Tsc2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tsc2
Description: tuberous sclerosis 2
Alias: Nafld, Tcs2, tuberin, tuberous sclerosis 2 protein homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Tsc2

Top Publications

  1. Nellist M, Verhaaf B, Goedbloed M, Reuser A, van den Ouweland A, Halley D. TSC2 missense mutations inhibit tuberin phosphorylation and prevent formation of the tuberin-hamartin complex. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:2889-98 pubmed
    ..TSC1 and TSC2 encode two large novel proteins called hamartin and tuberin, respectively...
  2. Zhang H, Cicchetti G, Onda H, Koon H, Asrican K, Bajraszewski N, et al. Loss of Tsc1/Tsc2 activates mTOR and disrupts PI3K-Akt signaling through downregulation of PDGFR. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1223-33 pubmed
    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a familial tumor syndrome due to mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, in which progression to malignancy is rare...
  3. Hernandez O, Way S, McKenna J, Gambello M. Generation of a conditional disruption of the Tsc2 gene. Genesis. 2007;45:101-6 pubmed
    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Patients afflicted with TSC develop tumors in various organ systems, but cerebral pathology is particularly severe...
  4. Peña Llopis S, Vega Rubin de Celis S, Schwartz J, Wolff N, Tran T, Zou L, et al. Regulation of TFEB and V-ATPases by mTORC1. EMBO J. 2011;30:3242-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These data uncover a regulatory network linking an oncogenic transcription factor that is a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, TFEB, to mTORC1 and endocytosis. ..
  5. Lee D, Kuo H, Chen C, Wei Y, Chou C, Hung J, et al. IKKbeta suppression of TSC1 function links the mTOR pathway with insulin resistance. Int J Mol Med. 2008;22:633-8 pubmed
    ..V-Lepob/J mice. Collectively, dysregulation of the TSC1/ TSC2/mTOR signaling pathway by IKKbeta is a common molecular switch for both cancer pathogenesis and diet- and obesity-..
  6. Zeng L, Rensing N, Zhang B, Gutmann D, Gambello M, Wong M. Tsc2 gene inactivation causes a more severe epilepsy phenotype than Tsc1 inactivation in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:445-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, encoding the proteins hamartin and tuberin, respectively, have been identified as causing TSC...
  7. Kwiatkowski D, Zhang H, Bandura J, Heiberger K, Glogauer M, El Hashemite N, et al. A mouse model of TSC1 reveals sex-dependent lethality from liver hemangiomas, and up-regulation of p70S6 kinase activity in Tsc1 null cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:525-34 pubmed
    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, and characterized by benign hamartoma growth. We developed a murine model of Tsc1 disease by gene targeting...
  8. Tsai V, Parker W, Orlova K, Baybis M, Chi A, Berg B, et al. Fetal brain mTOR signaling activation in tuberous sclerosis complex. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, there are no reports of mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in fetal tubers or in neural progenitor cells lacking Tsc2. We demonstrate mTORC1 activation by immunohistochemical detection of substrates phospho-p70S6K1 (T389) and phospho-..
  9. Manning B, Tee A, Logsdon M, Blenis J, Cantley L. Identification of the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 tumor suppressor gene product tuberin as a target of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/akt pathway. Mol Cell. 2002;10:151-62 pubmed
    ..This approach identifies the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 gene product, tuberin, as a potential target of Akt/PKB...

More Information

Publications62

  1. DeYoung M, Horak P, Sofer A, Sgroi D, Ellisen L. Hypoxia regulates TSC1/2-mTOR signaling and tumor suppression through REDD1-mediated 14-3-3 shuttling. Genes Dev. 2008;22:239-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia and REDD1 suppress mammalian TORC1 (mTORC1) activity by releasing TSC2 from its growth factor-induced association with inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins...
  2. Dibble C, Elis W, Menon S, Qin W, Klekota J, Asara J, et al. TBC1D7 is a third subunit of the TSC1-TSC2 complex upstream of mTORC1. Mol Cell. 2012;47:535-46 pubmed publisher
    The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) tumor suppressors form the TSC1-TSC2 complex, which limits cell growth in response to poor growth conditions...
  3. Auerbach B, Osterweil E, Bear M. Mutations causing syndromic autism define an axis of synaptic pathophysiology. Nature. 2011;480:63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using electrophysiological and biochemical assays of neuronal protein synthesis in the hippocampus of Tsc2(+/-) and Fmr1(-/y) mice, here we show that synaptic dysfunction caused by these mutations actually falls at ..
