Gene Symbol: Ttr
Description: transthyretin
Alias: AA408768, AI787086, D17860, prealbumin, transthyretin
Species: mouse
Products:     Ttr

Top Publications

  1. Fleming C, Mar F, Franquinho F, Saraiva M, Sousa M. Transthyretin internalization by sensory neurons is megalin mediated and necessary for its neuritogenic activity. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3220-32 pubmed publisher
    Mutated transthyretin (TTR) causes familial amyloid polyneuropathy, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by TTR deposition in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The origin/reason for TTR deposition in the nerve is unknown...
  2. Nunes A, Liz M, Franquinho F, Teixeira L, Sousa V, Chenu C, et al. Neuropeptide Y expression and function during osteoblast differentiation--insights from transthyretin knockout mice. FEBS J. 2010;277:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Using transthyretin (TTR) KO mice as a model of augmented NPY levels, we showed that this strain has increased NPY content in the ..
  3. Li X, Masliah E, Reixach N, Buxbaum J. Neuronal production of transthyretin in human and murine Alzheimer's disease: is it protective?. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12483-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Transthyretin (TTR), a systemic amyloid precursor in the human TTR amyloidoses, interacts with ?-amyloid (A?) in vitro, inhibits A? fibril formation, and suppresses the Alzheimer's disease (AD) phenotype in APP23 mice bearing a human APP ..
  4. Grove E, Tole S, Limon J, Yip L, Ragsdale C. The hem of the embryonic cerebral cortex is defined by the expression of multiple Wnt genes and is compromised in Gli3-deficient mice. Development. 1998;125:2315-25 pubmed
    ..In addition, although the cortical hem does not show features of differentiated CPe, such as expression of transthyretin mRNA, the CPe and cortical hem are linked by shared expression of members of the Bmp and Msx gene families...
  5. Quintela T, Goncalves I, Baltazar G, Alves C, Saraiva M, Santos C. 17beta-estradiol induces transthyretin expression in murine choroid plexus via an oestrogen receptor dependent pathway. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:475-83 pubmed publisher
    Oestrogen protects against AD by multiple mechanisms, including the enhancement of Abeta clearance. Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein mainly synthesized by the liver and choroid plexus (CP) of the brain that sequesters the ..
  6. Griffith A, Radice G, Burgess D, Kohrman D, Hansen G, Justice M, et al. Location of the 9257 and ataxia mutations on mouse chromosome 18. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:417-9 pubmed
    ..Two polymorphic microsatellite markers for proximal Chr 18 are described, D18Umi1 and D18Umi2. The Lama3 locus encoding the alpha 3 subunit of nicein was mapped distal to ataxia and did not recombine with Tg9257. ..
  7. Santos S, Lambertsen K, Clausen B, Akinc A, Alvarez R, Finsen B, et al. CSF transthyretin neuroprotection in a mouse model of brain ischemia. J Neurochem. 2010;115:1434-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this model, we studied the influence of transthyretin in ischemic stroke...
  8. Justice M, Morse H, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Identification of Evi-3, a novel common site of retroviral integration in mouse AKXD B-cell lymphomas. J Virol. 1994;68:1293-300 pubmed
    ..Transcripts from Evi-3 are expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in B cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Evi-3 represents a novel proto-oncogene involved in mouse B-cell lymphomas. ..
  9. Monuki E, Porter F, Walsh C. Patterning of the dorsal telencephalon and cerebral cortex by a roof plate-Lhx2 pathway. Neuron. 2001;32:591-604 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence for the roof plate as an organizing center of the developing cortex and for a roof plate-Lhx2 pathway in cortical patterning. ..

More Information


  1. Justice M, Gilbert D, Kinzler K, Vogelstein B, Buchberg A, Ceci J, et al. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 18 reveals extensive linkage conservation with human chromosomes 5 and 18. Genomics. 1992;13:1281-8 pubmed
    ..It also provides molecular access to many regions of mouse chromosome 18 for the first time. ..
