Gene Symbol: Tyr
Description: tyrosinase
Alias: Oca1, albino, skc35, tyrosinase, albino locus protein, monophenol monooxygenase
Species: mouse
Products:     Tyr

Top Publications

  1. Yokoyama T, Silversides D, Waymire K, Kwon B, Takeuchi T, Overbeek P. Conserved cysteine to serine mutation in tyrosinase is responsible for the classical albino mutation in laboratory mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:7293-8 pubmed
    Albinism, due to a lack of melanin pigment, is one of the oldest known mutations in mice. Tyrosinase (monophenol oxygenase, EC 1.14.18...
  2. Ganss R, Montoliu L, Monaghan A, Schutz G. A cell-specific enhancer far upstream of the mouse tyrosinase gene confers high level and copy number-related expression in transgenic mice. EMBO J. 1994;13:3083-93 pubmed
    The tyrosinase gene encodes the key enzyme of melanin production and is tightly regulated during development...
  3. Savinova O, Sugiyama F, Martin J, Tomarev S, Paigen B, Smith R, et al. Intraocular pressure in genetically distinct mice: an update and strain survey. BMC Genet. 2001;2:12 pubmed
    ..Albino C57BL/6J mice homozygous for a tyrosinase mutation (Tyrc-2J) have higher IOPs than their pigmented counterparts...
  4. Bharti K, Gasper M, Ou J, Brucato M, Clore Gronenborn K, Pickel J, et al. A regulatory loop involving PAX6, MITF, and WNT signaling controls retinal pigment epithelium development. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002757 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that careful manipulation of the Pax6 regulatory circuit may facilitate the generation of retinal and pigment epithelium cells from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. ..
  5. Rachel R, Dolen G, Hayes N, Lu A, Erskine L, Nowakowski R, et al. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2002;22:4249-63 pubmed
    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ..
  6. D Orazio J, Nobuhisa T, Cui R, Arya M, Spry M, Wakamatsu K, et al. Topical drug rescue strategy and skin protection based on the role of Mc1r in UV-induced tanning. Nature. 2006;443:340-4 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize the essential role of intercellular MSH signalling in the tanning response, and suggest a clinical strategy for topical small-molecule manipulation of pigmentation. ..
  7. Bharti K, Liu W, Csermely T, Bertuzzi S, Arnheiter H. Alternative promoter use in eye development: the complex role and regulation of the transcription factor MITF. Development. 2008;135:1169-78 pubmed publisher
  8. Liu P, Zhang H, McLellan A, Vogel H, Bradley A. Embryonic lethality and tumorigenesis caused by segmental aneuploidy on mouse chromosome 11. Genetics. 1998;150:1155-68 pubmed
    ..A duplication corresponding to one of these two deficiencies was able to rescue its haplolethality. ..
  9. Rikke B, Johnson D, Johnson T. Murine albino-deletion complex: high-resolution microsatellite map and genetically anchored YAC framework map. Genetics. 1997;147:787-99 pubmed
    The murine albino-deletion complex developed as part of the Oak Ridge specific-locus test covers 6-11 cM of chromosome 7...

More Information


  1. Horsford D, Nguyen M, Sellar G, Kothary R, Arnheiter H, McInnes R. Chx10 repression of Mitf is required for the maintenance of mammalian neuroretinal identity. Development. 2005;132:177-87 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the repression of Mitf by FGF is Chx10 dependent, indicating that FGF, Chx10 and Mitf are components of a pathway that determines and maintains the identity of the NR. ..
  2. Shibahara S, Okinaga S, Tomita Y, Takeda A, Yamamoto H, Sato M, et al. A point mutation in the tyrosinase gene of BALB/c albino mouse causing the cysteine----serine substitution at position 85. Eur J Biochem. 1990;189:455-61 pubmed
    ..In order to study the molecular basis of albinism, we have cloned and characterized the tyrosinase gene of BALB/c mice (c/c)...
  3. Beermann F, Ruppert S, Hummler E, Bosch F, Muller G, Ruther U, et al. Rescue of the albino phenotype by introduction of a functional tyrosinase gene into mice. EMBO J. 1990;9:2819-26 pubmed
    The c-locus of the mouse is thought to encode tyrosinase, the key enzyme for melanin synthesis in melanocytes of the skin and the eye...
