Gene Symbol: Tubb4a
Description: tubulin, beta 4A class IVA
Alias: AI325297, M(beta)4, Tubb, Tubb4, tubulin beta-4A chain, tubulin beta-4 chain, tubulin, beta 4
Species: mouse
Products:     Tubb4a

Top Publications

  1. Takaki E, Fujimoto M, Nakahari T, Yonemura S, Miyata Y, Hayashida N, et al. Heat shock transcription factor 1 is required for maintenance of ciliary beating in mice. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37285-92 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that HSF1 is required to maintain ciliary beating in postnatal mice, probably by regulating constitutive expression of Hsp90 that is important for tubulin polymerization. ..
  2. Xu B, Chen C, Chen H, Zheng S, Bringas P, Xu M, et al. Smad1 and its target gene Wif1 coordinate BMP and Wnt signaling activities to regulate fetal lung development. Development. 2011;138:925-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a novel regulatory loop of Bmp4-Smad1-Wif1-Wnt/?-catenin in coordinating BMP and Wnt pathways to control fetal lung development. ..
  3. Shu W, Lu M, Zhang Y, Tucker P, Zhou D, Morrisey E. Foxp2 and Foxp1 cooperatively regulate lung and esophagus development. Development. 2007;134:1991-2000 pubmed
  4. Mori M, Mahoney J, Stupnikov M, Paez Cortez J, Szymaniak A, Varelas X, et al. Notch3-Jagged signaling controls the pool of undifferentiated airway progenitors. Development. 2015;142:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of human lungs showing similar abnormalities and decreased NOTCH3 expression in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suggests an involvement of NOTCH3-dependent events in the pathogenesis of this condition. ..
  5. Li C, Li A, Xing Y, Li M, Chan B, Ouyang R, et al. Apc deficiency alters pulmonary epithelial cell fate and inhibits Nkx2.1 via triggering TGF-beta signaling. Dev Biol. 2013;378:13-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our studies revealed an important mechanism involving Apc and TGF-beta signaling in regulating the key transcriptional factor, Nkx2.1, for lung epithelial progenitor cell fate determination. ..
  6. Gerhardt C, Lier J, Kuschel S, Ruther U. The ciliary protein Ftm is required for ventricular wall and septal development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57545 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study suggests ciliopathy as a cause of VSDs. ..
  7. Li A, Xing Y, Chan B, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Borok Z, et al. Cell type-specific expression of adenomatous polyposis coli in lung development, injury, and repair. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2288-97 pubmed publisher
    ..nonprogenitor cells suggests a functional role in cell-type specification. Subcellular localization changes of Apc in response to naphthalene injury suggest a role in cell shape and cell migration. ..
  8. Lewis S, Lee M, Cowan N. Five mouse tubulin isotypes and their regulated expression during development. J Cell Biol. 1985;101:852-61 pubmed
    ..five mouse tubulin cloned cDNAs, two (M alpha 1 and M alpha 2) that encode alpha-tubulin and three (M beta 2, M beta 4, and M beta 5) that encode beta-tubulin...
  9. Brockschnieder D, Sabanay H, Riethmacher D, Peles E. Ermin, a myelinating oligodendrocyte-specific protein that regulates cell morphology. J Neurosci. 2006;26:757-62 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that Ermin is a novel marker of myelinating oligodendroglia and suggest that it plays a role in cytoskeletal rearrangements during the late wrapping and/or compaction phases of myelinogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Horton S, Meredith A, Richardson J, Johnson J. Correct coordination of neuronal differentiation events in ventral forebrain requires the bHLH factor MASH1. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1999;14:355-69 pubmed
    ..Taken together, an essential role for MASH1 in the coordination of events required for correct cell-type specification and timing of differentiation during neural development in ventral forebrain regions is demonstrated. ..
  2. Maricich S, Herrup K. Pax-2 expression defines a subset of GABAergic interneurons and their precursors in the developing murine cerebellum. J Neurobiol. 1999;41:281-94 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data support the hypothesis that the basket and stellate cells arise from neuronally restricted, migratory precursors located in the early postnatal cerebellar white matter. ..