  2. Palha J, Fernandes R, de Escobar G, Episkopou V, Gottesman M, Saraiva M. Transthyretin regulates thyroid hormone levels in the choroid plexus, but not in the brain parenchyma: study in a transthyretin-null mouse model. Endocrinology. 2000;141:3267-72 pubmed
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) is the major T4-binding protein in rodents. Using a TTR-null mouse model we asked the following questions...
  3. Duncan S, Nagy A, Chan W. Murine gastrulation requires HNF-4 regulated gene expression in the visceral endoderm: tetraploid rescue of Hnf-4(-/-) embryos. Development. 1997;124:279-87 pubmed the VE, required for normal expression of secreted factors including alphafetoprotein, apolipoproteins, transthyretin, retinol binding protein, and transferrin...
  4. Rausa F, Ye H, Lim L, Duncan S, Costa R. In situ hybridization with 33P-labeled RNA probes for determination of cellular expression patterns of liver transcription factors in mouse embryos. Methods. 1998;16:29-41 pubmed
    ..We discuss these expression patterns with respect to specification of hepatocytes and differentiation of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. ..
  5. Murakami T, Sango K, Watabe K, Niimi N, Takaku S, Li Z, et al. Schwann cells contribute to neurodegeneration in transthyretin amyloidosis. J Neurochem. 2015;134:66-74 pubmed publisher
    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is one of the transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses characterized by extracellular amyloid deposits and peripheral nerve involvement...
  6. Choi S, Leight S, Lee V, Li T, Wong P, Johnson J, et al. Accelerated Abeta deposition in APPswe/PS1deltaE9 mice with hemizygous deletions of TTR (transthyretin). J Neurosci. 2007;27:7006-10 pubmed
    ..peptides and deposition, findings that were correlated with an increase in the expression of TTR, encoding transthyretin (TTR)...
  7. Hunt C, Parsian A, Kozak C. Genetic mapping of mouse heat shock protein genes Hsc4a to chromosome 11 and Hsc74 to chromosome 18 and two Hsc74 pseudogenes to chromosomes X and 8. Genomics. 1999;56:358-60 pubmed
  8. Nunes A, Saraiva M, Sousa M. Transthyretin knockouts are a new mouse model for increased neuropeptide Y. FASEB J. 2006;20:166-8 pubmed
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) has access to the brain and nerve through the blood and cerebrospinal fluid...
  9. Stein T, Anders N, DeCarli C, Chan S, Mattson M, Johnson J. Neutralization of transthyretin reverses the neuroprotective effects of secreted amyloid precursor protein (APP) in APPSW mice resulting in tau phosphorylation and loss of hippocampal neurons: support for the amyloid hypothesis. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7707-17 pubmed
    ..Antibody interference and small interfering RNA knock-down demonstrate that the sAPPalpha-driven expression of transthyretin and insulin-like growth factor 2 is necessary for protection against Abeta-induced neuronal death...
  10. Kohno K, Palha J, Miyakawa K, Saraiva M, Ito S, Mabuchi T, et al. Analysis of amyloid deposition in a transgenic mouse model of homozygous familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Am J Pathol. 1997;150:1497-508 pubmed
    ..the Japanese, Portuguese, and Swedish types of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy all consist of a variant transthyretin (TTR) with a substitution of methionine for valine at position 30 (TTR Met 30)...
  11. Grove E, Tole S. Patterning events and specification signals in the developing hippocampus. Cereb Cortex. 1999;9:551-61 pubmed
    ..Observations of mouse mutants indicate that the cortical hem, an embryonic structure close to one pole of the hippocampus, is a source of such regulatory signals. ..
  12. Pathak B, Gilbert D, Harrison C, Luetteke N, Chen X, Klagsbrun M, et al. Mouse chromosomal location of three EGF receptor ligands: amphiregulin (Areg), betacellulin (Btc), and heparin-binding EGF (Hegfl). Genomics. 1995;28:116-8 pubmed
    ..These results confirm and extend known relationships between mouse and human chromosomes, and they also provide new information regarding the evolution of this important gene family. ..
