melanogenic enzyme...
  27. Qureshi S, Lariviere L, Sebastiani G, Clermont S, Skamene E, Gros P, et al. A high-resolution map in the chromosomal region surrounding the Lps locus. Genomics. 1996;31:283-94 pubmed
    ..The localization of the Lps locus is several centimorgans proximal to that previously assigned. ..
  28. Yulug I, Egan S, See C, Fisher E. Mapping GRB2, a signal transduction gene in the human and the mouse. Genomics. 1994;22:313-8 pubmed
    ..The segregation patterns reveal that the mouse Grb2 locus maps distally on chromosome 11, and an additional Grb2-related locus is present on chromosome 4 of one of the parental strains, Mus spretus/CRC. ..
  29. Hutton J, Coleman D. Linkage analyses using biochemical variants in mice. II. Levulinate dehydratase and autosomal glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochem Genet. 1969;3:517-23 pubmed
  30. Brooks B, Larson D, Chan C, Kjellstrom S, Smith R, Crawford M, et al. Analysis of ocular hypopigmentation in Rab38cht/cht mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3905-13 pubmed
    ..Mice homozygous for both the Rab38(cht) and the Tyrp1(b) alleles were similarly examined...
  31. Favor J. Mechanisms of mutation induction in germ cells of the mouse as assessed by the specific locus test. Mutat Res. 1999;428:227-36 pubmed
    ..e) With the cloning of all 7 marker loci mutation analysis at the molecular level will allow a more direct assessment of the mutation process in future studies. ..
  32. Nakayama A, Nguyen M, Chen C, Opdecamp K, Hodgkinson C, Arnheiter H. Mutations in microphthalmia, the mouse homolog of the human deafness gene MITF, affect neuroepithelial and neural crest-derived melanocytes differently. Mech Dev. 1998;70:155-66 pubmed
    ..cells of the retinal pigment layer are retained, express Dct, but not the melanogenic enzyme genes tyrosinase and Tyrp1, and remain unpigmented...
  33. Naz R, Zhu X. Molecular cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding for a novel testis-specific antigen. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;48:449-57 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the sperm-specific recombinant NZ-1 may find applications in the development of a contraceptive vaccine, and in studying the normal and abnormal sperm function and the signal transduction mechanism. ..
  34. Yoon C. Linkage relationship of the waddler gene in mice, with evidence for temperature effect on crossing-over. J Hered. 1961;52:279-81 pubmed
  35. Potter M, Pumphrey J, Bailey D. Genetics of susceptibility to plasmacytoma induction. I. BALB/cAnN (C), C57BL/6N (B6), C57BL/Ka (BK), (C times B6)F1, (C times BK)F1, and C times B recombinant-inbred strains. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1975;54:1413-7 pubmed
    ..The distribution pattern of susceptibility and resistance in the C times B Rl strains suggested the presence of a resistance gene on chromosome 9, linkage group II. ..
  36. Salier J, Verga V, Doly J, Diarra Mehrpour M, Erickson R. The genes for the inter-alpha-inhibitor family share a homologous organization in human and mouse. Mamm Genome. 1992;2:233-9 pubmed
    ..the mouse L gene (proposed symbol, Intin-4) links this gene to other genes already mapped at mouse Chr 4 near the brown (b) locus, a homologous region to the human chr 9q32-34 band where the human I alpha I L gene is located...
  37. Orlow S, Zhou B, Chakraborty A, Drucker M, Pifko Hirst S, Pawelek J. High-molecular-weight forms of tyrosinase and the tyrosinase-related proteins: evidence for a melanogenic complex. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;103:196-201 pubmed
  38. Coram R, Stillwagon S, Guggilam A, Jenkins M, Swanson M, Ladd A. Muscleblind-like 1 is required for normal heart valve development in vivo. BMC Dev Biol. 2015;15:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that MBNL1 plays a conserved role in negatively regulating TGFβ signaling, and is required for normal valve morphogenesis and homeostasis in vivo. ..
  39. Taylor B, Bedigian H, Meier H. Genetic studies of the Fv-1 locus of mice: linkage with Gpd-1 in recombinant inbred lines. J Virol. 1977;23:106-9 pubmed
    ..6 centimorgans. None of the lines was either resistant or susceptible to both N- and B-tropic viruses. Nineteen other inbred strains, previously untested, were characterized as either Fv-1n or Fv-1b. ..