  4. Jeffery G, Brem G, Montoliu L. Correction of retinal abnormalities found in albinism by introduction of a functional tyrosinase gene in transgenic mice and rabbits. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1997;99:95-102 pubmed
    ..It has been demonstrated using transgenic mice that the chiasmatic abnormality is controlled by the tyrosinase gene, which is the key enzyme in melanin synthesis...
  5. Le Fur N, Kelsall S, Mintz B. Base substitution at different alternative splice donor sites of the tyrosinase gene in murine albinism. Genomics. 1996;37:245-8 pubmed
    The c2j albino mutation at the mouse tyrosinase locus arose spontaneously in the C57BL/6 inbred strain and causes complete absence of melanin synthesis, as does the "classical" c mutation of long-established albino inbred ..
  6. Kobayashi T, Imokawa G, Bennett D, Hearing V. Tyrosinase stabilization by Tyrp1 (the brown locus protein). J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31801-5 pubmed
    ..The Tyr/albino locus, in which mutations cause a lack of pigmentation, encodes tyrosinase (Tyr), the critical and rate-limiting melanogenic enzyme...
  7. Schuster Gossler K, Lee A, Lerner C, Parker H, Dyer V, Scott V, et al. Use of coisogenic host blastocysts for efficient establishment of germline chimeras with C57BL/6J ES cell lines. Biotechniques. 2001;31:1022-4, 1026 pubmed
    ..Our data support the use of the coisogenic albino host strain, c2J, for the generation of germline-competent chimeric mice when using B6 ES cells.
  8. Dobkin C, Rabe A, Dumas R, El Idrissi A, Haubenstock H, Brown W. Fmr1 knockout mouse has a distinctive strain-specific learning impairment. Neuroscience. 2000;100:423-9 pubmed
    ..The strain dependence may model the influence of genetic background in the human Fragile X syndrome. ..
  9. Cortese K, Giordano F, Surace E, Venturi C, Ballabio A, Tacchetti C, et al. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) gene controls melanosome maturation and size. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:4358-64 pubmed
    The authors took advantage of the Oa1 mutant mouse in combination with other albinism mouse models (i.e., Tyrosinase and membrane-associated transporter protein [Matp]) to study the function of Oa1, the gene mutated in ocular albinism ..
  10. Nichols L, Chen Y, Colella T, Bennett C, Clausen B, Engelhard V. Deletional self-tolerance to a melanocyte/melanoma antigen derived from tyrosinase is mediated by a radio-resistant cell in peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes. J Immunol. 2007;179:993-1003 pubmed
    ..We have used a newly generated TCR-transgenic mouse to establish the basis of tolerance to one such Ag from tyrosinase. Despite expression of tyrosinase transcripts in the thymus, central deletion does not shape the tyrosinase-..
  11. Beermann F, Schmid E, Schutz G. Expression of the mouse tyrosinase gene during embryonic development: recapitulation of the temporal regulation in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:2809-13 pubmed
    ..b>Tyrosinase (monophenol, L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18...
  12. Kwon B, Haq A, Wakulchik M, Kestler D, Barton D, Francke U, et al. Isolation, chromosomal mapping, and expression of the mouse tyrosinase gene. J Invest Dermatol. 1989;93:589-94 pubmed
    Using a human tyrosinase cDNA probe, we have isolated mouse tyrosinase genomic clones and used them to map the mouse tyrosinase locus and to analyze the promoter sequence of the tyrosinase gene...
  13. Tewalt E, Cohen J, Rouhani S, Guidi C, Qiao H, Fahl S, et al. Lymphatic endothelial cells induce tolerance via PD-L1 and lack of costimulation leading to high-level PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells. Blood. 2012;120:4772-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Rescue of tyrosinase-specific T(CD8) by interference with PD-1 or provision of costimulation results in autoimmune vitiligo, ..