  13. Mody N, Graham T, Tsuji Y, Yang Q, Kahn B. Decreased clearance of serum retinol-binding protein and elevated levels of transthyretin in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E785-93 pubmed publisher
    ..RBP4 normally binds to the larger transthyretin (TTR) homotetramer, forming a protein complex that reduces renal clearance of RBP4...
  14. Mu Y, Jin S, Shen J, Sugano A, Takaoka Y, Qiang L, et al. CHF5074 (CSP-1103) stabilizes human transthyretin in mice humanized at the transthyretin and retinol-binding protein loci. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:849-56 pubmed publisher
    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is one type of protein misfolding disease. Transthyretin (TTR) tetramer dissociation is the limiting step for amyloid fibril formation...
  15. Gomes J, Nogueira R, Vieira M, Santos S, Ferraz Nogueira J, Relvas J, et al. Transthyretin provides trophic support via megalin by promoting neurite outgrowth and neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia. Cell Death Differ. 2016;23:1749-1764 pubmed publisher
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) is a protein whose function has been associated to binding and distribution of thyroid hormones in the body and brain...
  16. Li Z, Zhao G, Shen J, Araki K, Haruna K, Inoue S, et al. Enhanced expression of human cDNA by phosphoglycerate kinase promoter-puromycin cassette in the mouse transthyretin locus. Transgenic Res. 2011;20:191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..the PGK-neo cassette, flanked by lox71 and loxP, was inserted into the first exon of the mouse endogenous transthyretin (Ttr) gene in ES cells...
  17. Shibata M, Kurokawa D, Nakao H, Ohmura T, Aizawa S. MicroRNA-9 modulates Cajal-Retzius cell differentiation by suppressing Foxg1 expression in mouse medial pallium. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, inhibition of endogenous miR-9 function by antisense oligonucleotides caused the regression of Wnt3a-positive cortical hem and reduction of reelin-, p73-, and NeuroD1-positive cells. ..
  18. Dillman A, Hauser D, Gibbs J, Nalls M, McCoy M, Rudenko I, et al. mRNA expression, splicing and editing in the embryonic and adult mouse cerebral cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide this data set and analysis as a resource for understanding gene expression in the embryonic and adult cerebral cortex. ..
  19. Gonçalves N, Martins D, Saraiva M. Overexpression of Protocadherin-10 in Transthyretin-Related Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:1913-24 pubmed publisher
    ..nerve regenerative response after misfolding and deposition in the peripheral nervous system of mutant transthyretin. Not only increased transcriptional and translational Pcdh10 levels occurred in axons and Schwann cells of ..
  20. Bosch P, Fuller L, Sleeth C, Weiner J. Akirin2 is essential for the formation of the cerebral cortex. Neural Dev. 2016;11:21 pubmed
  21. Nicolas G, Bennoun M, Porteu A, Mativet S, Beaumont C, Grandchamp B, et al. Severe iron deficiency anemia in transgenic mice expressing liver hepcidin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4596-601 pubmed
    ..was addressed by generating transgenic mice expressing hepcidin under the control of the liver-specific transthyretin promoter...
  22. Brouillette J, Quirion R. The common environmental pollutant dioxin-induced memory deficits by altering estrogen pathways and a major route of retinol transport involving transthyretin. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Attenuation of dioxin-induced memory deficits in mice lacking transthyretin (TTR) suggests that TCDD may be acting by affecting the major route of retinol transport involving TTR...
  23. Episkopou V, Maeda S, Nishiguchi S, Shimada K, Gaitanaris G, Gottesman M, et al. Disruption of the transthyretin gene results in mice with depressed levels of plasma retinol and thyroid hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:2375-9 pubmed
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) is thought to play a major role in vitamin A metabolism and thyroid hormone transport in mammals...