  40. Pilz A, Moseley H, Peters J, Abbott C. Comparative mapping of mouse chromosome 4 and human chromosome 9: Lv, Orm, and Hxb are closely linked on mouse chromosome 4. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:247-9 pubmed
    ..the mouse homolog of ALAD), and Hxb in an interspecific backcross panel, by use of tyrosinase related protein-1, Tyrp-1, whose human homolog maps to 9p13-pter (Abbott et al., Genomics 1991) as a reference locus...
  41. Sidman C, Marshall J, Beamer W, Nadeau J, Unanue E. Two loci affecting B cell responses to B cell maturation factors. J Exp Med. 1986;163:116-28 pubmed
    ..One locus (Bmfr-1) is constitutively expressed throughout life, and maps approximately 13 cM distal to the brown locus on chromosome 4...
  42. Novak E, Hui S, Swank R. Platelet storage pool deficiency in mouse pigment mutations associated with seven distinct genetic loci. Blood. 1984;63:536-44 pubmed
    ..Also, the results emphasize the genetic, morphological, and functional interrelatedness of three organelles: melanosomes, lysosomes, and platelet dense granules. ..
  43. Ozeki H, Ito S, Wakamatsu K, Hirobe T. Chemical characterization of hair melanins in various coat-color mutants of mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:361-6 pubmed
    Mammalian melanins exist in two chemically distinct forms: the brown to black eumelanins and the yellow to reddish pheomelanins...
  44. Hirobe T, Wakamatsu K, Ito S. Effects of genic substitution at the agouti, brown, albino, dilute, and pink-eyed dilution loci on the proliferation and differentiation of mouse epidermal melanocytes in serum-free culture. Eur J Cell Biol. 1998;75:184-91 pubmed
    ..cell suspensions derived from neonatal skins of C57BL/10JHir (black) and its congenic mice carrying agouti, brown, albino, dilute, and pink-eyed dilution genes in a serum-free medium supplemented with dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-..
  45. Collins R. A new genetic locus mapped from behavioral variation in mice: audiogenic seizure prone (ASP). Behav Genet. 1970;1:99-109 pubmed
  46. Green M, Sidman R, Pivetta O. Cribriform degeneration (cri): a new recessive neurological mutation in the mouse. Science. 1972;176:800-3 pubmed
    ..Homozygotes show severe vacuolar degeneration in white and gray matter of the spinal cord and brainstem, normocytic anemia at birth which decreases in severity with age, and abnormalities of electrolyte distribution. ..
  47. Rinchik E, Bell J, Hunsicker P, Friedman J, Jackson I, Russell L. Molecular genetics of the brown (b)-locus region of mouse chromosome 4. I. Origin and molecular mapping of radiation- and chemical-induced lethal brown deletions. Genetics. 1994;137:845-54 pubmed
    ..using the mouse specific-locus test have generated numerous radiation- and chemical-induced alleles of the brown (b; Tyrp 1) locus in mouse chromosome 4...
  48. Sanyal S, Van Nie R, de Moes J, Hawkins R. Map position of dysgenetic lens (dyl) locus on chromosome 4 in the mouse. Genet Res. 1986;48:199-200 pubmed
  49. Barker J, Deveau S, Compton S, Fancher K, Eppig J. High incidence, early onset of histiocytic sarcomas in mice with Hertwig's anemia. Exp Hematol. 2005;33:1118-29 pubmed
    ..Homozygosity for an on an F1 genetic background is essential for high-incidence/early-onset HS; myelopoiesis and HS coexist; and therapeutic transplantation may be feasible. ..
  50. Downes G, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Gautam N, Jenkins N. Chromosomal mapping of five mouse G protein gamma subunits. Genomics. 1999;57:173-6 pubmed
    ..Combined with previous mapping studies, these data indicate that, with the possible exception of gamma1 and gamma11, the G protein gamma subunit genes are well dispersed within the mouse and human genomes. ..
  51. Vogel S, Wax J, Perera P, Padlan C, Potter M, Mock B. Construction of a BALB/c congenic mouse, C.C3H-Lpsd, that expresses the Lpsd allele: analysis of chromosome 4 markers surrounding the Lps gene. Infect Immun. 1994;62:4454-9 pubmed
    ..5 centimorgans. Thus, the C.C3H-Lpsd strain provides an important genetic tool for analysis of markers in this region and for examining functional effects of Lpsd expression on the BALB/c background. ..
