Trp53

Summary

Gene Symbol: Trp53
Description: transformation related protein 53
Alias: Tp53, bbl, bfy, bhy, p44, p53, cellular tumor antigen p53, mutant p53, p53 cellular tumor antigen, tumor suppressor p53, tumor supressor p53
Species: mouse
Products:     Trp53

Top Publications

  1. Lim D, Vogel H, Willerford D, Sands A, Platt K, Hasty P. Analysis of ku80-mutant mice and cells with deficient levels of p53. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3772-80 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate the role of p53 on the phenotype of ku80-mutant mice and cells...
  2. Mori N, Yamate J, Stassen A, Oka S, Okumoto M, Tsubura A, et al. Modulations of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis linked to the p53 deletion and to the apoptosis susceptibility gene Rapop1 (Radiation-induced apoptosis 1). Oncogene. 1999;18:4282-5 pubmed
    We have analysed the effects of p53 and of the apoptosis susceptibility gene Rapop1 (Radiation-induced apoptosis 1) located on chromosome 16 on glucocorticoid- and radiation-induced in vivo apoptosis of thymocytes...
  3. Nishijo K, Chen Q, Zhang L, McCleish A, Rodriguez A, Cho M, et al. Credentialing a preclinical mouse model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2902-11 pubmed publisher
    ..e., activation of Pax3:Fkhr fusion gene with either p53 or Cdkn2a inactivation...
  4. Kemp C, Donehower L, Bradley A, Balmain A. Reduction of p53 gene dosage does not increase initiation or promotion but enhances malignant progression of chemically induced skin tumors. Cell. 1993;74:813-22 pubmed
    The availability of p53 knockout mice generated by gene targeting has enabled us to investigate the functional role of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in vivo, using mouse skin as ..
  5. Kapic A, Helmbold H, Reimer R, Klotzsche O, Deppert W, Bohn W. Cooperation between p53 and p130(Rb2) in induction of cellular senescence. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:324-34 pubmed
    ..is defunct, we stably transfected the p16INK4a-negative C6 rat glioma cell line with a temperature-sensitive mutant p53. Activation of p53(Val-135) induces a switch in pocket protein expression from pRb and p107 to p130(Rb2) and ..
  6. Chi Y, Ward J, Cheng L, Yasunaga J, Jeang K. Spindle assembly checkpoint and p53 deficiencies cooperate for tumorigenesis in mice. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:1483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mice heterozygously knocked out for the mitotic arrest deficient (Mad) genes Mad1 and/or Mad2 were mated with p53(+/) (-) mice. Increased tumor frequencies were reproducibly observed in Mad2(+/) (-)p53(+/) (-) (88...
  7. Savic V, Yin B, Maas N, Bredemeyer A, Carpenter A, Helmink B, et al. Formation of dynamic gamma-H2AX domains along broken DNA strands is distinctly regulated by ATM and MDC1 and dependent upon H2AX densities in chromatin. Mol Cell. 2009;34:298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that H2AX fuels a gamma-H2AX self-reinforcing mechanism that retains MDC1 and activated ATM in chromatin near DSBs and promotes continued local phosphorylation of H2AX. ..
  8. Liu D, Song H, Xu Y. A common gain of function of p53 cancer mutants in inducing genetic instability. Oncogene. 2010;29:949-56 pubmed publisher
    The critical tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in over half of all human cancers...
  9. Guikema J, Gerstein R, Linehan E, Cloherty E, Evan Browning E, Tsuchimoto D, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2 is necessary for normal B cell development and recovery of lymphoid progenitors after chemotherapeutic challenge. J Immunol. 2011;186:1943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the production rate of pro- and pre-B cells is reduced due to a p53-dependent DNA damage response...
  10. Buschmann T, Adler V, Matusevich E, Fuchs S, Ronai Z. p53 phosphorylation and association with murine double minute 2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p14ARF, and p300/CBP during the cell cycle and after exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. Cancer Res. 2000;60:896-900 pubmed
    b>p53 phosphorylation and association with proteins is implicated in its stability and activity...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Lim D, Vogel H, Willerford D, Sands A, Platt K, Hasty P. Analysis of ku80-mutant mice and cells with deficient levels of p53. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3772-80 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate the role of p53 on the phenotype of ku80-mutant mice and cells...
