Trpc4

Summary

Gene Symbol: Trpc4
Description: transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 4
Alias: CCE1, STRPC4, Trp4, Trrp4, short transient receptor potential channel 4, capacitative calcium entry channel Trp4, receptor-activated cation channel TRP4, transient receptor protein 4
Species: mouse
Products:     Trpc4

Top Publications

  1. Chen Y, Collins L, Uno H, Chou S, Meshul C, Chang S, et al. Abnormal cerebellar cytoarchitecture and impaired inhibitory signaling in adult mice lacking TR4 orphan nuclear receptor. Brain Res. 2007;1168:72-82 pubmed
  2. Freichel M, Vennekens R, Olausson J, Hoffmann M, Muller C, Stolz S, et al. Functional role of TRPC proteins in vivo: lessons from TRPC-deficient mouse models. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:1352-8 pubmed
    ..in these TRPC-deficient mouse lines a striking number of biological functions could already be ascribed to TRPC2, TRPC4, and TRPC6, not only on the cellular level but also for complex organ functions and integrative physiology...
  3. Hartmann J, Dragicevic E, Adelsberger H, Henning H, Sumser M, Abramowitz J, et al. TRPC3 channels are required for synaptic transmission and motor coordination. Neuron. 2008;59:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results establish TRPC3 as a new type of postsynaptic channel that mediates mGluR-dependent synaptic transmission in cerebellar Purkinje cells and is crucial for motor coordination. ..
  4. Sabourin J, Lamiche C, Vandebrouck A, Magaud C, Rivet J, Cognard C, et al. Regulation of TRPC1 and TRPC4 cation channels requires an alpha1-syntrophin-dependent complex in skeletal mouse myotubes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:36248-61 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPC1 and TRPC4 channels are expressed at the sarcolemma of muscle cells; forced expression or siRNA silencing showed that cation ..
  5. Zhu X, Jiang M, Peyton M, Boulay G, Hurst R, Stefani E, et al. trp, a novel mammalian gene family essential for agonist-activated capacitative Ca2+ entry. Cell. 1996;85:661-71 pubmed
    ..This identifies mammalian gene products that participate in CCE. We propose that trp homologs are subunits of CCE channels, not unlike those of classical voltage-gated ion channels. ..
  6. Elg S, Marmigere F, Mattsson J, Ernfors P. Cellular subtype distribution and developmental regulation of TRPC channel members in the mouse dorsal root ganglion. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:35-46 pubmed
    ..While TRPC2 mRNAs were downregulated from high levels at embryonic (E) day 12 and E14 until adult, TRPC4, C5, and C7 expressions increased from E12 to peak levels at E18...
  7. Tang Y, Tang J, Chen Z, Trost C, Flockerzi V, Li M, et al. Association of mammalian trp4 and phospholipase C isozymes with a PDZ domain-containing protein, NHERF. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:37559-64 pubmed
    ..Here we show that murine Trp4 and Trp5, as well as phospholipase C beta1 and beta2 interact with the first PDZ domain of NHERF, regulatory factor ..
  8. Freichel M, Suh S, Pfeifer A, Schweig U, Trost C, Weissgerber P, et al. Lack of an endothelial store-operated Ca2+ current impairs agonist-dependent vasorelaxation in TRP4-/- mice. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:121-7 pubmed
    ..Ca2+ current in vascular endothelium and show that endothelial cells of mice deficient in TRP4 (also known as CCE1) lack this current...
  9. Tiruppathi C, Freichel M, Vogel S, Paria B, Mehta D, Flockerzi V, et al. Impairment of store-operated Ca2+ entry in TRPC4(-/-) mice interferes with increase in lung microvascular permeability. Circ Res. 2002;91:70-6 pubmed
    ..Studies were made in wild-type (wt) and TRPC4 knockout (TRPC4(-/-) mice and lung vascular endothelial cells (LECs) isolated from these animals...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Mizuno A. [TRP channels and mechanical stress]. Clin Calcium. 2008;18:1304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence shows that TRPV4, one of the vanilloid subfamily, plays a key role in mechanosensation in bone. Here I summarize the current knowledge on possible functions of TRP channels. ..