  24. Nunes A, Montero M, Franquinho F, Santos S, Malva J, Zimmer J, et al. Transthyretin knockout mice display decreased susceptibility to AMPA-induced neurodegeneration. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:454-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) has been regarded as a neuroprotective protein given that TTR knockout (KO) mice display increased susceptibility for amyloid beta deposition and memory deficits during aging...
  25. Rausa F, Samadani U, Ye H, Lim L, Fletcher C, Jenkins N, et al. The cut-homeodomain transcriptional activator HNF-6 is coexpressed with its target gene HNF-3 beta in the developing murine liver and pancreas. Dev Biol. 1997;192:228-46 pubmed
    ..HNF-6 activates expression of a reporter gene driven by the HNF-6 binding site from either the HNF-3 beta or transthyretin (TTR) promoter regions...
  26. Kaestner K, Katz J, Liu Y, Drucker D, Schutz G. Inactivation of the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha affects glucose homeostasis and islet glucagon gene expression in vivo. Genes Dev. 1999;13:495-504 pubmed
    ..We also showed that HNF3alpha could bind to and transactivate the proglucagon gene promoter. These observations invoke a central role for HNF3alpha in the regulatory control of islet genes essential for glucose homeostasis in vivo. ..
  27. Wakasugi S, Maeda S, Shimada K, Nakashima H, Migita S. Structural comparisons between mouse and human prealbumin. J Biochem. 1985;98:1707-14 pubmed
    In an attempt to construct model systems for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, prealbumin cDNA was cloned from a mouse liver cDNA library, using previously cloned human prealbumin cDNA as a hybridization probe...
  28. Louvi A, Alexandre P, Metin C, Wurst W, Wassef M. The isthmic neuroepithelium is essential for cerebellar midline fusion. Development. 2003;130:5319-30 pubmed
  29. Reimold A, Etkin A, Clauss I, Perkins A, Friend D, Zhang J, et al. An essential role in liver development for transcription factor XBP-1. Genes Dev. 2000;14:152-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, XBP-1 is a transcription factor essential for hepatocyte growth. ..
  30. Buxbaum J, Roberts A, Adame A, Masliah E. Silencing of murine transthyretin and retinol binding protein genes has distinct and shared behavioral and neuropathologic effects. Neuroscience. 2014;275:352-64 pubmed publisher
    The murine genes encoding transthyretin (TTR) and retinol binding protein (RBP) were independently silenced by targeted disruption more than 10 years ago...
  31. Azevedo E, Ledo J, Barbosa G, Sobrinho M, Diniz L, Fonseca A, et al. Activated microglia mediate synapse loss and short-term memory deficits in a mouse model of transthyretin-related oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e789 pubmed publisher
    ..amyloidosis (OA) is a fatal and untreatable hereditary disease characterized by the accumulation of transthyretin (TTR) amyloid within the central nervous system...
  32. Swetloff A, Ferretti P. Changes in E2F5 intracellular localization in mouse and human choroid plexus epithelium with development. Int J Dev Biol. 2005;49:859-65 pubmed
  33. Gorbea C, Marchand P, Jiang W, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of the mouse meprin beta subunit. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:21035-43 pubmed
  34. Medina Bolívar C, González Arnay E, Talos F, Gonzalez Gomez M, Moll U, Meyer G. Cortical hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly of p73-deficient mice: Developmental and adult analysis. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:2663-79 pubmed publisher
    ..p73 Is thus involved in a variety of CNS activities ranging from embryonic regulation of brain size to the control of cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis in the adult brain via maintenance of the ependyma. ..
  35. Kwon G, Hadjantonakis A. Transthyretin mouse transgenes direct RFP expression or Cre-mediated recombination throughout the visceral endoderm. Genesis. 2009;47:447-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Transthyretin (Ttr) is a thyroid hormone transport protein secreted by cells of the visceral yolk sac and fetal liver in developing embryos, and by hepatocytes and the choroid plexus epithelium of the brain in adult mice...