  14. Eisenhofer G, Tian H, Holmes C, Matsunaga J, Roffler Tarlov S, Hearing V. Tyrosinase: a developmentally specific major determinant of peripheral dopamine. FASEB J. 2003;17:1248-55 pubmed
    ..be formed by two enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in catecholamine-producing neurons and chromaffin cells and tyrosinase in melanocytes. In this study we examined whether tyrosinase contributes to production of dopamine...
  15. Martinez Morales J, Signore M, Acampora D, Simeone A, Bovolenta P. Otx genes are required for tissue specification in the developing eye. Development. 2001;128:2019-30 pubmed
    ..vesicle infolding was severely altered and the expression of pigment epithelium-specific genes, such as Mitf or tyrosinase, was lost...
  16. Ryder E, Wong K, Gleeson D, Keane T, Sethi D, Vyas S, et al. Genomic analysis of a novel spontaneous albino C57BL/6N mouse strain. Genesis. 2013;51:523-8 pubmed publisher
    We report an albino C57BL/6N mouse strain carrying a spontaneous mutation in the tyrosinase gene (C57BL/6N-Tyr(cWTSI)). Deep whole genome sequencing of founder mice revealed very little divergence from C57BL/6NJ and C57BL/6N (Taconic)...
  17. Rios M, Habecker B, Sasaoka T, Eisenhofer G, Tian H, Landis S, et al. Catecholamine synthesis is mediated by tyrosinase in the absence of tyrosine hydroxylase. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3519-26 pubmed
    ..To ascertain the source of the catecholamine, we examined postnatal TH-null albino mice that lack tyrosinase, another enzyme that converts tyrosine to L-Dopa but does so during melanin synthesis...
  18. Rebsam A, Bhansali P, Mason C. Eye-specific projections of retinogeniculate axons are altered in albino mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..affects eye-specific retinogeniculate targeting in albino mice using the C57BL/6 Tyr(c-2J/c-2J) strain, in which tyrosinase, necessary for melanogenesis, is mutated...
  19. Costin G, Valencia J, Vieira W, Lamoreux M, Hearing V. Tyrosinase processing and intracellular trafficking is disrupted in mouse primary melanocytes carrying the underwhite (uw) mutation. A model for oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) type 4. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3203-12 pubmed
    ..forms of OCA have been previously characterized, each resulting from the aberrant processing and/or sorting of tyrosinase, the enzyme critical to pigment production in mammals...
  20. Porter S, Larue L, Mintz B. Mosaicism of tyrosinase-locus transcription and chromatin structure in dark vs. light melanocyte clones of homozygous chinchilla-mottled mice. Dev Genet. 1991;12:393-402 pubmed
    The chinchilla-mottled (cm) mutation at the mouse tyrosinase-encoding locus leads to a transversely striped pattern of dark- and light-grey coat colors in homozygotes...
  21. Tief K, Hahne M, Schmidt A, Beermann F. Tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanin synthesis, is expressed in murine brain. Eur J Biochem. 1996;241:12-6 pubmed
    b>Tyrosinase is one of the key enzymes in mammalian melanin synthesis. The pigment is produced in two different cell types: the pigmented epithelial cell of the retina, and the melanocyte, a cell of neural-crest origin...
  22. Tief K, Schmidt A, Aguzzi A, Beermann F. Tyrosinase is a new marker for cell populations in the mouse neural tube. Dev Dyn. 1996;205:445-56 pubmed
    b>Tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanin synthesis, is expressed in pigment cells derived from both neural crest and neuroectoderm...
  23. Montoliu L, Umland T, Schutz G. A locus control region at -12 kb of the tyrosinase gene. EMBO J. 1996;15:6026-34 pubmed
    We have shown previously that the tyrosinase gene encompassed in a 250 kb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) is expressed faithfully in transgenic mice...
  24. Colella T, Bullock T, Russell L, Mullins D, Overwijk W, Luckey C, et al. Self-tolerance to the murine homologue of a tyrosinase-derived melanoma antigen: implications for tumor immunotherapy. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1221-32 pubmed
    The human tyrosinase-derived peptide YMDGTMSQV is presented on the surface of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201(+) melanomas and has been suggested to be a tumor antigen despite the fact that tyrosinase is also ..
