Gene Symbol: Twist2
Description: twist basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2
Alias: Dermo1, bHLHa39, twist-related protein 2, dermis-expressed protein 1, twist homolog 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Twist2

Top Publications

  1. Lee Y, Lee H, Park J, Yoo E, Glackin C, Choi Y, et al. Twist2, a novel ADD1/SREBP1c interacting protein, represses the transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:7165-74 pubmed
    ..Using the N-terminal domain of ADD1/SREBP1c as bait, we identified Twist2 (also known as Dermo-1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, as a novel ADD1/SREBP1c interacting protein...
  2. Bialek P, Kern B, Yang X, Schrock M, Sosic D, Hong N, et al. A twist code determines the onset of osteoblast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2004;6:423-35 pubmed
    ..In vivo mutagenesis confirms the antiosteogenic function of the Twist box. Thus, relief of inhibition by Twist proteins is a mandatory event precluding osteoblast differentiation. ..
  3. Kolpakova Hart E, McBratney Owen B, Hou B, Fukai N, Nicolae C, Zhou J, et al. Growth of cranial synchondroses and sutures requires polycystin-1. Dev Biol. 2008;321:407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the Erk1/2 signalling pathway is up-regulated in the Pkd1-deficient skeletal tissue, similarly to that previously reported for polycystic kidney. ..
  4. Tu X, Joeng K, Nakayama K, Nakayama K, Rajagopal J, Carroll T, et al. Noncanonical Wnt signaling through G protein-linked PKCdelta activation promotes bone formation. Dev Cell. 2007;12:113-27 pubmed
    ..Together, these results reveal a Wnt-dependent osteogenic mechanism, and they provide a potential target pathway for designing therapeutics to promote bone formation. ..
  5. Sosic D, Richardson J, Yu K, Ornitz D, Olson E. Twist regulates cytokine gene expression through a negative feedback loop that represses NF-kappaB activity. Cell. 2003;112:169-80 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal an evolutionarily conserved signaling circuit in which twist proteins regulate cytokine signaling by establishing a negative feedback loop that represses the NF-kappaB-dependent cytokine pathway. ..
  6. Tukel T, Sosic D, Al Gazali L, Erazo M, Casasnovas J, Franco H, et al. Homozygous nonsense mutations in TWIST2 cause Setleis syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;87:289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 29 candidate genes in this region, the bHLH transcription factor, TWIST2, was initially sequenced on the basis of its known involvement in murine facial development...
  7. Yu K, Xu J, Liu Z, Sosic D, Shao J, Olson E, et al. Conditional inactivation of FGF receptor 2 reveals an essential role for FGF signaling in the regulation of osteoblast function and bone growth. Development. 2003;130:3063-74 pubmed
    ..Homologous introduction of cre recombinase into the Dermo1 (Twist2) gene locus resulted in robust expression of CRE in mesenchymal condensations giving rise to both osteoblast and ..
  8. Guntur A, Reinhold M, Cuellar J, Naski M. Conditional ablation of Pten in osteoprogenitors stimulates FGF signaling. Development. 2011;138:1433-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, deletion of FGFR2 caused a partial rescue of the Pten-null phenotype. This study identifies activated FGF signaling as the major mediator of Pten deletion in osteoprogenitors. ..
  9. Morimoto M, Liu Z, Cheng H, Winters N, Bader D, Kopan R. Canonical Notch signaling in the developing lung is required for determination of arterial smooth muscle cells and selection of Clara versus ciliated cell fate. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:213-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These analyses suggest that the impact of gamma-secretase inhibitors on branching in vitro reflect a non-cell autonomous contribution from endothelial or vSMC-derived signals. ..

More Information


  1. Li L, Cserjesi P, Olson E. Dermo-1: a novel twist-related bHLH protein expressed in the developing dermis. Dev Biol. 1995;172:280-92 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern of Dermo-1 suggests that it functions as a regulator of gene expression in a subset of mesenchymal cell lineages including developing dermis. ..
  2. Hu H, Hilton M, Tu X, Yu K, Ornitz D, Long F. Sequential roles of Hedgehog and Wnt signaling in osteoblast development. Development. 2005;132:49-60 pubmed
    ..Finally Wnt7b is identified as a potential endogenous ligand regulating osteogenesis. These data support a model that integrates Hh and Wnt signaling in the regulation of osteoblast development. ..