  4. Ma L, Teruya Feldstein J, Behrendt N, Chen Z, Noda T, Hino O, et al. Genetic analysis of Pten and Tsc2 functional interactions in the mouse reveals asymmetrical haploinsufficiency in tumor suppression. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1779-86 pubmed
    The role of tumor suppressor haploinsufficiency in oncogenesis is still poorly understood. The PTEN and TSC2 tumor suppressors function to antagonize mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation by Akt; hence, compound heterozygous ..
  5. Ma L, Chen Z, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Pandolfi P. Phosphorylation and functional inactivation of TSC2 by Erk implications for tuberous sclerosis and cancer pathogenesis. Cell. 2005;121:179-93 pubmed
    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a tumor syndrome caused by mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. TSC tumorigenesis is not always accompanied by loss of heterozygosity (LOH)...
  6. Young D, Schenk A, Yang S, Jan Y, Jan L. Altered ultrasonic vocalizations in a tuberous sclerosis mouse model of autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11074-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore social communication and interaction in TSC2 heterozygous mice, we recorded ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and found that although both wild-type (WT) and ..
  7. Bilanges B, Argonza Barrett R, Kolesnichenko M, Skinner C, Nair M, Chen M, et al. Tuberous sclerosis complex proteins 1 and 2 control serum-dependent translation in a TOP-dependent and -independent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5746-64 pubmed
    The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) proteins TSC1 and TSC2 regulate protein translation by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinase mTORC1 (for mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1)...
  8. Ma J, Meng Y, Kwiatkowski D, Chen X, Peng H, Sun Q, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin regulates murine and human cell differentiation through STAT3/p63/Jagged/Notch cascade. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:103-14 pubmed publisher
    ..lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and mouse kidney tumors with hyperactive mTOR due to tumor suppressor TSC1 or TSC2 deficiency exhibited enhanced STAT3/p63/Notch signaling...
  9. Nie D, Di Nardo A, Han J, Baharanyi H, Kramvis I, Huynh T, et al. Tsc2-Rheb signaling regulates EphA-mediated axon guidance. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:163-72 pubmed publisher
    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a disease caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode a protein complex that inhibits mTOR kinase signaling by inactivating the Rheb GTPase...
  10. Goncharova E, Goncharov D, Li H, Pimtong W, Lu S, Khavin I, et al. mTORC2 is required for proliferation and survival of TSC2-null cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2484-98 pubmed publisher
    Mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) constitutively activates mTORC1, increases cell proliferation, and induces the pathological manifestations observed in tuberous sclerosis (TS) and in ..
  11. Manning B, Logsdon M, Lipovsky A, Abbott D, Kwiatkowski D, Cantley L. Feedback inhibition of Akt signaling limits the growth of tumors lacking Tsc2. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1773-8 pubmed
    The PTEN and TSC2 tumor suppressors inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and are defective in distinct hamartoma syndromes...
  12. Inoki K, Zhu T, Guan K. TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival. Cell. 2003;115:577-90 pubmed
    Mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene are responsible for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex...
  13. Huang J, Wu S, Wu C, Manning B. Signaling events downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 are attenuated in cells and tumors deficient for the tuberous sclerosis complex tumor suppressors. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6107-14 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressor genes give rise to the neoplastic disorders tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and lymphangioleiomyomatosis...
  14. Jaeschke A, Hartkamp J, Saitoh M, Roworth W, Nobukuni T, Hodges A, et al. Tuberous sclerosis complex tumor suppressor-mediated S6 kinase inhibition by phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase is mTOR independent. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:217-24 pubmed
    ..genetic disorder, characterized by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, whose gene products hamartin (TSC1) and tuberin (TSC2) constitute a putative tumor suppressor complex (TSC1-2; van Slegtenhorst, M., M. Nellist, B...
  15. Shigeyama Y, Kobayashi T, Kido Y, Hashimoto N, Asahara S, Matsuda T, et al. Biphasic response of pancreatic beta-cell mass to ablation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2971-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the role of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) as an upstream molecule of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), we examined the effect of TSC2 deficiency on beta-..
  16. Pollizzi K, Malinowska Kolodziej I, Stumm M, Lane H, Kwiatkowski D. Equivalent benefit of mTORC1 blockade and combined PI3K-mTOR blockade in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of either TSC1 or TSC2 in TSC hamartomas leads to activation of mTORC1 and suppression of AKT...