  25. Giraldo P, Martinez A, Regales L, Lavado A, García Díaz A, Alonso A, et al. Functional dissection of the mouse tyrosinase locus control region identifies a new putative boundary activity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6290-305 pubmed
    ..We have analysed the mouse tyrosinase LCR functions, in vitro, in cell lines and, in vivo, in transgenic mice and flies. The LCR-core (2...
  26. Libby R, Smith R, Savinova O, Zabaleta A, Martin J, Gonzalez F, et al. Modification of ocular defects in mouse developmental glaucoma models by tyrosinase. Science. 2003;299:1578-81 pubmed
    ..Using Cyp1b1-/- mice, we identified the tyrosinase gene (Tyr) as a modifier of the drainage structure phenotype, with Tyr deficiency increasing the magnitude of ..
  27. Jackson I, Bennett D. Identification of the albino mutation of mouse tyrosinase by analysis of an in vitro revertant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:7010-4 pubmed
    ..We sequenced a part of the tyrosinase gene, encompassing a candidate mutation, from wild-type, albino, and revertant cell DNAs...
  28. del Marmol V, Beermann F. Tyrosinase and related proteins in mammalian pigmentation. FEBS Lett. 1996;381:165-8 pubmed
    b>Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in pigment synthesis, initiating a cascade of reactions which convert the amino acid tyrosine to the melanin biopolymer...
  29. Schedl A, Montoliu L, Kelsey G, Schutz G. A yeast artificial chromosome covering the tyrosinase gene confers copy number-dependent expression in transgenic mice. Nature. 1993;362:258-61 pubmed
    ..Here we report the transfer of a 250 kilobase YAC covering the mouse tyrosinase gene into mice by pronuclear injection of gel-purified YAC DNA...
  30. Murisier F, Guichard S, Beermann F. Distinct distal regulatory elements control tyrosinase expression in melanocytes and the retinal pigment epithelium. Dev Biol. 2007;303:838-47 pubmed
    ..The pigmentation gene tyrosinase is expressed in all pigment cells but differentially regulated in melanocytes and RPE...
  31. Rinchik E, Stoye J, Frankel W, Coffin J, Kwon B, Russell L. Molecular analysis of viable spontaneous and radiation-induced albino (c)-locus mutations in the mouse. Mutat Res. 1993;286:199-207 pubmed
    ..and with probes derived from the closely linked proviral integration sites Pmv-31 and Emv-23, which flank the tyrosinase gene on the proximal and distal sides, respectively...
  32. Snell G, Stevens L. Histocompatibility genes of mice. III. H-1 and H-4, two histocompatibility loci in the first linkage group. Immunology. 1961;4:366-79 pubmed
  33. Sun M, Hattori S, Kubo S, Awata H, Matsuda I, Endo F. A mouse model of renal tubular injury of tyrosinemia type 1: development of de Toni Fanconi syndrome and apoptosis of renal tubular cells in Fah/Hpd double mutant mice. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000;11:291-300 pubmed
    ..Homozygous disruption of the gene encoding Fah in mice causes neonatal lethality (e.g., lethal Albino deletion c14CoS mice), an event that limits use of this animal as a model for HT1...
  34. Wang H, Osseiran S, Igras V, Nichols A, Roider E, Pruessner J, et al. In vivo coherent Raman imaging of the melanomagenesis-associated pigment pheomelanin. Sci Rep. 2016;6:37986 pubmed publisher
    ..observed in the red-haired animals, but not in the genetically matched Mc1re/e; Tyrc/c ("albino-red-haired") mice...
  35. Chen J, Reifsnyder P, Scheuplein F, Schott W, Mileikovsky M, Soodeen Karamath S, et al. "Agouti NOD": identification of a CBA-derived Idd locus on Chromosome 7 and its use for chimera production with NOD embryonic stem cells. Mamm Genome. 2005;16:775-83 pubmed
    ..agouti stock already containing approximately 50% NOD genome, was used as the donor source of a wild-type CBA tyrosinase allele...
  36. Balcos M, Kim S, Jeong H, Yun H, Baek K, Kwon N, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits melanin synthesis in murine melanoma cells in vitro through increasing tyrosinase degradation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014;35:489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were exposed to DHA for 3 d, and melanin content and tyrosinase activity were measured...