  2. Mori N, Yamate J, Stassen A, Oka S, Okumoto M, Tsubura A, et al. Modulations of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis linked to the p53 deletion and to the apoptosis susceptibility gene Rapop1 (Radiation-induced apoptosis 1). Oncogene. 1999;18:4282-5 pubmed
    We have analysed the effects of p53 and of the apoptosis susceptibility gene Rapop1 (Radiation-induced apoptosis 1) located on chromosome 16 on glucocorticoid- and radiation-induced in vivo apoptosis of thymocytes...
  3. Nishijo K, Chen Q, Zhang L, McCleish A, Rodriguez A, Cho M, et al. Credentialing a preclinical mouse model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2902-11 pubmed publisher
    ..e., activation of Pax3:Fkhr fusion gene with either p53 or Cdkn2a inactivation...
  4. Kemp C, Donehower L, Bradley A, Balmain A. Reduction of p53 gene dosage does not increase initiation or promotion but enhances malignant progression of chemically induced skin tumors. Cell. 1993;74:813-22 pubmed
    The availability of p53 knockout mice generated by gene targeting has enabled us to investigate the functional role of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in vivo, using mouse skin as ..
  5. Kapic A, Helmbold H, Reimer R, Klotzsche O, Deppert W, Bohn W. Cooperation between p53 and p130(Rb2) in induction of cellular senescence. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:324-34 pubmed
    ..is defunct, we stably transfected the p16INK4a-negative C6 rat glioma cell line with a temperature-sensitive mutant p53. Activation of p53(Val-135) induces a switch in pocket protein expression from pRb and p107 to p130(Rb2) and ..
  6. Chi Y, Ward J, Cheng L, Yasunaga J, Jeang K. Spindle assembly checkpoint and p53 deficiencies cooperate for tumorigenesis in mice. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:1483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mice heterozygously knocked out for the mitotic arrest deficient (Mad) genes Mad1 and/or Mad2 were mated with p53(+/) (-) mice. Increased tumor frequencies were reproducibly observed in Mad2(+/) (-)p53(+/) (-) (88...
  7. Savic V, Yin B, Maas N, Bredemeyer A, Carpenter A, Helmink B, et al. Formation of dynamic gamma-H2AX domains along broken DNA strands is distinctly regulated by ATM and MDC1 and dependent upon H2AX densities in chromatin. Mol Cell. 2009;34:298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that H2AX fuels a gamma-H2AX self-reinforcing mechanism that retains MDC1 and activated ATM in chromatin near DSBs and promotes continued local phosphorylation of H2AX. ..
  8. Liu D, Song H, Xu Y. A common gain of function of p53 cancer mutants in inducing genetic instability. Oncogene. 2010;29:949-56 pubmed publisher
    The critical tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in over half of all human cancers...
  9. Guikema J, Gerstein R, Linehan E, Cloherty E, Evan Browning E, Tsuchimoto D, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2 is necessary for normal B cell development and recovery of lymphoid progenitors after chemotherapeutic challenge. J Immunol. 2011;186:1943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the production rate of pro- and pre-B cells is reduced due to a p53-dependent DNA damage response...
  10. Buschmann T, Adler V, Matusevich E, Fuchs S, Ronai Z. p53 phosphorylation and association with murine double minute 2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p14ARF, and p300/CBP during the cell cycle and after exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. Cancer Res. 2000;60:896-900 pubmed
    b>p53 phosphorylation and association with proteins is implicated in its stability and activity...
  11. Singh S, Ramamoorthy M, Vaughan C, Yeudall W, Deb S, Palit Deb S. Human oncoprotein MDM2 activates the Akt signaling pathway through an interaction with the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor conferring a survival advantage to cancer cells. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:558-66 pubmed publisher
    ..human oncoprotein mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), leading to its nuclear translocation and degradation of the tumor suppressor p53. Here we report a novel Akt signaling pathway elicited by MDM2...
  12. Ikehata H, Okuyama R, Ogawa E, Nakamura S, Usami A, Mori T, et al. Influences of p53 deficiency on the apoptotic response, DNA damage removal and mutagenesis in UVB-exposed mouse skin. Mutagenesis. 2010;25:397-405 pubmed publisher
    b>p53 suppresses the genomic instability provoked by genotoxic agents...
  13. Schaffer B, Park K, Yiu G, Conklin J, Lin C, Burkhart D, et al. Loss of p130 accelerates tumor development in a mouse model for human small-cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3877-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A mouse model has been developed based on the fact that the RB and p53 tumor suppressor genes are mutated in more than 90% of human SCLCs...