  3. Tajbakhsh S, Buckingham M. Lineage restriction of the myogenic conversion factor myf-5 in the brain. Development. 1995;121:4077-83 pubmed
    ..These observations raise questions about the role of myf-5 in neurogenesis as well as myogenesis, and introduce a new lineage marker for the developing brain. ..
  4. Johnson K, Disney J, Wyatt C, Reeves R. Expression of mRNAs encoding mammalian chromosomal proteins HMG-I and HMG-Y during cellular proliferation. Exp Cell Res. 1990;187:69-76 pubmed
    ..The proportion of HMG-I to HMG-Y mRNAs was greater in the human than in the murine cells examined, appeared to be greater in proliferating than in quiescent cells, and did not always correspond with the HMG-I to HMG-Y protein ratio. ..
  5. Huang Y, Kapere Ochieng J, Kempen M, Munck A, Swagemakers S, van Ijcken W, et al. Hypoxia inducible factor 3? plays a critical role in alveolarization and distal epithelial cell differentiation during mouse lung development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57695 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Hif3? affected the expression of genes not typically involved in the hypoxia response, providing evidence for a novel function of Hif3? beyond the hypoxia response. ..
  6. Tichelaar J, Lim L, Costa R, Whitsett J. HNF-3/forkhead homologue-4 influences lung morphogenesis and respiratory epithelial cell differentiation in vivo. Dev Biol. 1999;213:405-17 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression of HFH-4 in developing mouse lung altered epithelial cell differentiation and morphology, restricting the expression of markers typical of nonciliated cells of the distal lung parenchyma. ..
  7. Menezes J, Luskin M. Expression of neuron-specific tubulin defines a novel population in the proliferative layers of the developing telencephalon. J Neurosci. 1994;14:5399-416 pubmed
    ..Although the fate of the TuJ1-positive cells that reside in the proliferative zones remains unclear, their tangentially aligned orientation and their distribution suggest that they migrate independent of radial glial fibers. ..
  8. Mary J, Redeker V, Le Caer J, Prome J, Rossier J. Class I and IVa beta-tubulin isotypes expressed in adult mouse brain are glutamylated. FEBS Lett. 1994;353:89-94 pubmed
    ..Anionic peptides were then characterized by amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. We show that brain-specific class IVa and constitutive class I beta-tubulin isotypes can be glutamylated, at Glu434 and Glu441, respectively. ..
  9. Christofori G, Naik P, Hanahan D. Deregulation of both imprinted and expressed alleles of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene during beta-cell tumorigenesis. Nat Genet. 1995;10:196-201 pubmed
  10. Fukumoto M, Roninson I. Detection of amplified sequences in mammalian DNA by in-gel renaturation and SINE hybridization. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1986;12:611-23 pubmed
    ..No tissue-specific DNA amplification has been detected, but comparison of B2-containing repeated fragments between three inbred mouse lines revealed strain-specific polymorphism. ..
  11. Tian J, Mahmood R, Hnasko R, Locker J. Loss of Nkx2.8 deregulates progenitor cells in the large airways and leads to dysplasia. Cancer Res. 2006;66:10399-407 pubmed
    ..8-/- mice. Increased proliferation and an altered progenitor relationship caused progressive bronchial pathology, which manifested as widespread dysplasia in the large airways of 1-year-old Nkx2.8-/- mice. ..
  12. Neubüser A, Koseki H, Balling R. Characterization and developmental expression of Pax9, a paired-box-containing gene related to Pax1. Dev Biol. 1995;170:701-16 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that both Pax9 and -1 may act in parallel during morphogenesis of the vertebral column. ..
  13. Breuss M, Heng J, Poirier K, Tian G, Jaglin X, Qu Z, et al. Mutations in the ?-tubulin gene TUBB5 cause microcephaly with structural brain abnormalities. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insight into the functional repertoire of the tubulin gene family, specifically implicating TUBB5 in embryonic neurogenesis and microcephaly...