  36. Geng X, Acosta S, Lagutin O, Gil H, Oliver G. Six3 dosage mediates the pathogenesis of holoprosencephaly. Development. 2016;143:4462-4473 pubmed
    ..Consistent with these results, in vivo activation of the Shh signaling pathway rescued the semilobar phenotype but not the alobar phenotype. Our findings show that variations in Six3 dosage result in different forms of HPE. ..
  37. Fleming C, Saraiva M, Sousa M. Transthyretin enhances nerve regeneration. J Neurochem. 2007;103:831-9 pubmed
    Mutations in transthyretin (TTR) are associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathy, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by TTR deposition in the PNS...
  38. Long L, Spear B. FoxA proteins regulate H19 endoderm enhancer E1 and exhibit developmental changes in enhancer binding in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9601-9 pubmed
    ..These data also indicate that the presence of FoxA proteins is not sufficient for binding but that additional mechanisms must govern the accessibility of FoxA proteins to their cognate binding sites within the H19 E1 enhancer. ..
  39. Gonçalves N, Teixeira Coelho M, Saraiva M. The inflammatory response to sciatic nerve injury in a familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy mouse model. Exp Neurol. 2014;257:76-87 pubmed publisher
    ..FAP is associated with extracellular deposition of mutant transthyretin (TTR), leading to degeneration of cells and tissues, particularly in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
  40. Lee E, Pokharel S, Jan A, Huh S, Galope R, Lim J, et al. Transthyretin: A Transporter Protein Essential for Proliferation of Myoblast in the Myogenic Program. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report indispensable role of transthyretin (TTR) in maintaining cellular thyroxine level...
  41. Walker A, Gong Z, Park W, Zigman J, Sakata I. Expression of Serum Retinol Binding Protein and Transthyretin within Mouse Gastric Ghrelin Cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64882 pubmed publisher
    ..pools of mouse gastric ghrelin cells demonstrated high levels of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4) and transthyretin (TTR), both of which are known to circulate in the bloodstream bound to each other...
  42. Hentsch B, Lyons I, Li R, Hartley L, Lints T, Adams J, et al. Hlx homeo box gene is essential for an inductive tissue interaction that drives expansion of embryonic liver and gut. Genes Dev. 1996;10:70-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, because mutation of Hlx blocked liver growth but not its specification, early morphogenesis, or differentiation, development of this organ appears to occur by step-wise inductive interactions under separate genetic control. ..
  43. Paek H, Gutin G, Hebert J. FGF signaling is strictly required to maintain early telencephalic precursor cell survival. Development. 2009;136:2457-65 pubmed publisher
  44. Cardoso I, Saraiva M. Doxycycline disrupts transthyretin amyloid: evidence from studies in a FAP transgenic mice model. FASEB J. 2006;20:234-9 pubmed
    ..polyneuropathy is an autosomal dominant disorder mainly characterized by the extracellular deposition of transthyretin, with special involvement of the peripheral nerve...
  45. Muzio L, Mallamaci A. Foxg1 confines Cajal-Retzius neuronogenesis and hippocampal morphogenesis to the dorsomedial pallium. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4435-41 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, in the absence of Foxg1, additional inactivation of the medial fates promoter Emx2, although not suppressing cortical specification, conversely rescues overproduction of Reelin(on) neurons. ..
  46. Power D, Elias N, Richardson S, Mendes J, Soares C, Santos C. Evolution of the thyroid hormone-binding protein, transthyretin. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2000;119:241-55 pubmed
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) belongs to a group of proteins, which includes thyroxine-binding globulin and albumin, that bind to and transport thyroid hormones in the blood...
  47. van Bennekum AM -, Wei S, Gamble M, Vogel S, Piantedosi R, Gottesman M, et al. Biochemical basis for depressed serum retinol levels in transthyretin-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1107-13 pubmed
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) acts physiologically in the transport of retinol in the circulation. We previously reported the generation and partial characterization of TTR-deficient (TTR(-)) mice...
  48. Huang X, Litingtung Y, Chiang C. Ectopic sonic hedgehog signaling impairs telencephalic dorsal midline development: implication for human holoprosencephaly. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1454-68 pubmed
    ..We propose that elevated ectopic Shh signaling can impair dorsal telencephalic midline morphogenesis, and lead to non-cleavage of midline structures mimicking human HPE with dorsal midline defects. ..