  37. Niswander L, Kelsey G, Schedl A, Ruppert S, Sharan S, Holdener Kenny B, et al. Molecular mapping of albino deletions associated with early embryonic lethality in the mouse. Genomics. 1991;9:162-9 pubmed
    The albino-deletion complex consists of more than 37 deletions that remove an area of mouse chromosome 7 including the albino coat-color locus...
  38. Paul E, Badal R, Thompson D, Magnan D, Soucy F, Khan I, et al. The mouse frizzy mutation (fr) maps between D7Csu5 and D7Mit165. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:640-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Further characterization of regional recombinants for sequence-level polymorphisms should allow sufficient refinement of fr's location to facilitate an eventual molecular assignment for this classical mutation. ..
  39. Oh J, Wang Y, Chen S, Li P, Du N, Yu Z, et al. Genetic background-dependent role of Egr1 for eyelid development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E7131-E7139 pubmed publisher
    ..The BALB/c albino phenotype-associated Tyrc tyrosinase mutation appeared to contribute to the phenotype, because crossing the independent Tyrc-2J
  40. Camacho Hübner A, Rossier A, Beermann F. The Fugu rubripes tyrosinase gene promoter targets transgene expression to pigment cells in the mouse. Genesis. 2000;28:99-105 pubmed
    The regulation of the mouse tyrosinase gene expression is controlled by a highly conserved element at -100 bp, the M-box, and an enhancer at -12 kb...
  41. Hagiwara N, Klewer S, Samson R, Erickson D, Lyon M, Brilliant M. Sox6 is a candidate gene for p100H myopathy, heart block, and sudden neonatal death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:4180-5 pubmed
    ..The p(100H) mutant is thus a useful animal model in the elucidation of myopathies at the molecular level. ..
  42. Kim Y. Antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of gallic acid. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:1052-5 pubmed
    ..In this current study, the effects of GA on mushroom tyrosinase, tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and melanin content were assessed in B16 melanoma cells (B16 cells)...
  43. Gabri M, Vazquez V, Giron S, Castro M, Cinat G, Gomez R, et al. Molecular detection of circulating tyrosinase mRNA: optimization in a preclinical xenograft mouse melanoma model and further evaluation in samples from advanced melanoma patients. Int J Mol Med. 2008;21:555-9 pubmed
    We designed high-affinity primers for the mRNA sequence of human tyrosinase to test the value of molecular detection of circulating melanoma cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  44. Yu Y, Wen L, Silva J, Li Z, Head K, Sossey Alaoui K, et al. Lgi1 null mutant mice exhibit myoclonic seizures and CA1 neuronal hyperexcitability. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1702-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This mouse model, therefore, provides novel insights into the mechanism behind ADPEAF and offers a new opportunity to study the mechanism behind the role of LGI1 in susceptibility to myoclonic seizures. ..
  45. Otto J, von Deimling O. Prt-4 and Prt-5: new constituents of a gene cluster on chromosome 7 coding for esterproteases in the submandibular gland of the house mouse (Mus musculus). Biochem Genet. 1981;19:431-44 pubmed
    ..From a four-point-cross, the gene order Gpi-1-(Tam-1, Prt-4, Prt-5)-c is suggested. Thus a gene cluster was shown to exist on chromosome 7 coding for esterproteases, all of which are controlled by testosterone. ..
  46. Saunders A, Seldin M. The syntenic relationship of proximal mouse chromosome 7 and the myotonic dystrophy gene region on human chromosome 19q. Genomics. 1990;6:324-32 pubmed
    ..Homologs for five human chromosome 11 and 15 loci (Calc, Fes, Hras-1, Igflr, Tyr) were localized within an 18-cM span telomeric to Lhb...
  47. Sharan S, Holdener Kenny B, Ruppert S, Schedl A, Kelsey G, Rinchik E, et al. The albino-deletion complex of the mouse: molecular mapping of deletion breakpoints that define regions necessary for development of the embryonic and extraembryonic ectoderm. Genetics. 1991;129:825-32 pubmed
    Previous complementation analyses with five (c11DSD, c5FR60Hg, c2YPSj, c4FR60Hd, c6H) of the mouse albino deletions defined at least two genes on chromosome 7, known as eed and exed, which are necessary for development of the embryonic ..