  14. Park K, Martelotto L, Peifer M, Sos M, Karnezis A, Mahjoub M, et al. A crucial requirement for Hedgehog signaling in small cell lung cancer. Nat Med. 2011;17:1504-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a mouse model in which deletion of Rb1 and Trp53 in the lung epithelium of adult mice induces SCLC, we found that the Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in ..
  15. Moral M, Segrelles C, Lara M, Martínez Cruz A, Lorz C, Santos M, et al. Akt activation synergizes with Trp53 loss in oral epithelium to produce a novel mouse model for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1099-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mice displaying constitutive Akt activity (myrAkt) in combination with Trp53 loss in stratified epithelia develop oral cavity tumors that phenocopy human HNSCC...
  16. Slee E, Lu X. In the right place at the right time: analysis of p53 serine 312 phosphorylation in vivo. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1345-6 pubmed
  17. Shinmura K, Bennett R, Tarapore P, Fukasawa K. Direct evidence for the role of centrosomally localized p53 in the regulation of centrosome duplication. Oncogene. 2007;26:2939-44 pubmed
    ..b>p53 tumor suppressor protein is involved in the regulation of centrosome duplication: loss of p53 as well as expression ..
  18. Maetens M, Doumont G, Clercq S, Francoz S, Froment P, Bellefroid E, et al. Distinct roles of Mdm2 and Mdm4 in red cell production. Blood. 2007;109:2630-3 pubmed
    Mdm2 and Mdm4 are critical negative regulators of the p53 tumor suppressor. Mdm4-null mutants are severely anemic and exhibit impaired proliferation of the fetal liver erythroid lineage cells...
  19. Frenzel A, Labi V, Chmelewskij W, Ploner C, Geley S, Fiegl H, et al. Suppression of B-cell lymphomagenesis by the BH3-only proteins Bmf and Bad. Blood. 2010;115:995-1005 pubmed publisher
    Oncogenic c-Myc is known to balance excessive proliferation by apoptosis that can be triggered by p53-dependent and p53-independent signaling networks...
  20. Mito J, Riedel R, Dodd L, Lahat G, Lazar A, Dodd R, et al. Cross species genomic analysis identifies a mouse model as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8075 pubmed publisher
    ..Using cross species genomic analysis, we define a geneset from the LSL-Kras(G12D); Trp53(Flox/Flox) mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma that is highly enriched in human MFH...
  21. Rooney S, Sekiguchi J, Whitlow S, Eckersdorff M, Manis J, Lee C, et al. Artemis and p53 cooperate to suppress oncogenic N-myc amplification in progenitor B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2410-5 pubmed
    ..Mice doubly deficient for the five previously analyzed NHEJ factors and p53 inevitably develop progenitor B lymphomas harboring der(12)t(12;15) translocations and immunoglobin heavy chain (..
  22. Eischen C, Woo D, Roussel M, Cleveland J. Apoptosis triggered by Myc-induced suppression of Bcl-X(L) or Bcl-2 is bypassed during lymphomagenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5063-70 pubmed
    ..Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-X(L) overexpression did not correlate with loss of ARF or p53 function in tumor cells, indicating that these two apoptotic pathways are inactivated independently...
  23. Post S, Quintas Cardama A, Pant V, Iwakuma T, Hamir A, Jackson J, et al. A high-frequency regulatory polymorphism in the p53 pathway accelerates tumor development. Cancer Cell. 2010;18:220-30 pubmed publisher
    MDM2, a negative regulator of p53, is elevated in many cancers that retain wild-type p53. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human MDM2 promoter increases the affinity of Sp1 resulting in elevated MDM2 levels...
  24. Jenkins L, Durell S, Mazur S, Appella E. p53 N-terminal phosphorylation: a defining layer of complex regulation. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:1441-9 pubmed publisher
    The p53 tumor suppressor is a critical component of the cellular response to stress. As it can inhibit cell growth, p53 is mutated or functionally inactivated in most tumors...
  25. Weiss W, Burns M, Hackett C, Aldape K, Hill J, Kuriyama H, et al. Genetic determinants of malignancy in a mouse model for oligodendroglioma. Cancer Res. 2003;63:1589-95 pubmed
    ..These mice developed low-grade oligodendroglioma. Transgenic animals heterozygous for ink4a/arf or p53 developed high-grade tumors...