  49. Caronia Brown G, Anderegg A, Awatramani R. Expression and functional analysis of the Wnt/beta-catenin induced mir-135a-2 locus in embryonic forebrain development. Neural Dev. 2016;11:9 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our data suggests the existence of a Wnt/miR-135a auto-regulatory loop, which could serve to limit the extent, the duration and/or intensity of the Wnt and, possibly, the TGF?/BMP pathways. ..
  50. Shea C, Carhuatanta K, Wagner J, Bechmann N, Moore R, Herman J, et al. Variable impact of chronic stress on spatial learning and memory in BXD mice. Physiol Behav. 2015;150:69-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we find that genetic predictors contributing to spatial learning and memory are susceptible to the presence of chronic stress. ..
  51. Wanderling S, Simen B, Ostrovsky O, Ahmed N, Vogen S, Gidalevitz T, et al. GRP94 is essential for mesoderm induction and muscle development because it regulates insulin-like growth factor secretion. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3764-75 pubmed
    ..The data identify insulin-like growth factor II as one developmentally important protein whose production depends on the activity of GRP94. ..
  52. Quintela T, Alves C, Goncalves I, Baltazar G, Saraiva M, Santos C. 5Alpha-dihydrotestosterone up-regulates transthyretin levels in mice and rat choroid plexus via an androgen receptor independent pathway. Brain Res. 2008;1229:18-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) is a 55 kDa plasma homotetrameric protein mainly synthesized in the liver and choroid plexuses (CPs) of the brain that, functions as a carrier for thyroxin and retinol binding protein...
  53. Lee E, Bhat A, Kamli M, Pokharel S, Chun T, Lee Y, et al. Transthyretin is a key regulator of myoblast differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63627 pubmed publisher
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) is a known carrier protein for thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein in the blood that is primarily synthesized in the liver and choroid plexus of the brain...
  54. Cascella R, Conti S, Mannini B, Li X, Buxbaum J, Tiribilli B, et al. Transthyretin suppresses the toxicity of oligomers formed by misfolded proteins in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:2302-14 pubmed publisher
    Although human transthyretin (TTR) is associated with systemic amyloidoses, an anti-amyloidogenic effect that prevents A? fibril formation in vitro and in animal models has been observed...
  55. Kulinski T, Casari M, Guenzl P, Wenzel D, Andergassen D, Hladik A, et al. Imprinted expression in cystic embryoid bodies shows an embryonic and not an extra-embryonic pattern. Dev Biol. 2015;402:291-305 pubmed publisher
    ..This explains why cystic EBs reproduce the imprinted expression seen in the embryo but not that seen in the ysE. ..
  56. Yu J, Halder D, Baek M, Das N, Choi M, Oh D, et al. Changes in the expression of transthyretin and protein kinase C? genes in the prefrontal cortex in response to naltrexone. Neurosci Lett. 2011;488:288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that the expression of transthyretin (TTR) and protein kinase C (PKC)? were increased in the PFC but not in the hippocampus of naltrexone-treated ..
  57. Lock L, Wickramasinghe D, Ernst M, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. The Cdc25 genes map to mouse chromosomes 2, 9, and 18. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:771-2 pubmed
  58. Yao J, Guihard P, Wu X, Blázquez Medela A, Spencer M, Jumabay M, et al. Vascular endothelium plays a key role in directing pulmonary epithelial cell differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3369-3385 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that endothelial-epithelial interactions, maintained by MGP, are essential in pulmonary cell differentiation. ..
  59. Murakami T, Yasuda Y, Mita S, Maeda S, Shimada K, Fujimoto T, et al. Prealbumin gene expression during mouse development studied by in situ hybridization. Cell Differ. 1987;22:1-9 pubmed
    Localization of prealbumin mRNA in tissues from mice at various stages of gestation was investigated using in situ hybridization procedures. Prealbumin mRNA was detected as early as the 10th day of gestation...