  14. Li S, Xiang M. Foxn4 influences alveologenesis during lung development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1512-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data together suggest that Foxn4 may have a non-cell-autonomous role critical for alveologenesis during lung development. ..
  15. Cleveland D, Lopata M, MacDonald R, Cowan N, Rutter W, Kirschner M. Number and evolutionary conservation of alpha- and beta-tubulin and cytoplasmic beta- and gamma-actin genes using specific cloned cDNA probes. Cell. 1980;20:95-105 pubmed
  16. Tole S, Christian C, Grove E. Early specification and autonomous development of cortical fields in the mouse hippocampus. Development. 1997;124:4959-70 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the sources of signals that specify hippocampal field identity lie close to the hippocampal poles, and that the signals operate first on cells at the poles, then move inwards. ..
  17. Tichelaar J, Wert S, Costa R, Kimura S, Whitsett J. HNF-3/forkhead homologue-4 (HFH-4) is expressed in ciliated epithelial cells in the developing mouse lung. J Histochem Cytochem. 1999;47:823-32 pubmed
    ..Co-localization of HFH-4 and beta-tubulin IV staining in various tissues during mouse development supports a role for HFH-4 in the differentiation of ciliated cell lineages. ..
  18. Sun J, Chen H, Chen C, Whitsett J, Mishina Y, Bringas P, et al. Prenatal lung epithelial cell-specific abrogation of Alk3-bone morphogenetic protein signaling causes neonatal respiratory distress by disrupting distal airway formation. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:571-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data suggest that deficiency of appropriate BMP signaling in lung epithelial cells results in prenatal lung malformation, neonatal atelectasis, and respiratory failure. ..
  19. Tiozzo C, De Langhe S, Yu M, Londhe V, Carraro G, Li M, et al. Deletion of Pten expands lung epithelial progenitor pools and confers resistance to airway injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Pten has a pivotal role in lung stem cell homeostasis, cell differentiation, and consequently resistance to lung injury. ..
  20. Park K, Wells J, Zorn A, Wert S, Whitsett J. Sox17 influences the differentiation of respiratory epithelial cells. Dev Biol. 2006;294:192-202 pubmed
    ..Sites of expression and the effects of Sox17 in vivo and in vitro are consistent with a role for Sox17 or other members of the Sox family of transcription factors in differentiation of the conducting airway epithelium. ..
  21. Kurosu T, Hernandez A, Wolk J, Liu J, Schwartz J. Alpha/beta-tubulin are A kinase anchor proteins for type I PKA in neurons. Brain Res. 2009;1251:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that the alpha/beta-tubulin anchoring type I PKA may have an important role in the formation of long-term synaptic plasticity. ..
  22. Timsit S, Martinez S, Allinquant B, Peyron F, Puelles L, Zalc B. Oligodendrocytes originate in a restricted zone of the embryonic ventral neural tube defined by DM-20 mRNA expression. J Neurosci. 1995;15:1012-24 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations suggest that expression of the DM-20 transcript is an early marker of commitment to the oligodendrocyte lineage, and that oligodendrocyte precursors originate in a ventrally restricted region. ..
  23. Krolewski R, Packard A, Jang W, Wildner H, Schwob J. Ascl1 (Mash1) knockout perturbs differentiation of nonneuronal cells in olfactory epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51737 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, persistent neurogenic failure distorts the differentiation of multiple other cell types in the olfactory epithelium. ..
  24. Snitow M, Li S, Morley M, Rathi K, Lu M, Kadzik R, et al. Ezh2 represses the basal cell lineage during lung endoderm development. Development. 2015;142:108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings show that Ezh2 restricts the basal cell lineage during normal lung endoderm development to allow the proper patterning of epithelial lineages during lung formation. ..