  17. Way S, McKenna J, Mietzsch U, Reith R, Wu H, Gambello M. Loss of Tsc2 in radial glia models the brain pathology of tuberous sclerosis complex in the mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1252-65 pubmed publisher
    ..developmental perturbations that lead to these brain lesions, we created a mouse model that selectively deletes the Tsc2 gene from radial glial progenitor cells in the developing cerebral cortex and hippocampus...
  18. Ehninger D, Han S, Shilyansky C, Zhou Y, Li W, Kwiatkowski D, et al. Reversal of learning deficits in a Tsc2+/- mouse model of tuberous sclerosis. Nat Med. 2008;14:843-8 pubmed publisher
    Tuberous sclerosis is a single-gene disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the TSC1 (9q34) or TSC2 (16p13.3) gene and is frequently associated with mental retardation, autism and epilepsy...
  19. Kobayashi T, Minowa O, Kuno J, Mitani H, Hino O, Noda T. Renal carcinogenesis, hepatic hemangiomatosis, and embryonic lethality caused by a germ-line Tsc2 mutation in mice. Cancer Res. 1999;59:1206-11 pubmed
    ..difference between man and rat is currently unknown, and the physiological function of the TSC2/Tsc2 product (tuberin) is not fully understood. To investigate these unsolved problems, we have generated a Tsc2 mutant mouse...
  20. Onda H, Lueck A, Marks P, Warren H, Kwiatkowski D. Tsc2(+/-) mice develop tumors in multiple sites that express gelsolin and are influenced by genetic background. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:687-95 pubmed
    ..genetic disorder in which benign hamartomas develop in multiple organs, caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. We developed a murine model of Tsc2 disease using a gene targeting approach...
  21. Bonnet C, Aldred M, Von Ruhland C, Harris R, Sandford R, Cheadle J. Defects in cell polarity underlie TSC and ADPKD-associated cystogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that many of the earliest renal lesions from Tsc1+/- and Tsc2+/- mice do not exhibit mTOR activation, suggesting that pharmacological targeting of an alternative pathway may be ..
  22. Patursky Polischuk I, Stolovich Rain M, Hausner Hanochi M, Kasir J, Cybulski N, Avruch J, et al. The TSC-mTOR pathway mediates translational activation of TOP mRNAs by insulin largely in a raptor- or rictor-independent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:640-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This translational activation involves the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), as the knockout of TSC1 or TSC2 rescues TOP mRNAs from translational repression in mitotically arrested cells...
  23. Cheadle J, Reeve M, Sampson J, Kwiatkowski D. Molecular genetic advances in tuberous sclerosis. Hum Genet. 2000;107:97-114 pubmed
    ..for the disorder, through to gaining insights into the functions of their protein products hamartin and tuberin, and the identification and engineering of animal models...
  24. Miloslavski R, Cohen E, Avraham A, Iluz Y, Hayouka Z, Kasir J, et al. Oxygen sufficiency controls TOP mRNA translation via the TSC-Rheb-mTOR pathway in a 4E-BP-independent manner. J Mol Cell Biol. 2014;6:255-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This mode of regulation involves TSC and Rheb, as knockout of TSC1 or TSC2 or overexpression of Rheb rescued TOP mRNA translation in oxygen-deprived cells...
  25. Smith E, Finn S, Tee A, Browne G, Proud C. The tuberous sclerosis protein TSC2 is not required for the regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin by amino acids and certain cellular stresses. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18717-27 pubmed
    ..Recent work demonstrated the importance of the tuberous sclerosis protein TSC2 for regulation of mTOR by insulin...
  26. Ozcan U, Ozcan L, Yilmaz E, Düvel K, Sahin M, Manning B, et al. Loss of the tuberous sclerosis complex tumor suppressors triggers the unfolded protein response to regulate insulin signaling and apoptosis. Mol Cell. 2008;29:541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of the tuberous sclerosis complex genes (TSC1 or TSC2) leads to constitutive activation of mTOR and downstream signaling elements, resulting in the development of tumors,..
  27. Brugarolas J, Vazquez F, Reddy A, Sellers W, Kaelin W. TSC2 regulates VEGF through mTOR-dependent and -independent pathways. Cancer Cell. 2003;4:147-58 pubmed
    Inactivation of the TSC2 tumor suppressor protein causes tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a disease characterized by highly vascular tumors. TSC2 has multiple functions including inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin)...
  28. Tavazoie S, Alvarez V, Ridenour D, Kwiatkowski D, Sabatini B. Regulation of neuronal morphology and function by the tumor suppressors Tsc1 and Tsc2. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1727-34 pubmed
    Mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes lead to tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a dominant hamartomatous disorder that often presents with mental retardation, epilepsy and autism...