  3. Lavine K, Long F, Choi K, Smith C, Ornitz D. Hedgehog signaling to distinct cell types differentially regulates coronary artery and vein development. Development. 2008;135:3161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present evidence suggesting that coronary arteries and veins may be derived from distinct lineages. ..
  4. Tang Y, Rowe R, Botvinick E, Kurup A, Putnam A, Seiki M, et al. MT1-MMP-dependent control of skeletal stem cell commitment via a ?1-integrin/YAP/TAZ signaling axis. Dev Cell. 2013;25:402-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a critical MT1-MMP/integrin/YAP/TAZ axis operative in the stem cell niche that oversees SSC fate determination. ..
  5. Nadeau V, Charron J. Essential role of the ERK/MAPK pathway in blood-placental barrier formation. Development. 2014;141:2825-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, appropriate ERK/MAPK signaling in defined cell types is required for the proper growth, differentiation and morphogenesis of the placenta. ..
  6. Funato N, Nakamura M, Richardson J, Srivastava D, Yanagisawa H. Tbx1 regulates oral epithelial adhesion and palatal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2524-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present study reveals new pathogenesis of incomplete and submucous cleft palate during mammalian palatogenesis. ..
  7. Snowball J, Ambalavanan M, Whitsett J, Sinner D. Endodermal Wnt signaling is required for tracheal cartilage formation. Dev Biol. 2015;405:56-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Wnt ligands produced by the tracheal epithelium pattern the tracheal mesenchyme via modulation of gene expression and cell proliferation required for proper tracheal cartilage and smooth muscle differentiation. ..
  8. Hung I, Yu K, Lavine K, Ornitz D. FGF9 regulates early hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and skeletal vascularization in the developing stylopod. Dev Biol. 2007;307:300-13 pubmed
    ..In developing stylopod elements, FGF9 promotes chondrocyte hypertrophy at early stages and regulates vascularization of the growth plate and osteogenesis at later stages of skeletal development. ..
  9. Goddard L, Duchemin A, Ramalingan H, Wu B, Chen M, Bamezai S, et al. Hemodynamic Forces Sculpt Developing Heart Valves through a KLF2-WNT9B Paracrine Signaling Axis. Dev Cell. 2017;43:274-289.e5 pubmed publisher
  10. Jawad M, Giotopoulos G, Fitch S, Cole C, Plumb M, Talbot C. Mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood erythroid cell counts are regulated by different autosomal genetic loci. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2007;38:69-77 pubmed
    ..The identity of the other QTG will be important both to further knowledge of the control of erythropoiesis and as potential modifier genes for haematological disorders. ..
  11. Snitow M, Lu M, Cheng L, Zhou S, Morrisey E. Ezh2 restricts the smooth muscle lineage during mouse lung mesothelial development. Development. 2016;143:3733-3741 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings uncover an Ezh2-dependent mechanism to restrict the smooth muscle gene expression program in the developing mesothelium and allow appropriate cell fate decisions to occur in this multipotent mesoderm lineage. ..
  12. Fulzele K, Riddle R, DiGirolamo D, Cao X, Wan C, Chen D, et al. Insulin receptor signaling in osteoblasts regulates postnatal bone acquisition and body composition. Cell. 2010;142:309-19 pubmed publisher osteoblasts controls osteoblast development and osteocalcin expression by suppressing the Runx2 inhibitor Twist2. Mice lacking IR in osteoblasts have low circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin and reduced bone acquisition ..
  13. Ranghini E, Dressler G. Evidence for intermediate mesoderm and kidney progenitor cell specification by Pax2 and PTIP dependent mechanisms. Dev Biol. 2015;399:296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that Pax2 specifies the intermediate mesoderm and renal epithelial cells through epigenetic mechanisms and in part by repressing paraxial mesodermal fate. ..
  14. Guo X, Day T, Jiang X, Garrett Beal L, Topol L, Yang Y. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is sufficient and necessary for synovial joint formation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2404-17 pubmed
    ..Wnt4, Wnt14, and Wnt16 may play redundant roles in synovial joint induction by signaling through the beta-catenin-mediated canonical Wnt pathway. ..