  2. Riccio A, Li Y, Tsvetkov E, Gapon S, Yao G, Smith K, et al. Decreased anxiety-like behavior and G?q/11-dependent responses in the amygdala of mice lacking TRPC4 channels. J Neurosci. 2014;34:3653-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Both TRPC5 and another member of the same subfamily, TRPC4, form heteromeric complexes with the TRPC1 subunit (TRPC1/5 and TRPC1/4, respectively)...
  3. Boudes M, Uvin P, Pinto S, Freichel M, Birnbaumer L, Voets T, et al. Crucial role of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in cystitis-induced neuronal sprouting and bladder overactivity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69550 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeated cyclophosphamide injections induce a specific increase in the expression of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in bladder-innervating sensory neurons and the sprouting of sensory fibers in the bladder mucosa...
  4. Bair A, Thippegowda P, Freichel M, Cheng N, Ye R, Vogel S, et al. Ca2+ entry via TRPC channels is necessary for thrombin-induced NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells through AMP-activated protein kinase and protein kinase Cdelta. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:563-74 pubmed publisher
    ..by knockdown of the TRPC isoform TRPC1 expressed in human endothelial cells and in endothelial cells obtained from Trpc4 knock-out mice...
  5. Phelan K, Mock M, Kretz O, Shwe U, Kozhemyakin M, Greenfield L, et al. Heteromeric canonical transient receptor potential 1 and 4 channels play a critical role in epileptiform burst firing and seizure-induced neurodegeneration. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;81:384-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Although TRPC1 is ubiquitously expressed in the brain, TRPC4 expression is the most restrictive, with the highest expression level limited to the lateral septum...
  6. Beck A, Speicher T, Stoerger C, Sell T, Dettmer V, Jusoh S, et al. Conserved gating elements in TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19471-83 pubmed publisher
    b>TRPC4 and TRPC5 proteins share 65% amino acid sequence identity and form Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels. They are activated by stimulation of receptors coupled to the phosphoinositide signaling cascade...
  7. Philipp S, Hambrecht J, Braslavski L, Schroth G, Freichel M, Murakami M, et al. A novel capacitative calcium entry channel expressed in excitable cells. EMBO J. 1998;17:4274-82 pubmed
    ..Drosophila transient receptor potential (TRP) protein, now comprising TRP5 (also CCE2) and the structurally related CCE1 (also TRP4)...
  8. Lutas A, Lahmann C, Soumillon M, Yellen G. The leak channel NALCN controls tonic firing and glycolytic sensitivity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that disruption of NALCN could impair the basal ganglia circuit, which may underlie the severe motor deficits in humans carrying mutations in NALCN. ..
  9. Zhang C, Bosch M, Rønnekleiv O, Kelly M. Kisspeptin activation of TRPC4 channels in female GnRH neurons requires PIP2 depletion and cSrc kinase activation. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2772-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Using single cell RT-PCR, we identified that the mRNA for the PIP(2)-interacting TRPC channel subunit, TRPC4?, is expressed in GnRH neurons...
  10. Lutas A, Birnbaumer L, Yellen G. Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels. J Neurosci. 2014;34:16336-47 pubmed publisher
  11. Obukhov A, Nowycky M. TRPC4 can be activated by G-protein-coupled receptors and provides sufficient Ca(2+) to trigger exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16172-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the properties and function of TRPC4 in neuronally derived cells, we transiently expressed mouse TRPC4 and histamine H(1) receptor in mouse adrenal ..
  12. Suresh Babu S, Wójtowicz A, Freichel M, Birnbaumer L, Hecker M, Cattaruzza M. Mechanism of stretch-induced activation of the mechanotransducer zyxin in vascular cells. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have identified a stretch-induced signaling pathway in vascular cells that leads to the activation of zyxin, a cytoskeletal protein specifically involved in transducing mechanical stimuli. ..
  13. Lee J, Song M, Shin S, Bae S, Park K. Mass spectrometric analysis of novel phosphorylation sites in the TRPC4? channel. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012;26:1965-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPC4? is important in mediating the activity and membrane expression of this channel protein...
  14. Stroh O, Freichel M, Kretz O, Birnbaumer L, Hartmann J, Egger V. NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic activation of TRPC channels in olfactory bulb granule cells. J Neurosci. 2012;32:5737-46 pubmed publisher
    ..granule cells from mice deficient for both TRPC channel subtypes 1 and 4, whereas the deletion of either TRPC1 or TRPC4 results in only a partial reduction of the LLD...