  52. Abbott C, Jackson I, Carritt B, Povey S. The human homolog of the mouse brown gene maps to the short arm of chromosome 9 and extends the known region of homology with mouse chromosome 4. Genomics. 1991;11:471-3 pubmed
    The mouse brown locus encodes a tyrosinase-related protein, TRP-1. The human homolog of TRP-1 was recently cloned from a melanoma cDNA library and sequenced...
  53. Jackson I, Chambers D, Budd P, Johnson R. The tyrosinase-related protein-1 gene has a structure and promoter sequence very different from tyrosinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:3799-804 pubmed
    ..The flanking DNA of TRP-1, unlike tyrosinase, does not contain a TATA box or a CCAAT box. Both mouse genes, however, share an 11bp sequence, also found in human tyrosinase, which we suggest may be a melanocyte-specific promoter element. ..
  54. Fortin A, Diez E, Ritchie J, Sotocinal S, Dube M, Gagne M, et al. Positional cloning of a quantitative trait locus contributing to pain sensitivity: possible mediation by Tyrp1. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:856-67 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), displayed enriched expression in the dorsal root ganglia, an inactivating (C110Y) mutation in the resistant A/J ..
  55. Dandoy F, De Maeyer E, Bonhomme F, Guenet J, De Maeyer Guignard J. Segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphism in an interspecies cross of laboratory and wild mice indicates tight linkage of the murine IFN-beta gene to the murine IFN-alpha genes. J Virol. 1985;56:216-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, in 15 of 18 progeny the segregation coincided with that of the brown locus on chromosome 4, in accord with previous results obtained with the IFN-alpha probe in strains derived from ..
  56. Johnson R, Jackson I. Light is a dominant mouse mutation resulting in premature cell death. Nat Genet. 1992;1:226-9 pubmed
    Light is a dominant mutant allele of the mouse brown locus which results in hairs pigmented only at their tips. The phenotype is due to premature melanocyte death...
  57. Shibahara S, Tomita Y, Sakakura T, Nager C, Chaudhuri B, Muller R. Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding mouse tyrosinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:2413-27 pubmed
    ..Tyrosinase is composed of 513 amino acids with a molecular weight of 57,872 excluding a hydrophobic signal peptide of 24 amino acids. ..
  58. Bailey D. Recombinant-inbred strains. An aid to finding identity, linkage, and function of histocompatibility and other genes. Transplantation. 1971;11:325-7 pubmed
  59. Kobayashi T, Vieira W, Potterf B, Sakai C, Imokawa G, Hearing V. Modulation of melanogenic protein expression during the switch from eu- to pheomelanogenesis. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 6):2301-9 pubmed
    ..g. TRP1 encoded at the brown locus and TRP2 encoded at the slaty locus) regulate eumelanogenesis catalytically at steps distal to tyrosinase (..
  60. Kelly R, Bulfield G, Collick A, Gibbs M, Jeffreys A. Characterization of a highly unstable mouse minisatellite locus: evidence for somatic mutation during early development. Genomics. 1989;5:844-56 pubmed
    ..Linkage analysis localized Ms6-hm near the brown coat color gene (b) on chromosome 4...
  61. Giri P, Marietta C, Higuchi S, Kincaid R. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (calcineurin) catalytic subunit genes. DNA Cell Biol. 1992;11:415-24 pubmed
  62. Hearing V, Tsukamoto K, Urabe K, Kameyama K, Montague P, Jackson I. Functional properties of cloned melanogenic proteins. Pigment Cell Res. 1992;5:264-70 pubmed
    ..They map to the albino, brown, and slaty loci in mice, and encode proteins with similar structures and features, but with distinct catalytic ..
  63. Howell G, Libby R, Jakobs T, Smith R, Phalan F, Barter J, et al. Axons of retinal ganglion cells are insulted in the optic nerve early in DBA/2J glaucoma. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1523-37 pubmed
    ..These experiments provide strong evidence for a local insult to axons in the optic nerve. ..
  64. Tamura K, Ohbayashi N, Ishibashi K, Fukuda M. Structure-function analysis of VPS9-ankyrin-repeat protein (Varp) in the trafficking of tyrosinase-related protein 1 in melanocytes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:7507-21 pubmed publisher
    ..recently been implicated in the regulation of trafficking of a melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1) to melanosomes...
  65. Manceau M, Domingues V, Mallarino R, Hoekstra H. The developmental role of Agouti in color pattern evolution. Science. 2011;331:1062-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, natural selection favors late-acting, tissue-specific changes in embryonic Agouti expression to produce large changes in adult color pattern. ..