  15. Lichtenberger B, Mastrogiannaki M, Watt F. Epidermal β-catenin activation remodels the dermis via paracrine signalling to distinct fibroblast lineages. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10537 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the dermal response to epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling depends on distinct fibroblast lineages responding to different paracrine signals. ..
  16. Li M, Li C, Liu Y, Xing Y, Hu L, Borok Z, et al. Mesodermal deletion of transforming growth factor-beta receptor II disrupts lung epithelial morphogenesis: cross-talk between TGF-beta and Sonic hedgehog pathways. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo evidence for a reciprocal and novel mode of cross-communication between Shh and TGF-beta pathways during embryonic development. ..
  17. Deng Y, Wu A, Li P, Li G, Qin L, Song H, et al. Yap1 Regulates Multiple Steps of Chondrocyte Differentiation during Skeletal Development and Bone Repair. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2224-2237 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our work provides insights into the mechanism by which Yap1 regulates endochondral ossification, which may help the development of therapeutic treatment for bone regeneration. ..
  18. Geske M, Zhang X, Patel K, Ornitz D, Stappenbeck T. Fgf9 signaling regulates small intestinal elongation and mesenchymal development. Development. 2008;135:2959-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the interaction of FGF and TGFbeta signaling pathways in the intestinal mesenchyme could represent novel targets for future short bowel syndrome therapies. ..
  19. Wang W, Strecker S, Liu Y, Wang L, Assanah F, Smith S, et al. Connective Tissue Growth Factor reporter mice label a subpopulation of mesenchymal progenitor cells that reside in the trabecular bone region. Bone. 2015;71:76-88 pubmed publisher
    ..culture, CTGF reporter expression and endogenous CTGF expression marked the same cell types as those labeled using Twist2-Cre and Osterix-Cre fate mapping approaches, which previously had been shown to identify mesenchymal progenitors ..
  20. Huh S, Ornitz D. Beta-catenin deficiency causes DiGeorge syndrome-like phenotypes through regulation of Tbx1. Development. 2010;137:1137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Wnt-beta-catenin signaling as a crucial upstream regulator of a Tbx1-Fgf8 signaling pathway and suggest that factors that affect Wnt-beta-catenin signaling could modify the incidence and severity of DGS...
  21. Snowball J, Ambalavanan M, Cornett B, Lang R, Whitsett J, Sinner D. Mesenchymal Wnt signaling promotes formation of sternum and thoracic body wall. Dev Biol. 2015;401:264-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Wls(f/f);Dermo1(Cre/+) embryos died during mid-gestation. At E13...
  22. Chivukula R, Shi G, Acharya A, Mills E, Zeitels L, Anandam J, et al. An essential mesenchymal function for miR-143/145 in intestinal epithelial regeneration. Cell. 2014;157:1104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide important insights into the regulation of epithelial wound healing and argue against a cell-autonomous tumor suppressor role for miR-143/145 in colon cancer...
  23. Droscha C, Diegel C, Ethen N, Burgers T, McDonald M, Maupin K, et al. Osteoblast-specific deletion of Hrpt2/Cdc73 results in high bone mass and increased bone turnover. Bone. 2017;98:68-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Homozygous deletion of Cdc73 via the Dermo1-Cre driver resulted in embryos which lacked mesenchymal organ development of internal organs, including the heart ..
  24. Liu S, Young S, Varisco B. Dynamic expression of chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 over the course of murine lung development. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L1104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data defines the temporal-spatial pattern of elastin remodeling during lung development, demonstrates an association of this remodeling with CELA1, and supports a role for elastin remodeling in regulating angiogenesis. ..
  25. Atit R, Sgaier S, Mohamed O, Taketo M, Dufort D, Joyner A, et al. Beta-catenin activation is necessary and sufficient to specify the dorsal dermal fate in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2006;296:164-76 pubmed
    ..When the essential Wnt transducer beta-catenin is mutated in En1 cells, it results in the loss of Dermo1-expressing dorsal dermal progenitors and dermis...