  15. Yang L, Jiang F, Wu G, Deng K, Wen M, Zhou X, et al. Acute Treatment with a Novel TRPC4/C5 Channel Inhibitor Produces Antidepressant and Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136255 pubmed publisher
    ..Both TRPC4 and TRPC5 have been implicated in innate fear function, which represents a key response to environmental stress...
  16. Tsvilovskyy V, Zholos A, Aberle T, Philipp S, Dietrich A, Zhu M, et al. Deletion of TRPC4 and TRPC6 in mice impairs smooth muscle contraction and intestinal motility in vivo. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We created trpc4-, trpc6-, and trpc4/trpc6-gene-deficient mice and analyzed them for intestinal smooth muscle function in vitro and ..
  17. Schindl R, Frischauf I, Kahr H, Fritsch R, Krenn M, Derndl A, et al. The first ankyrin-like repeat is the minimum indispensable key structure for functional assembly of homo- and heteromeric TRPC4/TRPC5 channels. Cell Calcium. 2008;43:260-9 pubmed
    The closely related TRPC4 and TRPC5 proteins, members of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) family, assemble into either homo- or heterotetrameric, non-selective cation-channels...
  18. Petersen C, Berridge M, Borgese M, Bennett D. Putative capacitative calcium entry channels: expression of Drosophila trp and evidence for the existence of vertebrate homologues. Biochem J. 1995;311 ( Pt 1):41-4 pubmed
    ..It is thus possible that capacitative calcium entry in Xenopus oocytes is mediated by a homologue of trp. ..
  19. Jeon J, Lee K, Park E, Sung T, Kim B, Jeon J, et al. The specific activation of TRPC4 by Gi protein subtype. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:538-543 pubmed publisher
    ..Especially, TRPC4 has the similar properties to Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) activated by muscarinic ..
  20. Sundivakkam P, Freichel M, Singh V, Yuan J, Vogel S, Flockerzi V, et al. The Ca(2+) sensor stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is necessary and sufficient for the store-operated Ca(2+) entry function of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 1 and 4 channels in endothelial cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;81:510-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion or knockdown of TRPC4 abolished Ca(2+) entry secondary to depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores, preventing the disruption of the endothelial ..
  21. Bröker Lai J, Kollewe A, Schindeldecker B, Pohle J, Nguyen Chi V, Mathar I, et al. Heteromeric channels formed by TRPC1, TRPC4 and TRPC5 define hippocampal synaptic transmission and working memory. EMBO J. 2017;36:2770-2789 pubmed publisher
    ..Using quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that TRPC1, TRPC4, and TRPC5 assemble into heteromultimers with each other, but not with other TRP family members in the mouse brain ..
  22. Mori Y, Takada N, Okada T, Wakamori M, Imoto K, Wanifuchi H, et al. Differential distribution of TRP Ca2+ channel isoforms in mouse brain. Neuroreport. 1998;9:507-15 pubmed
    ..Two cloned mouse TRP homologues, TRP3 and TRP4, structurally related to the voltage-dependent Na+ channel, were expressed predominantly in the brain, where a ..
  23. Wang X, Pluznick J, Wei P, Padanilam B, Sansom S. TRPC4 forms store-operated Ca2+ channels in mouse mesangial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;287:C357-64 pubmed
    ..Using TRPC-specific primers and RT-PCR, we found that cultured MMC contained mRNA for TRPC1 and TRPC4 but not for TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7...
  24. Liu Q, Liu X, Wen Z, Hondowicz B, King L, Monroe J, et al. Distinct calcium channels regulate responses of primary B lymphocytes to B cell receptor engagement and mechanical stimuli. J Immunol. 2005;174:68-79 pubmed
    ..Thus, CRAC and distinct Ca(2+) permeant NSCCs are differentially activated by the BCR and mechanical stimuli and regulate distinct aspects of B cell physiology. ..
  25. Seth M, Li T, Graham V, Burch J, Finch E, Stiber J, et al. Dynamic regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores by stromal interaction molecule 1 and sarcolipin during muscle differentiation. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:639-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SOCE regulates SR/ER specialization and that SLN and STIM1 act in opposing fashions to govern SOCE during myogenesis. ..
  26. Hofmann T, Schaefer M, Schultz G, Gudermann T. Cloning, expression and subcellular localization of two novel splice variants of mouse transient receptor potential channel 2. Biochem J. 2000;351:115-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TRPC2 may form functional channels in the cellular context of the VNO, but is unlikely to have a physiological function in other tissues. ..