  48. Vasiliou V, Buetler T, Eaton D, Nebert D. Comparison of oxidative stress response parameters in newborn mouse liver versus simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hepatocyte cell lines. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;59:703-12 pubmed
  49. Castle W, Wachter W. Variations of Linkage in Rats and Mice. Genetics. 1924;9:1-12 pubmed
  50. Zheng B, Sage M, Cai W, Thompson D, Tavsanli B, Cheah Y, et al. Engineering a mouse balancer chromosome. Nat Genet. 1999;22:375-8 pubmed
    ..Engineering of visibly marked inversions and deficiencies is an important step toward functional analyses of the mouse genome and will facilitate large-scale mutagenesis programs. ..
  51. Feldman H. Linkage of Albino Allelomorphs in Rats and Mice. Genetics. 1924;9:487-92 pubmed
  52. Angel J, Morizot D, Richie E. Localization of a novel chromosome 7 locus that suppresses development of N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced murine thymic lymphomas. Mol Carcinog. 1993;7:151-6 pubmed
    ..a significant linkage between high tumor incidence and homozygous inheritance of AKR alleles at the albino (tyrosinase) and Hbb loci...
  53. Tanaka Y, Nakamura K, Matsumoto S, Kimoto Y, Tanoue A, Tsujimoto G, et al. Gene expression profiles of homogentisate-treated Fah-/- Hpd-/-mice using DNA microarrays. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;89:203-9 pubmed
    ..We found that numerous genes, including amino acid metabolism and apoptosis related genes, were up- or down-regulated at the onset of liver failure. These findings are useful in understanding the pathogenesis of hereditary tyrosinemia. ..
  54. Shibata S, Miwa T, Wu H, Levitt P, Ohyama T. Hepatocyte Growth Factor-c-MET Signaling Mediates the Development of Nonsensory Structures of the Mammalian Cochlea and Hearing. J Neurosci. 2016;36:8200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an additional example of context-dependent c-MET signaling diversity, required here for proper cellular invasion developmentally that is essential for specific aspects of auditory-related organogenesis. ..
  55. Giraldo P, Gimenez E, Montoliu L. The use of yeast artificial chromosomes in transgenic animals: expression studies of the tyrosinase gene in transgenic mice. Genet Anal. 1999;15:175-8 pubmed
    ..yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in which a DNAse I hypersensitive site (HS) located -12 kb upstream of the mouse tyrosinase gene had been deleted. At present, we are generating new transgenic animals with minor deletions of the HS.
  56. Nishimura E, Granter S, Fisher D. Mechanisms of hair graying: incomplete melanocyte stem cell maintenance in the niche. Science. 2005;307:720-4 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, physiologic aging of melanocyte stem cells was associated with ectopic pigmentation or differentiation within the niche, a process accelerated by mutation of the melanocyte master transcriptional regulator Mitf. ..
  57. Greenfield A, Brown S. Microdissection and microcloning from the proximal region of mouse chromosome 7: isolation of clones genetically linked to the pudgy locus. Genomics. 1987;1:153-8 pubmed
    ..Several important loci map to this area, including the albino locus (c), pink-eye dilution (p), and the developmental mutant, pudgy (pu)...
  58. Imai H, Wada M, Moriwaki K. The sex chromosome association (Sxa) gene is located on the X-chromosome in mice. Jpn J Genet. 1990;65:65-9 pubmed
    ..The genetic factor "Sxa" controlling the end-to-end association of the sex chromosome in mice is linked closely (R.V. = 4.6%) to Crm (cream), which is located near the distal end of the X chromosome. ..
  59. Cavanna J, Greenfield A, Johnson K, Marks A, Nadal Ginard B, Brown S. Establishment of the mouse chromosome 7 region with homology to the myotonic dystrophy region of human chromosome 19q. Genomics. 1990;7:12-8 pubmed
    ..In humans, the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility locus (MHS) also maps close to this gene cluster. The comparative mapping data support Ryr as a candidate gene for MHS. ..