  25. Burmeister M, Novak J, Liang M, Basu S, Ploder L, Hawes N, et al. Ocular retardation mouse caused by Chx10 homeobox null allele: impaired retinal progenitor proliferation and bipolar cell differentiation. Nat Genet. 1996;12:376-84 pubmed
    ..off ..
  26. Gassmann M, Casagranda F, Orioli D, Simon H, Lai C, Klein R, et al. Aberrant neural and cardiac development in mice lacking the ErbB4 neuregulin receptor. Nature. 1995;378:390-4 pubmed
  27. Morin X, Cremer H, Hirsch M, Kapur R, Goridis C, Brunet J. Defects in sensory and autonomic ganglia and absence of locus coeruleus in mice deficient for the homeobox gene Phox2a. Neuron. 1997;18:411-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Phox2a appears to regulate conventional differentiation traits and the ability of neurons to respond to essential survival factors. ..
  28. Blatt E, Yan X, Wuerffel M, Hamilos D, Brody S. Forkhead transcription factor HFH-4 expression is temporally related to ciliogenesis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1999;21:168-76 pubmed
  29. Schneider J, Erickson R, Hanash S. Mouse testicular protein variants, including tubulin, detected by isoelectrofocusing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Genet Res. 1987;50:225-33 pubmed
  30. Rienhoff H, Groudine M. Regulation of amyloid A gene expression in cultured cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:3710-6 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that conditioned medium contains a factor(s) that acts directly on hepatocytes to regulate SAA3 mRNA processing. ..
  31. Guzun R, Karu Varikmaa M, Gonzalez Granillo M, Kuznetsov A, Michel L, Cottet Rousselle C, et al. Mitochondria-cytoskeleton interaction: distribution of ?-tubulins in cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:458-69 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, absence of both ?II-tubulin and MtCK in HL-1 cells can be associated with their more glycolysis-dependent energy metabolism which is typical for cancer cells (Warburg effect). ..
  32. Simerly C, Hecht N, Goldberg E, Schatten G. Tracing the incorporation of the sperm tail in the mouse zygote and early embryo using an anti-testicular alpha-tubulin antibody. Dev Biol. 1993;158:536-48 pubmed
  33. Briscoe J, Sussel L, Serup P, HARTIGAN O CONNOR D, Jessell T, Rubenstein J, et al. Homeobox gene Nkx2.2 and specification of neuronal identity by graded Sonic hedgehog signalling. Nature. 1999;398:622-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, Nkx2.2 has an essential role in interpreting graded Shh signals and selecting neuronal identity. ..
  34. Adams R, Sato K, Shimada S, Tohyama M, Puschel A, Betz H. Gene structure and glial expression of the glycine transporter GlyT1 in embryonic and adult rodents. J Neurosci. 1995;15:2524-32 pubmed
    ..In the adult rat brain and spinal cord, GlyT1 hybridization signals were found exclusively in glial cells. Our data indicate that GlyT1 is an early marker of neural development and encodes glia-specific transporter proteins. ..
  35. Lee K, Simon H, Chen H, Bates B, Hung M, Hauser C. Requirement for neuregulin receptor erbB2 in neural and cardiac development. Nature. 1995;378:394-8 pubmed
    ..DiI retrograde tracing revealed that the development of motor nerves was also compromised. Our results demonstrate the importance of erbB2 in neural and cardiac development. ..
  36. Cascio S, Zaret K. Hepatocyte differentiation initiates during endodermal-mesenchymal interactions prior to liver formation. Development. 1991;113:217-25 pubmed
  37. Daniely Y, Liao G, Dixon D, Linnoila R, Lori A, Randell S, et al. Critical role of p63 in the development of a normal esophageal and tracheobronchial epithelium. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;287:C171-81 pubmed
  38. Hormi Carver K, Shi W, Liu C, Berndt N. Protein phosphatase 1alpha is required for murine lung growth and morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:791-801 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PP1alpha is required for branching morphogenesis and differentiation. ..