  27. Zimmermann J, Latta L, Beck A, Leidinger P, Fecher Trost C, Schlenstedt G, et al. Trans-activation response (TAR) RNA-binding protein 2 is a novel modulator of transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) protein. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:9766-80 pubmed publisher
    b>TRPC4 proteins function as Ca(2+) conducting, non-selective cation channels in endothelial, smooth muscle, and neuronal cells...
  28. Jeon J, Roh S, Wie J, Kim J, Kim H, Lee K, et al. Activation of TRPC4? by G?i subunit increases Ca2+ selectivity and controls neurite morphogenesis in cultured hippocampal neuron. Cell Calcium. 2013;54:307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPC channels are activated by stimulation of G?q-PLC-coupled receptors. Here, we report that TRPC4/TRPC5 can be activated by G?i...
  29. Yuan J, Kiselyov K, Shin D, Chen J, Shcheynikov N, Kang S, et al. Homer binds TRPC family channels and is required for gating of TRPC1 by IP3 receptors. Cell. 2003;114:777-89 pubmed
    ..Since H1a is transcriptionally regulated by cellular activity, this mechanism can affect both short and long-term regulation of TRPC1 function. ..
  30. Munsch T, Freichel M, Flockerzi V, Pape H. Contribution of transient receptor potential channels to the control of GABA release from dendrites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:16065-70 pubmed
    ..channels in the plasma membrane but that is critically dependent on the transient receptor potential (TRP) protein TRPC4. These data ascribe a functional role of agonist-activated TRP channels to the release of transmitters from ..
  31. Lee K, Jun J, Chang I, Suh S, So I, Kim K. TRPC4 is an essential component of the nonselective cation channel activated by muscarinic stimulation in mouse visceral smooth muscle cells. Mol Cells. 2005;20:435-41 pubmed
    ..We aimed to determine the role of TRPC4 in the formation of NSCCs and in the generation of slow waves...
  32. Murata T, Lin M, Stan R, Bauer P, Yu J, Sessa W. Genetic evidence supporting caveolae microdomain regulation of calcium entry in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:16631-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, Cav-1 is required for calcium entry in vascular endothelial cells and perhaps other specialized cell types containing caveolae. ..
  33. Zechel S, Werner S, Von Bohlen Und Halbach O. Distribution of TRPC4 in developing and adult murine brain. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;328:651-6 pubmed
    ..The family of classical TRPs (TRPCs) consists of seven members (TRPC1-7), with TRPC4 possibly playing a role in neuronal signaling...
  34. Boisseau S, Kunert Keil C, Lucke S, Bouron A. Heterogeneous distribution of TRPC proteins in the embryonic cortex. Histochem Cell Biol. 2009;131:355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPC1, TRPC3 and TRPC5 were the main isoforms, whereas the mRNAs for TRPC2, TRPC4, TRPC6 and TRPC7 were less abundant...
  35. Kiyozumi D, Sugimoto N, Sekiguchi K. Breakdown of the reciprocal stabilization of QBRICK/Frem1, Fras1, and Frem2 at the basement membrane provokes Fraser syndrome-like defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11981-6 pubmed
  36. Wang M, Bianchi R, Chuang S, Zhao W, Wong R. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent TRPC channel trafficking in hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem. 2007;101:411-21 pubmed
    ..Western blot analysis showed that the total TRPC4 or TRPC5 proteins in hippocampal slices were unchanged following DHPG...
  37. Vandewauw I, Owsianik G, Voets T. Systematic and quantitative mRNA expression analysis of TRP channel genes at the single trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion level in mouse. BMC Neurosci. 2013;14:21 pubmed publisher
    ..At the mRNA level, 17 of the 28 TRP channel genes, TRPA1, TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPML1 and TRPP2, were detectable in ..
  38. Mariani M, Baldessari D, Francisconi S, Viggiano L, Rocchi M, Zappavigna V, et al. Two murine and human homologs of mab-21, a cell fate determination gene involved in Caenorhabditis elegans neural development. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:2397-406 pubmed
  39. Song H, Jun H, Kim J, Fruttiger M, Kim J. Suppression of transient receptor potential canonical channel 4 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced retinal neovascularization. Cell Calcium. 2015;57:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All seven TRPC channels were expressed in mouse retina. TRPC4 channels were chosen for further analysis based on their upregulation on hypoxic retina according to the GEO ..