  60. Bonhomme F, Benmehdi F, Britton Davidian J, Martin S. [Genetic analysis of interspecific crosses Mus musculus L. x Mus spretus Lataste: linkage of Adh-1 with Amy-1 on chromosome 3 and Es-14 with Mod-1 on chromosome 9]. C R Seances Acad Sci D. 1979;289:545-8 pubmed
    ..Linkage of ES-14 with Mod-1 on chromosome 9 and that of Adh-1 with Amy-1 on chromosome 3 are shown. The following order centromere/Car-2/Amy-1 is tentatively proposed for these loci on chromosome 3. ..
  61. Rinchik E, Carpenter D. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis of a 6- to 11-cM subregion of the Fah-Hbb interval of mouse chromosome 7: Completed testing of 4557 gametes and deletion mapping and complementation analysis of 31 mutations. Genetics. 1999;152:373-83 pubmed
    An interval of mouse chromosome (Chr) 7 surrounding the albino (Tyr; c) locus, and corresponding to a long 6- to 11-cM Tyr deletion, has been the target of a large-scale mutagenesis screen with the chemical supermutagen N-ethyl-N-..
  62. Russell L, Hunsicker P, Cacheiro N, Rinchik E. Genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular analyses of mutations induced by melphalan demonstrate high frequencies of heritable deletions and other rearrangements from exposure of postspermatogonial stages of the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6182-6 pubmed
    ..Melphalan, like chlorambucil, can generate many mutations, a high proportion of which are deletions and other rearrangements, making this chemical valuable for generating mutations (at any locus) amenable to molecular access. ..
  63. Rungta D, Corn T, Fuller B. Regulation of tyrosinase mRNA in mouse melanoma cells by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. J Invest Dermatol. 1996;107:689-93 pubmed
    ..S-91 mouse melanoma cells respond to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) by demonstrating a marked increase in tyrosinase activity (O-diphenol-O2 oxidoreductase, EC
  64. Tomita Y. Tyrosinase gene mutations causing oculocutaneous albinisms. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;100:186S-190S pubmed
    Since the first report of a mutation in the tyrosinase gene that causes tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), more than 25 alleles with a different mutation in patients with three types of OCA, i.e...
  65. Ollendorff V, Szepetowski P, Mattei M, Gaudray P, Birnbaum D. New gene in the homologous human 11q13-q14 and mouse 7F chromosomal regions. Mamm Genome. 1992;2:195-200 pubmed
    ..The human and mouse genes belong to a conserved group of synteny. This, together with the similar conservation of the FGF and TYR genes, indicates that the human 11q13-q14 and mouse 7E-7F regions share homology.
  66. Motohashi H, Hozawa K, Oshima T, Takeuchi T, Takasaka T. Dysgenesis of melanocytes and cochlear dysfunction in mutant microphthalmia (mi) mice. Hear Res. 1994;80:10-20 pubmed
    ..ear, hearing acuity and cochlear pathology were studied in three strains of mice, namely, wild type mice (+/+), albino mice without melanin (c2J/c2J), and microphthalmia mice with no melanocytes (mibw/mibw)...
  67. Porter S, Mintz B. Multiple alternatively spliced transcripts of the mouse tyrosinase-encoding gene. Gene. 1991;97:277-82 pubmed
    We have isolated and characterized tyrosinase-specific cDNAs from wild-type mouse skin, to provide a basis for the structural and functional analysis of mutations at the mouse tyrosinase-encoding (Tyr) locus...
  68. Lee S, Son Y, Kook S, Choi K, Lee J. Ascorbic acid increases the activity and synthesis of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Arch Dermatol Res. 2011;303:669-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we explored the effects of ascorbic acid on the activity and expression of tyrosinase and melanin pigmentation in the presence and absence of ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) using B16F10 ..
  69. Shukri N, Grew F, Shire J. Recessive mutation in a standard recombinant-inbred line of mice affects seminal vesicle shape. Genet Res. 1988;52:27-32 pubmed
  70. Van Nie R, Verstraeten A. Studies of genetic transmission of mammary tumour virus by C3Hf mice. Int J Cancer. 1975;16:922-31 pubmed
    ..This gene (Mtv-1) seems to be linked with the albino locus situated on chromosome 7; the recombination percentage was about 29...
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