  66. Hellström A, WATT B, Fard S, Tenza D, Mannstrom P, Narfstrom K, et al. Inactivation of Pmel alters melanosome shape but has only a subtle effect on visible pigmentation. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002285 pubmed publisher
    ..the coat color phenotype in four different genetic backgrounds, with the clearest effect in mice also carrying the brown/Tyrp1 mutation...
  67. Ly L, Sluijter M, van der Burg S, Jager M, van Hall T. Effective cooperation of monoclonal antibody and peptide vaccine for the treatment of mouse melanoma. J Immunol. 2013;190:489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we advocate that tumor Ag-specific T cell immunity directed against self-proteins can be exploited from the endogenous repertoire. ..
  68. Russell E. A Quantitative Histological Study of the Pigment Found in the Coat Color Mutants of the House Mouse. II. Estimates of the Total Volume of Pigment. Genetics. 1948;33:228-36 pubmed
  69. Dandoy F, De Maeyer Guignard J, De Maeyer E. Linkage analysis of the murine mos proto-oncogene on chromosome 4. Genomics. 1989;4:546-51 pubmed
    ..6 +/- 4.9 recombination units. The linkage data obtained in the present study place Mos in a region compatible with the physical map (D. W. Threadgill and J. E. Womack, 1988, Genomics 3: 82-86). ..
  70. Michalides R, Verstraeten R, Shen F, Hilgers J. Characterization and chromosomal distribution of endogenous mouse mammary tumor viruses of European mouse strains STS/A and GR/A. Virology. 1985;142:278-90 pubmed
    ..R. Callahan, D. Gallahan, and Ch. Kozak (1984), J. Virol. 49, 1005-1008). GR and GR.Mtv-2 furthermore contain two incomplete MMTV proviral elements, one of which is also present in STS/A. ..
  71. Jackson I. A cDNA encoding tyrosinase-related protein maps to the brown locus in mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:4392-6 pubmed
    ..Here I use recombinant inbred strains to localize pMT4 at or close to the mouse brown (b) locus...
  72. Handel M, Lane P, Schroeder A, Davisson M. New mutation causing sterility in the mouse. Gamete Res. 1988;21:409-23 pubmed
    ..Affected individuals of both sexes are characterized by fusions of vertebrae and of ribs. The sks gene has been mapped to Chromosome 4, 16.6 cM distal to the brown locus.
  73. Roubertoux P, Baumann L, Ragueneau S, Semal C. Early development in mice. IV. Age at disappearance of the rooting response: genetic analysis in newborn mice. Behav Genet. 1987;17:453-64 pubmed
  74. Russell E. A quantitative histological study of the pigment found in the coat-color mutants of the house mouse; interdependence among the variable granule attributes. Genetics. 1949;34:133-45 pubmed
  75. Okumoto M, Nishikawa R, Imai S, Hilgers J. Genetic analysis of resistance to radiation lymphomagenesis with recombinant inbred strains of mice. Cancer Res. 1990;50:3848-50 pubmed
  76. Wolf N, Galecki A, Lipman R, Chen S, Smith Wheelock M, Burke D, et al. Quantitative trait locus mapping for age-related cataract severity and synechia prevalence using four-way cross mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:1922-9 pubmed
    ..The results provide a first step toward identification of the individual genes involved and may help to guide the search for homologous human genes. ..
  77. Roubertoux P, Semal C, Ragueneau S. Early development in mice: II. Sensory motor behavior and genetic analysis. Physiol Behav. 1985;35:659-66 pubmed
    ..As regards this latter finding, the authors hypothesize that mothers differ as to the quality of the environment they furnish to their young and pups differ in their ability to benefit from these environments...
  78. Zhu M, Nagavalli A, Su M. Aire deficiency promotes TRP-1-specific immune rejection of melanoma. Cancer Res. 2013;73:2104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that Aire deficiency decreases thymic expression of TRP-1 (TYRP1), which is a self-antigen in melanocytes and a cancer antigen in melanomas...
  79. Son A, Sheleg M, Cooper M, Sun Y, Kleiman N, Zhou R. Formation of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in ephrin-A5-/- mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:1594-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Ephrin-A5 is a critical factor that regulates primary vitreous regression. ..
  80. Simpson E, Suffolk R, Bell J, Jordan S, Johnson D, Hunsicker P, et al. A comparative transcript map and candidates for mutant phenotypes in the Tyrp1 (brown) deletion complex homologous to human 9p21-23. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:58-63 pubmed
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