  40. Zhu X, Birnbaumer L. Calcium Channels Formed by Mammalian Trp Homologues. News Physiol Sci. 1998;13:211-217 pubmed
    ..Expression of Trps suggests that they form Ca(2+) influx channels regulated by either store depletion or a more upstream event. Store-operated Trp channels can be formed by heteromultimerization. ..
  41. Qian F, Huang P, Ma L, Kuznetsov A, Tamarina N, Philipson L. TRP genes: candidates for nonselective cation channels and store-operated channels in insulin-secreting cells. Diabetes. 2002;51 Suppl 1:S183-9 pubmed
    ..TRPC-like channels may provide a pathway for depolarization or Ca(2+) entry in beta-cells and may be interesting targets for manipulating beta-cell function. ..
  42. Torihashi S, Fujimoto T, Trost C, Nakayama S. Calcium oscillation linked to pacemaking of interstitial cells of Cajal: requirement of calcium influx and localization of TRP4 in caveolae. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19191-7 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrated the presence of transient receptor potential-like channel 4 (TRP4) in caveolae of ICC...
  43. Phelan K, Shwe U, Abramowitz J, Wu H, Rhee S, Howell M, et al. Canonical transient receptor channel 5 (TRPC5) and TRPC1/4 contribute to seizure and excitotoxicity by distinct cellular mechanisms. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the reduced seizure and excitotoxicity and normal spatial learning exhibited in TRPC5 KO mice suggest that TRPC5 is a promising novel molecular target for new therapy. ..
  44. Lepage P, Lussier M, McDuff F, Lavigne P, Boulay G. The self-association of two N-terminal interaction domains plays an important role in the tetramerization of TRPC4. Cell Calcium. 2009;45:251-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we used size-exclusion chromatography assays to show that the N-terminus of TRPC4 can self-associate and form a tetramer in cellulo...
  45. Fowler M, Sidiropoulou K, Ozkan E, Phillips C, Cooper D. Corticolimbic expression of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels in the rodent brain. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e573 pubmed
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR of the seven TRPC channels in the rodent brain revealed that TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels were the predominant TRPC subtypes in the adult rat brain...
  46. Gobert R, Joubert L, Curchod M, Salvat C, Foucault I, Jorand Lebrun C, et al. Convergent functional genomics of oligodendrocyte differentiation identifies multiple autoinhibitory signaling circuits. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1538-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Oligodendrocytic differentiation feedback loops may therefore yield pharmacological targets to treat disease related to dysfunctional myelin deposition. ..
  47. Poteser M, Graziani A, Rosker C, Eder P, Derler I, Kahr H, et al. TRPC3 and TRPC4 associate to form a redox-sensitive cation channel. Evidence for expression of native TRPC3-TRPC4 heteromeric channels in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:13588-95 pubmed
    ..the TRPC subunit composition of endogenous endothelial TRPC channels and report here on a redox-sensitive TRPC3-TRPC4 channel complex...
  48. Tu C, Chang W, Bikle D. Phospholipase cgamma1 is required for activation of store-operated channels in human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:187-97 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses showed that TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPC6 are expressed in keratinocytes...
  49. Wei L, Freichel M, Jaspers M, Cuppens H, Cassiman J, Droogmans G, et al. Functional interaction between TRP4 and CFTR in mouse aorta endothelial cells. BMC Physiol. 2001;1:3 pubmed
    This study describes the functional interaction between the putative Ca2+ channel TRP4 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, in mouse aorta endothelium (MAEC)...
  50. Hamanaka K, Jian M, Townsley M, King J, Liedtke W, Weber D, et al. TRPV4 channels augment macrophage activation and ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..K(f) increases correlated with tissue nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite production. ..
  51. Otsuguro K, Tang J, Tang Y, Xiao R, Freichel M, Tsvilovskyy V, et al. Isoform-specific inhibition of TRPC4 channel by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10026-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In common with other "classical" TRPCs, TRPC4 is activated by G(q)/phospholipase C-coupled receptors, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive...
  52. Faux C, Rakic S, Andrews W, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Parnavelas J. Differential gene expression in migrating cortical interneurons during mouse forebrain development. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1232-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These data therefore provide a framework for future studies aimed at elucidating the complexities of interneuron migration and, in turn, may reveal important genes that are related to the development of specific neurological disorders. ..