  26. Zhao Y, Coloff J, Ferguson E, Jacobs S, Cui K, Rathmell J. Glucose metabolism attenuates p53 and Puma-dependent cell death upon growth factor deprivation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Puma induction in growth factor or glucose withdrawal was dependent on p53 in cell lines and in activated primary T lymphocytes because p53 deficiency suppressed Puma induction and delayed ..
  27. MacPherson D, Sage J, Kim T, Ho D, McLaughlin M, Jacks T. Cell type-specific effects of Rb deletion in the murine retina. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1681-94 pubmed
    ..In late embryogenesis, Rb-deficient retinas exhibited ectopic S-phase and high levels of p53-independent apoptosis, particularly in the differentiating retinal ganglion cell layer...
  28. Hulla J, French J, Dunnick J. Chromosome 11 allelotypes reflect a mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis in heterozygous p53-deficient mice. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:89-98 pubmed
    ..p-cresidine-induced bladder carcinomas and phenolphthalein-induced thymic lymphomas were allelotyped at the Trp53 locus and chromosome 11 simple sequence length polymorphic (SSLP) loci...
  29. Kumar M, Pester R, Chen C, Lane K, Chin C, Lu J, et al. Dicer1 functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2700-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest Dicer1 may be an important haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene and, furthermore, that other factors controlling miRNA biogenesis may also function in this manner. ..
  30. Bornachea O, Santos M, Martínez Cruz A, García Escudero R, Dueñas M, Costa C, et al. EMT and induction of miR-21 mediate metastasis development in Trp53-deficient tumours. Sci Rep. 2012;2:434 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that squamous cell carcinomas generated by the specific ablation of Trp53 gene in mouse epidermis are highly metastatic...
  31. Yu D, Carroll M, Thomas Tikhonenko A. p53 status dictates responses of B lymphomas to monotherapy with proteasome inhibitors. Blood. 2007;109:4936-43 pubmed
    ..p53ER(TAM) status can be rapidly toggled between "off" and "on" with 4OHT, provided that the Trp53 promoter has been independently activated...
  32. Blackburn A, McLary S, Naeem R, Luszcz J, Stockton D, Donehower L, et al. Loss of heterozygosity occurs via mitotic recombination in Trp53+/- mice and associates with mammary tumor susceptibility of the BALB/c strain. Cancer Res. 2004;64:5140-7 pubmed
    ..BALB/c-Trp53(+/-) mice are a model of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, exhibiting a high frequency of mammary tumors and other tumor types ..
  33. Halberg R, Katzung D, Hoff P, Moser A, Cole C, Lubet R, et al. Tumorigenesis in the multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse: redundancy of negative regulators and specificity of modifiers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3461-6 pubmed
    The interaction between mutations in the tumor-suppressor genes Apc and p53 was studied in congenic mouse strains to minimize the influence of polymorphic modifiers...
  34. Demidov O, Timofeev O, Lwin H, Kek C, Appella E, Bulavin D. Wip1 phosphatase regulates p53-dependent apoptosis of stem cells and tumorigenesis in the mouse intestine. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1:180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This protection was dependent on the p53 tumor suppressor, which plays a putative role in the regulation of apoptosis of intestinal stem cells...
  35. DuPage M, Cheung A, Mazumdar C, Winslow M, Bronson R, Schmidt L, et al. Endogenous T cell responses to antigens expressed in lung adenocarcinomas delay malignant tumor progression. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:72-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insight into the dynamic nature of the immune response to naturally arising tumors. ..
  36. McClatchey A, Saotome I, Mercer K, Crowley D, Gusella J, Bronson R, et al. Mice heterozygous for a mutation at the Nf2 tumor suppressor locus develop a range of highly metastatic tumors. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1121-33 pubmed
    ..Using the fact that Nf2 is linked to the p53 tumor suppressor locus in the mouse we have also investigated the effects of genetic linkage of cancer-predisposing ..
  37. Wang L, Bowman L, Lu Y, Rojanasakul Y, Mercer R, Castranova V, et al. Essential role of p53 in silica-induced apoptosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;288:L488-96 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. Because p53 is a key transcription factor regulating many important apoptosis-related genes, we hypothesized that p53 may play ..