  26. Sharif M, Sosic D, Rothlin C, Kelly E, Lemke G, Olson E, et al. Twist mediates suppression of inflammation by type I IFNs and Axl. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1891-901 pubmed
    ..These results implicate Twist proteins in regulation of TNFalpha production by antiinflammatory factors and pathways, and provide a mechanism by which type I IFNs and Axl receptors suppress inflammatory cytokine production. ..
  27. De Langhe S, Carraro G, Tefft D, Li C, Xu X, Chai Y, et al. Formation and differentiation of multiple mesenchymal lineages during lung development is regulated by beta-catenin signaling. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1516 pubmed publisher
    ..To define the role of ss-catenin signaling in these processes, we used a Dermo1(Twist2)(Cre/+) line to target a floxed beta-catenin allele, throughout the embryonic mesenchyme...
  28. Haberland M, Mokalled M, Montgomery R, Olson E. Epigenetic control of skull morphogenesis by histone deacetylase 8. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal how the identity and patterning of vertebrate-specific portions of the skull are epigenetically controlled by a histone deacetylase. ..
  29. Sala F, del Moral P, Tiozzo C, Alam D, Warburton D, Grikscheit T, et al. FGF10 controls the patterning of the tracheal cartilage rings via Shh. Development. 2011;138:273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that disturbed balances of Fgf10 and Shh may explain a subset of human tracheomalacia without tracheo-esophageal fistula or tracheal atresia...
  30. Tanaka T, Davey R, Lan Q, Zandstra P, Stanford W. Development of a gene-trap vector with a highly sensitive fluorescent protein reporter system for expression profiling. Genesis. 2008;46:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, tetraploid aggregations using a clone encoding a gene-trap insertion into Twist2 demonstrated identical spatiotemporal expression between Venus and Twist2...
  31. Yin Y, White A, Huh S, Hilton M, Kanazawa H, Long F, et al. An FGF-WNT gene regulatory network controls lung mesenchyme development. Dev Biol. 2008;319:426-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, both FGF and WNT signaling pathways function to sustain mesenchymal growth and coordinate epithelial morphogenesis during the pseudoglandular stage of lung development. ..
  32. Ren S, Luo Y, Chen H, Warburton D, Lam H, Wang L, et al. Inactivation of Tsc2 in Mesoderm-Derived Cells Causes Polycystic Kidney Lesions and Impairs Lung Alveolarization. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:3261-3272 pubmed publisher
    ..We deleted Tsc2 specifically in mesoderm-derived mesenchymal cells of multiple organs in mice using the Dermo1-Cre driver...
  33. Watkins M, Grimston S, Norris J, Guillotin B, Shaw A, Beniash E, et al. Osteoblast connexin43 modulates skeletal architecture by regulating both arms of bone remodeling. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..the function of Cx43 at early steps of osteogenesis and its role in the ODDD skeletal phenotype, we have used the Dermo1 promoter to drive Gja1 ablation or induce an ODDD mutation in the chondro-osteogenic linage...
  34. Ishikawa T, Shimizu T, Ueki A, Yamaguchi S, Onishi N, Sugihara E, et al. Twist2 functions as a tumor suppressor in murine osteosarcoma cells. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:880-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that expression of the gene for Twist2 is downregulated in human osteosarcoma and correlates inversely with tumorigenic potential in mouse osteosarcoma...
  35. Tajbakhsh S, Rocancourt D, Buckingham M. Muscle progenitor cells failing to respond to positional cues adopt non-myogenic fates in myf-5 null mice. Nature. 1996;384:266-70 pubmed
    ..In its absence, muscle progenitors, having activated myf-5, remain multipotent and differentiate into other somitic derivatives according to their local environment. ..
  36. Panda S, Guntur A, Polusani S, Fajardo R, Gakunga P, Roman L, et al. Conditional deletion of cytochrome p450 reductase in osteoprogenitor cells affects long bone and skull development in mice recapitulating antley-bixler syndrome: role of a redox enzyme in development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75638 pubmed publisher
    ..POR during bone development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse (CKO) by cross breeding Por (lox/lox) and Dermo1 Cre mice...