  29. CHEVERE TORRES I, Kaphzan H, Bhattacharya A, Kang A, Maki J, Gambello M, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression is impaired due to elevated ERK signaling in the ?RG mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;45:1101-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the impact of TSC2-GAP mutations on the mTORC1 and ERK signaling pathways and protein synthesis-dependent hippocampal synaptic ..
  30. Ehninger D, Sano Y, de Vries P, Dies K, Franz D, Geschwind D, et al. Gestational immune activation and Tsc2 haploinsufficiency cooperate to disrupt fetal survival and may perturb social behavior in adult mice. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our studies raise the possibility of a gene × environment interaction between heterozygous TSC gene mutations and gestational immune activation in the pathogenesis of TSC-related ASD. ..
  31. Wolff N, Vega Rubin de Celis S, Xie X, Castrillon D, Kabbani W, Brugarolas J. Cell-type-dependent regulation of mTORC1 by REDD1 and the tumor suppressors TSC1/TSC2 and LKB1 in response to hypoxia. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1870-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that mTORC1 regulation by hypoxia involves Redd1 and the Tsc1/Tsc2 complex...
  32. Choi Y, Di Nardo A, Kramvis I, Meikle L, Kwiatkowski D, Sahin M, et al. Tuberous sclerosis complex proteins control axon formation. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2485-95 pubmed publisher
    Axon formation is fundamental for brain development and function. TSC1 and TSC2 are two genes, mutations in which cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a disease characterized by tumor predisposition and neurological abnormalities ..
  33. Kobayashi T, Minowa O, Sugitani Y, Takai S, Mitani H, Kobayashi E, et al. A germ-line Tsc1 mutation causes tumor development and embryonic lethality that are similar, but not identical to, those caused by Tsc2 mutation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8762-7 pubmed
    ..by the development of hamartomas in various organs and is caused by a germ-line mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes...
  34. Mak B, Kenerson H, Aicher L, Barnes E, Yeung R. Aberrant beta-catenin signaling in tuberous sclerosis. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:107-16 pubmed
    ..and components of the beta-catenin degradation complex was dependent on Wnt stimulation such that binding of tuberin to GSK3 and Axin was reduced in the presence of Wnt whereas the tuberin-Dishevelled interaction was increased...
  35. Lee L, Sudentas P, Donohue B, Asrican K, Worku A, Walker V, et al. Efficacy of a rapamycin analog (CCI-779) and IFN-gamma in tuberous sclerosis mouse models. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005;42:213-27 pubmed
    ..Disease-causing mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene lead to increased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity in the conserved mTOR signaling pathway,..
  36. Uhlmann E, Apicelli A, Baldwin R, Burke S, Bajenaru M, Onda H, et al. Heterozygosity for the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) gene products results in increased astrocyte numbers and decreased p27-Kip1 expression in TSC2+/- cells. Oncogene. 2002;21:4050-9 pubmed
    ..mouse embryonic fibroblasts, p27-Kip1 expression was decreased compared to wild type cells, and was reversed by tuberin re-expression in Tsc2-/- MEFs...
  37. Brugarolas J, Lei K, Hurley R, Manning B, Reiling J, Hafen E, et al. Regulation of mTOR function in response to hypoxia by REDD1 and the TSC1/TSC2 tumor suppressor complex. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2893-904 pubmed
    ..a process involving the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by LKB1 and subsequent phosphorylation of TSC2, the mechanism of mTOR inhibition by hypoxia is not known...
  38. Harrington L, Findlay G, Gray A, Tolkacheva T, Wigfield S, Rebholz H, et al. The TSC1-2 tumor suppressor controls insulin-PI3K signaling via regulation of IRS proteins. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:213-23 pubmed
    ..Our results argue that the low malignant potential of tumors arising from TSC1-2 dysfunction may be explained by the failure of TSC mutant cells to activate PI3K and its downstream effectors. ..
  39. Onda H, Crino P, Zhang H, Murphey R, Rastelli L, Gould Rothberg B, et al. Tsc2 null murine neuroepithelial cells are a model for human tuber giant cells, and show activation of an mTOR pathway. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;21:561-74 pubmed
    ..b>Tsc2 null murine neuroepithelial progenitor (NEP) cells display persistent growth when growth factors are withdrawn, ..