  38. Calbo J, Meuwissen R, van Montfort E, van Tellingen O, Berns A. Genotype-phenotype relationships in a mouse model for human small-cell lung cancer. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2005;70:225-32 pubmed
    ..We have previously described a mouse model of SCLC by somatic conditional disruption of Trp53 and Rb1 genes that closely resembles the human condition...
  39. Isakoff M, Sansam C, Tamayo P, Subramanian A, Evans J, Fillmore C, et al. Inactivation of the Snf5 tumor suppressor stimulates cell cycle progression and cooperates with p53 loss in oncogenic transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17745-50 pubmed
    ..of cell cycle progression; Snf5 inactivation leads to aberrant up-regulation of E2F targets and increased levels of p53 that are accompanied by apoptosis, polyploidy, and growth arrest...
  40. Chen Y, Klimstra D, Mongeau M, Tatem J, Boyartchuk V, Lewis B. Loss of p53 and Ink4a/Arf cooperate in a cell autonomous fashion to induce metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:7589-96 pubmed
    ..the somatic introduction of the mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen to mice with liver-specific deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor locus and show the cell autonomous effect of p53 loss of function on HCC metastasis...
  41. Zhang J, Schweers B, Dyer M. The first knockout mouse model of retinoblastoma. Cell Cycle. 2004;3:952-9 pubmed
    ..These mice are being used as a preclinical model to test new therapies for retinoblastoma and to elucidate the downstream genetic events that occur after inactivation of Rb1 or its related family members. ..
  42. Evers B, Speksnijder E, Schut E, Ciampricotti M, Smalley M, Derksen P, et al. A tissue reconstitution model to study cancer cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors in mammary tumourigenesis. J Pathol. 2010;220:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that cleared fat-pad transplantations with MMECs isolated from K14cre;Cdh1(F/F); Trp53(F/F) mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the cytokeratin-14 promoter and carrying conditional null ..
  43. French J, Lacks G, Trempus C, Dunnick J, Foley J, Mahler J, et al. Loss of heterozygosity frequency at the Trp53 locus in p53-deficient (+/-) mouse tumors is carcinogen-and tissue-dependent. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:99-106 pubmed
    Mutagenic carcinogens rapidly induced tumors in the p53 haploinsufficient mouse...
  44. Medina D, Ullrich R, Meyn R, Wiseman R, Donehower L. Environmental carcinogens and p53 tumor-suppressor gene interactions in a transgenic mouse model for mammary carcinogenesis. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2002;39:178-83 pubmed
    ..e., Brca1/2, p53), and gene products of modifier genes...
  45. Li H, Choi Y, Hanes M, Marple T, Vogel H, Hasty P. Deleting Ku70 is milder than deleting Ku80 in p53-mutant mice and cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:1875-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, deletion of Ku80 along with the cell cycle checkpoint protein, p53, dramatically increases the incidence of pro-B-cell lymphoma...
  46. Zhu F, Dollé M, Berton T, Kuiper R, Capps C, Espejo A, et al. Mouse models for the p53 R72P polymorphism mimic human phenotypes. Cancer Res. 2010;70:5851-9 pubmed publisher
    The p53 tumor suppressor gene contains a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that results in either an arginine or proline at position 72 of the p53 protein...
  47. Laurie N, Donovan S, Shih C, Zhang J, Mills N, Fuller C, et al. Inactivation of the p53 pathway in retinoblastoma. Nature. 2006;444:61-6 pubmed
    Most human tumours have genetic mutations in their Rb and p53 pathways, but retinoblastoma is thought to be an exception...
  48. Ji H, Ramsey M, Hayes D, Fan C, McNamara K, Kozlowski P, et al. LKB1 modulates lung cancer differentiation and metastasis. Nature. 2007;448:807-10 pubmed
    ..Although Kras mutation cooperated with loss of p53 or Ink4a/Arf (also known as Cdkn2a) in this system, the strongest cooperation was seen with homozygous inactivation ..
  49. Guerra C, Collado M, Navas C, Schuhmacher A, Hernández Porras I, Canamero M, et al. Pancreatitis-induced inflammation contributes to pancreatic cancer by inhibiting oncogene-induced senescence. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:728-39 pubmed publisher
    ..some of the most robust oncogenic insults including expression of K-Ras oncogenes and loss of p16Ink4a/p19Arf or Trp53 tumor suppressors...