  60. Remmers E, Goldmuntz E, Zha H, Crofford L, Cash J, Mathern P, et al. Linkage map of seven polymorphic markers on rat chromosome 18. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:265-70 pubmed
    ..the markers described were defined by simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs) associated with five genes: transthyretin (TTR), trypsin inhibitor-like protein (TILP), beta 2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), olfactory neuron-specific G ..
  61. Santos S, Cardoso I, Magalhaes J, Saraiva M. Impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system associated with extracellular transthyretin aggregates in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. J Pathol. 2007;213:200-9 pubmed
    ..amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a neurodegenerative disorder caused by extracellular deposition of mutant transthyretin (TTR)...
  62. Sousa M, Fernandes R, Palha J, Taboada A, Vieira P, Saraiva M. Evidence for early cytotoxic aggregates in transgenic mice for human transthyretin Leu55Pro. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:1935-48 pubmed
    ..FAP) is a lethal autosomal dominant disorder characterized by systemic extracellular deposition of transthyretin (TTR) amyloid fibrils...
  63. Petrakis I, Mavroeidi V, Stylianou K, Andronikidi E, Lioudaki E, Perakis K, et al. Hsf-1 affects podocyte markers NPHS1, NPHS2 and WT1 in a transgenic mouse model of TTRVal30Met-related amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2013;20:164-72 pubmed publisher
    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy is characterized by transthyretin (TTR) deposition in various tissues, including the kidneys...
  64. Berry D, Croniger C, Ghyselinck N, Noy N. Transthyretin blocks retinol uptake and cell signaling by the holo-retinol-binding protein receptor STRA6. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3851-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, holo-RBP associates in plasma with transthyretin (TTR) to form a ternary RBP-retinol-TTR complex...
  65. Harper J, Mould A, Andrews R, Bikoff E, Robertson E. The transcriptional repressor Blimp1/Prdm1 regulates postnatal reprogramming of intestinal enterocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10585-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, those required for processing maternal milk were markedly reduced. Thus, we conclude Blimp1 governs the developmental switch responsible for postnatal intestinal maturation. ..
  66. Sousa J, Marques F, Dias Ferreira E, Cerqueira J, Sousa N, Palha J. Transthyretin influences spatial reference memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007;88:381-5 pubmed
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) is a plasma and cerebrospinal fluid carrier for thyroxine and retinol, described also to sequester the amyloid beta peptide...
  67. Keng V, Yagi H, Ikawa M, Nagano T, Myint Z, Yamada K, et al. Homeobox gene Hex is essential for onset of mouse embryonic liver development and differentiation of the monocyte lineage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;276:1155-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Hex plays an essential role in progenitor cells which commit to the hepatic endoderm and in the hematopoietic differentiation of the monocyte lineage. ..
  68. Sousa J, Cardoso I, Marques F, Saraiva M, Palha J. Transthyretin and Alzheimer's disease: where in the brain?. Neurobiol Aging. 2007;28:713-8 pubmed
    b>Transthyretin (TTR), a carrier protein for thyroxine and retinol in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), has been shown to bind the amyloid beta peptide...
  69. Tan Y, Costa R, Kovesdi I, Reichel R. Adenovirus-mediated increase of HNF-3 levels stimulates expression of transthyretin and sonic hedgehog, which is associated with F9 cell differentiation toward the visceral endoderm lineage. Gene Expr. 2001;9:237-48 pubmed
    ..Increased expression of HNF-3beta precedes activation of its known target genes, including transthyretin (TTR), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), HNF-1alpha, HNF-1beta, and HNF-4alpha...
  70. Misumi Y, Ando Y, Gonçalves N, Saraiva M. Fibroblasts endocytose and degrade transthyretin aggregates in transthyretin-related amyloidosis. Lab Invest. 2013;93:911-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Transthyretin (TTR)-related amyloidosis is a fatal disorder characterized by systemic extracellular deposition of TTR amyloid fibrils...