  40. Banerjee S, Crouse N, Emnett R, Gianino S, Gutmann D. Neurofibromatosis-1 regulates mTOR-mediated astrocyte growth and glioma formation in a TSC/Rheb-independent manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15996-6001 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings establish TSC/Rheb-independent mechanisms for mTOR-dependent glial cell growth control and gliomagenesis relevant to the design of therapies for individuals with glioma. ..
  41. Tripathi D, Chowdhury R, Trudel L, Tee A, Slack R, Walker C, et al. Reactive nitrogen species regulate autophagy through ATM-AMPK-TSC2-mediated suppression of mTORC1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2950-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a nitrosative-stress signaling pathway that engages ATM and the LKB1 and TSC2 tumor suppressors to repress mTORC1 and regulate autophagy...
  42. Chen N, Debnath J. I?B kinase complex (IKK) triggers detachment-induced autophagy in mammary epithelial cells independently of the PI3K-AKT-MTORC1 pathway. Autophagy. 2013;9:1214-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that the IKK complex functions as a key mediator of detachment-induced autophagy and anoikis resistance in epithelial cells. ..
  43. Caccamo A, Magrí A, Medina D, Wisely E, López Aranda M, Silva A, et al. mTOR regulates tau phosphorylation and degradation: implications for Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. Aging Cell. 2013;12:370-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these results provide preclinical data indicating that reducing mTOR signaling may be a valid therapeutic approach for tauopathies...
  44. Sato A, Kasai S, Kobayashi T, Takamatsu Y, Hino O, Ikeda K, et al. Rapamycin reverses impaired social interaction in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1292 pubmed publisher
    ..accompany autism spectrum disorder, such as tuberous sclerosis complex caused by haploinsufficiency of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes...
  45. Kim S, Hoffman G, Poulogiannis G, Buel G, Jang Y, Lee K, et al. Metabolic stress controls mTORC1 lysosomal localization and dimerization by regulating the TTT-RUVBL1/2 complex. Mol Cell. 2013;49:172-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the TTT-RUVBL1/2 complex responds to the cell's metabolic state, directly regulating the functional assembly of mTORC1 and indirectly controlling the nutrient signal from Rags to mTORC1. ..
  46. Habib S, Michel D, Masliah E, Thomas B, Ko H, Dawson T, et al. Role of tuberin in neuronal degeneration. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:1113-6 pubmed publisher
    One of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) gene products, tuberin is assumed to be the functional component, being involved in a wide variety of cellular processes...
  47. Budanov A, Karin M. p53 target genes sestrin1 and sestrin2 connect genotoxic stress and mTOR signaling. Cell. 2008;134:451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell growth is positively regulated by mTOR, whose activity is inhibited by the TSC1:TSC2 complex...
  48. Olsson P, Sutherland H, Nowicka U, Korn B, Poustka A, Frischauf A. The mouse homologue of the tuberin gene (TSC2) maps to a conserved synteny group between mouse chromosome 17 and human 16p13.3. Genomics. 1995;25:339-40 pubmed
  49. Barnes E, Kenerson H, Jiang X, Yeung R. Tuberin regulates E-cadherin localization: implications in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:1765-78 pubmed publisher
    The tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) gene encodes the protein tuberin, which functions as a key negative regulator of both mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) C1-dependent cell growth and proliferation...
  50. Patursky Polischuk I, Kasir J, Miloslavski R, Hayouka Z, Hausner Hanochi M, Stolovich Rain M, et al. Reassessment of the role of TSC, mTORC1 and microRNAs in amino acids-meditated translational control of TOP mRNAs. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109410 pubmed publisher
    ..This mode of regulation involves TSC as knockout of TSC1 or TSC2 rescued TOP mRNAs translation in amino acid-starved cells...
  51. Miyazaki M, McCarthy J, Esser K. Insulin like growth factor-1-induced phosphorylation and altered distribution of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1/TSC2 in C2C12 myotubes. FEBS J. 2010;277:2180-91 pubmed publisher
    ..C2C12 myotubes requires a phosphorylation-dependent, altered distribution of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1/TSC2 complex from the membrane to the cytosol...
  52. Williams T, Courchet J, Viollet B, Brenman J, Polleux F. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity is not required for neuronal development but regulates axogenesis during metabolic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5849-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that AMPK catalytic activity is not required for early neural development in vivo but its overactivation during metabolic stress impairs neuronal polarization in a mTOR-dependent manner. ..
  53. Tan Y, You H, Coffey F, Wiest D, Testa J. Appl1 is dispensable for Akt signaling in vivo and mouse T-cell development. Genesis. 2010;48:531-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that Appl1 is dispensable for Akt signaling in vivo and T-cell differentiation. ..