  37. Wu M, Li C, Zhu G, Wang Y, Jules J, Lu Y, et al. Deletion of core-binding factor ? (Cbf?) in mesenchymal progenitor cells provides new insights into Cbf?/Runxs complex function in cartilage and bone development. Bone. 2014;65:49-59 pubmed publisher
    ..A mesenchymal-specific Cbf? CKO mouse model was generated by using the Dermo1-Cre mouse line to specifically delete Cbf? in mesenchymal stem cells, which give rise to osteoblasts and ..
  38. Zhong Z, Zahatnansky J, Snider J, Van Wieren E, Diegel C, Williams B. Wntless spatially regulates bone development through β-catenin-dependent and independent mechanisms. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:1347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..mice with strains expressing cre recombinase behind the following promoters: Osteocalcin, Collagen 2a1, or Dermo1. Ex vivo µCT and whole-mount skeletal staining were performed to examine skeletal mineralization...
  39. Meng T, Huang Y, Wang S, Zhang H, Dechow P, Wang X, et al. Twist1 Is Essential for Tooth Morphogenesis and Odontoblast Differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:29593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..To better delineate its roles in tooth development, we generated Twist1 conditional knockout embryos (Twist2(Cre) (/+);Twist1(fl/fl)) by breeding Twist1 floxed mice (Twist1(fl/fl)) with Twist2-Cre recombinase knockin mice (..
  40. Tran T, Jarrell A, Zentner G, Welsh A, Brownell I, Scacheri P, et al. Role of canonical Wnt signaling/ß-catenin via Dermo1 in cranial dermal cell development. Development. 2010;137:3973-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Wnt signaling/?-catenin is absolutely required and sufficient for Dermo1 expression and dermal cell identity in the cranium...
  41. Yen H, Ting M, Maxson R. Jagged1 functions downstream of Twist1 in the specification of the coronal suture and the formation of a boundary between osteogenic and non-osteogenic cells. Dev Biol. 2010;347:258-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus suggest that Jagged1 is an effector of Twist1 in coronal suture development. ..
  42. Bildsoe H, Loebel D, Jones V, Chen Y, Behringer R, Tam P. Requirement for Twist1 in frontonasal and skull vault development in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2009;331:176-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the formation of other mesodermal skeletal derivatives such as the occipital bones and most of the chondrocranium are not affected by the loss of Twist1 in the neural crest cells. ..
  43. Tang Y, Feinberg T, Keller E, Li X, Weiss S. Snail/Slug binding interactions with YAP/TAZ control skeletal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:917-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that SSCs mobilize Snail/Slug-YAP/TAZ complexes to control stem cell function. ..
  44. Kolpakova Hart E, Jinnin M, Hou B, Fukai N, Olsen B. Kinesin-2 controls development and patterning of the vertebrate skeleton by Hedgehog- and Gli3-dependent mechanisms. Dev Biol. 2007;309:273-84 pubmed
    ..However, the motor appears to be required for the efficient cleavage of the full-length Gli3 transcription factor into a repressor form...
  45. Xu W, Liu C, Kaartinen V, Chen H, Lu C, Zhang W, et al. TACE in perinatal mouse lung epithelial cells promotes lung saccular formation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L953-63 pubmed publisher
  46. Boggs K, Venkatesan N, Mederacke I, Komatsu Y, Stice S, Schwabe R, et al. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0146475 pubmed publisher
    ..connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT ..
  47. Abler L, Mansour S, Sun X. Conditional gene inactivation reveals roles for Fgf10 and Fgfr2 in establishing a normal pattern of epithelial branching in the mouse lung. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1999-2013 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that both Fgf10 and Fgfr2 are required for a normal branching program and for proper proximal-distal patterning of the lung. ..
  48. Joeng K, Schumacher C, Zylstra Diegel C, Long F, Williams B. Lrp5 and Lrp6 redundantly control skeletal development in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2011;359:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Lrp5 and 6 redundantly control embryonic skeletal development, likely through ?-catenin signaling. ..
  49. Bérubé Simard F, Jeannotte L. Hoxa5/Cre transgenic mice: novel tools for regional deletion along the anterior-posterior axis. Genesis. 2014;52:149-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Hoxa5/Cre mouse lines provide novel genetic tools for gene function analysis in defined tissues along the anterior-posterior axis. ..