  71. Dekki N, Refai E, Holmberg R, Kohler M, Jornvall H, Berggren P, et al. Transthyretin binds to glucose-regulated proteins and is subjected to endocytosis by the pancreatic ?-cell. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:1733-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Transthyretin (TTR) is a functional protein in the pancreatic ?-cell. It promotes insulin release and protects against ?-cell death...
  72. Tsai K, Yang C, Lee P, Wang W, Chiu M, Shen C. Asymmetric expression patterns of brain transthyretin in normal mice and a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience. 2009;159:638-46 pubmed publisher
    Brain asymmetry is linked with several neurological diseases, and transthyretin (TTR) is a protein sequestering beta-amyloid (Abeta) and helping to prevent the Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  73. Hunter N, Dymecki S. Molecularly and temporally separable lineages form the hindbrain roof plate and contribute differentially to the choroid plexus. Development. 2007;134:3449-60 pubmed
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    A fraction of plasma transthyretin (TTR) circulates in HDL through binding to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Moreover, TTR is able to cleave the C terminus of lipid-free apoA-I...
  75. Cerdá Esteban N, Naumann H, Ruzittu S, Mah N, Pongrac I, Cozzitorto C, et al. Stepwise reprogramming of liver cells to a pancreas progenitor state by the transcriptional regulator Tgif2. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14127 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers the reprogramming activity of TGIF2 and suggests a stepwise reprogramming paradigm, whereby a 'lineage-restricted' dedifferentiation step precedes the identity switch. ..
  76. Richardson S, Lemkine G, Alfama G, Hassani Z, Demeneix B. Cell division and apoptosis in the adult neural stem cell niche are differentially affected in transthyretin null mice. Neurosci Lett. 2007;421:234-8 pubmed
    ..b>Transthyretin (TTR) is a TH distributor protein in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid...
  77. Qiu H, Shimada K, Cheng Z. Chromosomal localization of the mouse prealbumin gene (Ttr) by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1992;61:186-8 pubmed
    b>Prealbumin is a serum protein which plays an important role in plasma transport of retinol and thyroxine. The accumulation of a variant prealbumin is associated with a hereditary disorder, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP)...
  78. Koshida R, Oishi H, Hamada M, Takei Y, Takahashi S. MafB is required for development of the hindbrain choroid plexus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:288-293 pubmed publisher
    ..5, an early stage of hChP development. Collectively, our findings reveal that MafB play an important role in promoting hChP development during embryogenesis. ..
  79. Li O, Geng X, Ma Q, Wang W, Liu R, Yin Z, et al. Gene Microarray Integrated with High-Throughput Proteomics for the Discovery of Transthyretin in Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;43:1673-1688 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate differences in gene and protein expression to elucidate the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis (RM)-induced AKI...
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    The transthyretin amyloidoses (ATTR) are devastating diseases characterized by progressive neuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy for which novel therapeutic strategies are needed...
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    Besides functioning as the plasma transporter of retinol and thyroxine, TTR (transthyretin) is a protease, cleaving apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) after a phenylalanine residue...
  82. Marques F, Sousa J, Oliveira P, Oliveira H, Palha J. The absence of transthyretin does not impair regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39:529-33 pubmed
    Increased levels of neuropeptide Y have been reported in transthyretin-null mice...
  83. Farrington S, Belaoussoff M, Baron M. Winged-helix, Hedgehog and Bmp genes are differentially expressed in distinct cell layers of the murine yolk sac. Mech Dev. 1997;62:197-211 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that similar mechanisms may be utilized to mediate inductive interactions in both extraembryonic and embryonic tissues. ..
  84. Cereghini S, Ott M, Power S, Maury M. Expression patterns of vHNF1 and HNF1 homeoproteins in early postimplantation embryos suggest distinct and sequential developmental roles. Development. 1992;116:783-97 pubmed
    ..of vHNF1 mRNA are present in the visceral extraembryonic endoderm, which co-localize with transcripts of the transthyretin gene...