  50. Zhao Y, Oberley T, Chaiswing L, Lin S, Epstein C, Huang T, et al. Manganese superoxide dismutase deficiency enhances cell turnover via tumor promoter-induced alterations in AP-1 and p53-mediated pathways in a skin cancer model. Oncogene. 2002;21:3836-46 pubmed
    ..Apoptosis was associated with an increase in nuclear levels of p53 as determined by Western analysis...
  51. Liu Y, Elf S, Miyata Y, Sashida G, Liu Y, Huang G, et al. p53 regulates hematopoietic stem cell quiescence. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:37-48 pubmed publisher
    The importance of the p53 protein in the cellular response to DNA damage is well known, but its function during steady-state hematopoiesis has not been established...
  52. Harvey M, McArthur M, Montgomery C, Butel J, Bradley A, Donehower L. Spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in p53-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 1993;5:225-9 pubmed
    Using gene targeting techniques, mice that have been generated with two germ-line p53 null alleles (homozygotes) develop normally but are highly susceptible to early onset spontaneous tumours...
  53. O KEEFE K, Li H, Zhang Y. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p53 is essential for MDM2-mediated cytoplasmic degradation but not ubiquitination. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6396-405 pubmed
    As a shuttling protein, p53 is constantly transported through the nuclear pore complex...
  54. Cregan S, Arbour N, Maclaurin J, Callaghan S, Fortin A, Cheung E, et al. p53 activation domain 1 is essential for PUMA upregulation and p53-mediated neuronal cell death. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10003-12 pubmed
    The p53 tumor suppressor gene has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis in a number of different neuronal death paradigms...
  55. Abe Y, Oda Sato E, Tobiume K, Kawauchi K, Taya Y, Okamoto K, et al. Hedgehog signaling overrides p53-mediated tumor suppression by activating Mdm2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4838-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Smo), a transducer of the Hh signaling pathway, inhibit the accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. This inhibition was also observed in the presence of Hh ligand or with the overexpression of the transcription ..
  56. Huse J, Holland E. Genetically engineered mouse models of brain cancer and the promise of preclinical testing. Brain Pathol. 2009;19:132-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Examples showcasing the use of GEMMs in the testing of molecularly targeted therapeutics are given, and relevant topics, such as stem cell biology, in vivo imaging technology and radiotherapy, are also addressed. ..
  57. Chen Z, Carracedo A, Lin H, Koutcher J, Behrendt N, Egia A, et al. Differential p53-independent outcomes of p19(Arf) loss in oncogenesis. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra44 pubmed publisher
    One reported function of the tumor suppressor p19(Arf) is to stabilize p53, providing a critical checkpoint in the response to oncogenic insults...
  58. Lee Y, Chong M, McKinnon P. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated-dependent apoptosis after genotoxic stress in the developing nervous system is determined by cellular differentiation status. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6687-93 pubmed
    ..Atm-dependent apoptosis required p53 and coincided with the specific phosphorylation of p53 and caspase-3 activation...
  59. Calao M, Sekyere E, Cui H, Cheung B, Thomas W, Keating J, et al. Direct effects of Bmi1 on p53 protein stability inactivates oncoprotein stress responses in embryonal cancer precursor cells at tumor initiation. Oncogene. 2013;32:3616-26 pubmed publisher
    ..from postnatally persistent embryonal remnant or rest cells, which are uniquely characterized by the absence of p53 mutations...
  60. Schmitt C, McCurrach M, de Stanchina E, Wallace Brodeur R, Lowe S. INK4a/ARF mutations accelerate lymphomagenesis and promote chemoresistance by disabling p53. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2670-7 pubmed
    The INK4a/ARF locus encodes upstream regulators of the retinoblastoma and p53 tumor suppressor gene products...
  61. Reichert M, Takano S, von Burstin J, Kim S, Lee J, Ihida Stansbury K, et al. The Prrx1 homeodomain transcription factor plays a central role in pancreatic regeneration and carcinogenesis. Genes Dev. 2013;27:288-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Prrx1b is enriched in circulating pancreatic cells (Pdx1cre;LSL-Kras(G12D/+);p53(fl/+);R26YFP)...
  62. Akdemir K, Jain A, Allton K, Aronow B, Xu X, Cooney A, et al. Genome-wide profiling reveals stimulus-specific functions of p53 during differentiation and DNA damage of human embryonic stem cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:205-23 pubmed publisher
    How tumor suppressor p53 selectively responds to specific signals, especially in normal cells, is poorly understood...