  50. Matthews J, Sala F, Speer A, Li Y, Warburton D, Grikscheit T. Mesenchymal-specific inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) attenuates growth in neonatal mice. J Surg Res. 2012;172:40-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This mouse is a useful tool to test the function of VEGF in somatic growth. ..
  51. Hamilton K, Chatterji P, Lundsmith E, Andres S, Giroux V, Hicks P, et al. Loss of Stromal IMP1 Promotes a Tumorigenic Microenvironment in the Colon. Mol Cancer Res. 2015;13:1478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor-suppressive role of stromal IMP1 and its ability to modulate protumorigenic factors suggest that IMP1 status is important for the initiation and growth of epithelial tumors. ..
  52. Domyan E, Branchfield K, Gibson D, Naiche L, Lewandoski M, Tessier Lavigne M, et al. Roundabout receptors are critical for foregut separation from the body wall. Dev Cell. 2013;24:52-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In humans, genomic lesions containing Robo genes have been documented in CDH. Our findings suggest that separation of the foregut from the body wall is genetically controlled and that defects in this event may contribute to CDH. ..
  53. Li J, Wang Q, Cui Y, Yang X, Li Y, Zhang X, et al. Suppressor of Fused Is Required for Determining Digit Number and Identity via Gli3/Fgfs/Gremlin. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128006 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide evidence that Sufu is involved in the genetic network that restricts the posterior expression of Gli2/3/Hand2 and Gremlin/Fgf in limb bud patterning. ..
  54. Liu N, Garry G, Li S, Bezprozvannaya S, Sanchez Ortiz E, Chen B, et al. A Twist2-dependent progenitor cell contributes to adult skeletal muscle. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:202-213 pubmed publisher
    ..By lineage tracing of progenitor cells expressing the Twist2 (Tw2) transcription factor in mice, we discovered a myogenic lineage that resides outside the basal lamina of ..
  55. Addison W, Fu M, Yang H, Lin Z, Nagano K, Gori F, et al. Direct transcriptional repression of Zfp423 by Zfp521 mediates a bone morphogenic protein-dependent osteoblast versus adipocyte lineage commitment switch. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3076-85 pubmed publisher
  56. Sharabi A, Aldrich M, Sosic D, Olson E, Friedman A, Lee S, et al. Twist-2 controls myeloid lineage development and function. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e316 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study reveals the critical role of Twist-2 in regulating the development of myeloid lineages, as well as the function and inflammatory responses of mature myeloid cells. ..
  57. Garside V, Cullum R, Alder O, Lu D, Vander Werff R, Bilenky M, et al. SOX9 modulates the expression of key transcription factors required for heart valve development. Development. 2015;142:4340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data identify SOX9-coordinated transcriptional hierarchies that control cell proliferation and differentiation during valve formation. ..
  58. Branco M, King M, Perez García V, Bogutz A, Caley M, Fineberg E, et al. Maternal DNA Methylation Regulates Early Trophoblast Development. Dev Cell. 2016;36:152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that maternal DNA methylation controls multiple differentiation-related and physiological processes in trophoblast via both imprinting-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  59. Shim J, Greenblatt M, Singh A, Brady N, Hu D, Drapp R, et al. Administration of BMP2/7 in utero partially reverses Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-like skeletal defects induced by Pdk1 or Cbp mutations in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:91-106 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings illustrate the in vivo function of the PDK1-AKT-CREB/CBP pathway in bone formation and provide proof of principle for in utero growth factor supplementation as a potential therapy for skeletal dysplasias. ..
  60. McCoy A, Herington J, Stouch A, Mukherjee A, Lakhdari O, Blackwell T, et al. IKKβ Activation in the Fetal Lung Mesenchyme Alters Lung Vascular Development but Not Airway Morphogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2635-2644 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the role of the NF-κB pathway specifically in lung mesenchyme, we utilized the mesenchymal Twist2-Cre to drive expression of a constitutively active inhibitor of NF-κB kinase subunit β (IKKβca) mutant in ..