  39. Turcatel G, Rubin N, Menke D, Martin G, Shi W, Warburton D. Lung mesenchymal expression of Sox9 plays a critical role in tracheal development. BMC Biol. 2013;11:117 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox9 is expressed in both distal lung epithelium and proximal lung mesenchyme. Here, we investigated the effect of lung mesenchyme-specific inducible deletion of Sox9 during murine lung development...
  40. Maruyama Y, Arahara K, Kinoshita E, Arai K. AP-1-mediated expression of brain-specific class IVa β-tubulin in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. J Vet Med Sci. 2014;76:1609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these phenotypes, expression of class IVa β-tubulin isotype (TUBB4a) was particularly enhanced in neural differentiation...
  41. Antony N, McDougall A, Mantamadiotis T, Cole T, Bird A. Creb1 regulates late stage mammalian lung development via respiratory epithelial and mesenchymal-independent mechanisms. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25569 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our results suggest that the requirement of Creb1 for normal mammalian lung morphogenesis is not dependent upon its expression in lung epithelium or mesenchyme, nor its role in musculoskeletal development. ..
  42. Wang D, Villasante A, Lewis S, Cowan N. The mammalian beta-tubulin repertoire: hematopoietic expression of a novel, heterologous beta-tubulin isotype. J Cell Biol. 1986;103:1903-10 pubmed
    ..Comparison of M beta 1 and M beta 3 with the completed (M beta 4, M beta 5) or extended (M beta 2) sequence of three previously described beta-tubulin isotypes shows that each ..
  43. Gates M, Thomas L, Howard E, Laywell E, Sajin B, Faissner A, et al. Cell and molecular analysis of the developing and adult mouse subventricular zone of the cerebral hemispheres. J Comp Neurol. 1995;361:249-66 pubmed
  44. Xiang M, Gan L, Zhou L, Klein W, Nathans J. Targeted deletion of the mouse POU domain gene Brn-3a causes selective loss of neurons in the brainstem and trigeminal ganglion, uncoordinated limb movement, and impaired suckling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11950-5 pubmed
  45. Miller L, Wert S, Whitsett J. Immunolocalization of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in developing mouse lung. J Histochem Cytochem. 2001;49:1593-604 pubmed
    ..These results support the concept that Shh plays a distinct regulatory role in the lung later in morphogenesis, when it may influence formation or cytodifferentiation of the conducting airways. ..
  46. Gillardon F. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 phosphorylates brain tubulin-beta isoforms and modulates microtubule stability--a point of convergence in parkinsonian neurodegeneration?. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that LRRK2(G2019S)-induced neurodegeneration in Parkinsonian brains may be partly mediated by increased phosphorylation of tubulin-beta and constraining of microtubule dynamics...
  47. Reginelli A, Wang Y, Sassoon D, Muneoka K. Digit tip regeneration correlates with regions of Msx1 (Hox 7) expression in fetal and newborn mice. Development. 1995;121:1065-76 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that the expression of Msx genes are important for digit cells to initiate and participate in a regenerative response. ..
  48. Crisera C, Maldonado T, Kadison A, Li M, Alkasab S, Longaker M, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 in the developing mouse pancreas: a potential regulator of exocrine differentiation. Differentiation. 2000;65:255-9 pubmed
    ..Upregulated TGF-beta 1 expression at the end of gestation may be important for islet formation, and it may be necessary to inhibit continued proliferation and differentiation of pluripotent cells within the pancreatic ductal epithelium. ..
  49. Marcus R, Mason C. The first retinal axon growth in the mouse optic chiasm: axon patterning and the cellular environment. J Neurosci. 1995;15:6389-402 pubmed
  50. Huang T, You Y, Spoor M, Richer E, Kudva V, Paige R, et al. Foxj1 is required for apical localization of ezrin in airway epithelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4935-45 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Foxj1 regulates ERM proteins differentially to selectively direct the apical localization of ezrin for the organization of multi-protein complexes in apical membranes of airway epithelial cells. ..