  61. Li R, Herriges J, Chen L, Mecham R, Sun X. FGF receptors control alveolar elastogenesis. Development. 2017;144:4563-4572 pubmed publisher
  62. Houzelstein D, Cheraud Y, Auda Boucher G, Fontaine Pérus J, Robert B. The expression of the homeobox gene Msx1 reveals two populations of dermal progenitor cells originating from the somites. Development. 2000;127:2155-64 pubmed
    ..Msx1 expression was investigated in the context of the onset of dermis formation monitored by the Dermo1 gene expression...
  63. Chen D, Jarrell A, Guo C, Lang R, Atit R. Dermal ?-catenin activity in response to epidermal Wnt ligands is required for fibroblast proliferation and hair follicle initiation. Development. 2012;139:1522-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal functional roles for dermal Wnt signaling/?-catenin in fibroblast proliferation and in the epidermal hair follicle initiation program. ..
  64. Lin C, Yin Y, Bell S, Veith G, Chen H, Huh S, et al. Delineating a conserved genetic cassette promoting outgrowth of body appendages. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003231 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that a conserved WNT-SP8-FGF8 genetic cassette is employed by both appendages for promoting outgrowth, and suggest a deep homology shared by the limb and external genitalia. ..
  65. Shekaran A, Shoemaker J, Kavanaugh T, Lin A, LaPlaca M, Fan Y, et al. The effect of conditional inactivation of beta 1 integrins using twist 2 Cre, Osterix Cre and osteocalcin Cre lines on skeletal phenotype. Bone. 2014;68:131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To further investigate the role of β1 integrins on skeletal phenotype, we used the Twist2-Cre, Osterix-Cre and osteocalcin-Cre lines to generate conditional β1 integrin deletions, where Cre is ..
  66. Arnold M, Kim Y, Czubryt M, Phan D, McAnally J, Qi X, et al. MEF2C transcription factor controls chondrocyte hypertrophy and bone development. Dev Cell. 2007;12:377-89 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal unexpected commonalities in the mechanisms governing muscle, cardiovascular, and bone development with respect to their regulation by MEF2 and class II HDACs. ..
  67. Bildsoe H, Fan X, Wilkie E, Ashoti A, Jones V, Power M, et al. Transcriptional targets of TWIST1 in the cranial mesoderm regulate cell-matrix interactions and mesenchyme maintenance. Dev Biol. 2016;418:189-203 pubmed publisher
  68. Bérubé Simard F, Prudhomme C, Jeannotte L. YY1 acts as a transcriptional activator of Hoxa5 gene expression in mouse organogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93989 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, YY1 acts as a positive regulator of Hoxa5 expression in the developing lung and gut. Our data also support a role for YY1 in the coordinated expression of Hox genes for correct organogenesis. ..
  69. Huang H, Yang X, Bao M, Cao H, Miao X, Zhang X, et al. Ablation of the Sox11 Gene Results in Clefting of the Secondary Palate Resembling the Pierre Robin Sequence. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the palate defects presented in the Sox11 loss mutant mimic the clefting in the Pierre Robin sequence in humans. ..
  70. Jiang M, Zheng C, Shou P, Li N, Cao G, Chen Q, et al. SHP1 Regulates Bone Mass by Directing Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation. Cell Rep. 2016;16:769-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice, in which SHP1 was deleted in MSCs using SHP1(fl/fl)Dermo1-cre, displayed significantly decreased bone mass and increased adipose tissue...
  71. Al Alam D, Sala F, Baptista S, Galzote R, Danopoulos S, Tiozzo C, et al. FGF9-Pitx2-FGF10 signaling controls cecal formation in mice. Dev Biol. 2012;369:340-8 pubmed publisher
  72. Zhu X, Zhu H, Zhang L, Huang S, Cao J, Ma G, et al. Wls-mediated Wnts differentially regulate distal limb patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;365:328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a comprehensive view of the role of Wnts in limb patterning and tissue morphogenesis...
  73. Choudhary B, Zhou J, Li P, Thomas S, Kaartinen V, Sucov H. Absence of TGFbeta signaling in embryonic vascular smooth muscle leads to reduced lysyl oxidase expression, impaired elastogenesis, and aneurysm. Genesis. 2009;47:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In mutant tissue, lysyl oxidase expression was substantially reduced, which may contribute to the observed pathology. ..
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