Trem2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Trem2
Description: triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2
Alias: TREM-2, Trem2a, Trem2b, Trem2c, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2, triggering receptor expressed on monocytes 2, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2a, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2b, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2c
Species: mouse
Products:     Trem2

Top Publications

  1. Prada I, Ongania G, Buonsanti C, Panina Bordignon P, Meldolesi J. Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) trafficking in microglial cells: continuous shuttling to and from the plasma membrane regulated by cell stimulation. Neuroscience. 2006;140:1139-48 pubmed
  2. Wakselman S, Béchade C, Roumier A, Bernard D, Triller A, Bessis A. Developmental neuronal death in hippocampus requires the microglial CD11b integrin and DAP12 immunoreceptor. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that the process of developmental neuronal death triggered by microglia is similar to the elimination of pathogenic cells by the innate immune cells. ..
  3. Guerreiro R, Wojtas A, Bras J, Carrasquillo M, Rogaeva E, Majounie E, et al. TREM2 variants in Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:117-27 pubmed publisher
    Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in TREM2, encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 protein, have previously been associated with an autosomal recessive form of early-onset dementia...
  4. Hamerman J, Jarjoura J, Humphrey M, Nakamura M, Seaman W, Lanier L. Cutting edge: inhibition of TLR and FcR responses in macrophages by triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 and DAP12. J Immunol. 2006;177:2051-5 pubmed
    ..A TREM-2 Fc fusion protein bound to macrophages, indicating that macrophages express a TREM-2 ligand. Thus, the interaction of TREM-2 and its ligand results in an inhibitory signal that can reduce the inflammatory response. ..
  5. Seno H, Miyoshi H, Brown S, Geske M, Colonna M, Stappenbeck T. Efficient colonic mucosal wound repair requires Trem2 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:256-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This increased epithelial proliferation was coincident with the infiltration of Trem2 expressing macrophages and increased expression of IL-4 and IL-13 in the wound bed...
  6. Chen Q, Zhang K, Jin Y, Zhu T, Cheng B, Shu Q, et al. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 protects against polymicrobial sepsis by enhancing bacterial clearance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188:201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..TREM-2 not only functions as a regulator of inflammatory response, but also serves as a phagocytic receptor for bacteria. However, the role of TREM-2 in sepsis remains unknown...
  7. Thrash J, Torbett B, Carson M. Developmental regulation of TREM2 and DAP12 expression in the murine CNS: implications for Nasu-Hakola disease. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:38-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Trem2 is an orphan, DAP12 associated receptor constitutively expressed in vivo by subsets of microglia in the healthy adult murine CNS and in vitro by subsets of oligodendrocytes in neonatal mixed glial cultures...
  8. Charles J, Humphrey M, Zhao X, Quarles E, Nakamura M, Aderem A, et al. The innate immune response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by macrophages is dependent on TREM2-DAP12. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that serovar Typhimurium induces ROS through a pathway that requires both triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) and DAP12...
  9. Takahashi K, Prinz M, Stagi M, Chechneva O, Neumann H. TREM2-transduced myeloid precursors mediate nervous tissue debris clearance and facilitate recovery in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e124 pubmed
    ..of the central nervous system (CNS), are hematopoietic-derived myeloid cells and express the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), an innate immune receptor...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Turnbull I, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Aoshi T, Miller M, Piccio L, et al. Cutting edge: TREM-2 attenuates macrophage activation. J Immunol. 2006;177:3520-4 pubmed
    The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) delivers intracellular signals through the adaptor DAP12 to regulate myeloid cell function both within and outside the immune system...
  2. Correale C, Genua M, Vetrano S, Mazzini E, Martinoli C, Spinelli A, et al. Bacterial sensor triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 regulates the mucosal inflammatory response. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:346-356.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the expression of TREM-2 in the intestinal lamina propria and its role in the development of colonic inflammation...
  3. Ito H, Hamerman J. TREM-2, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-2, negatively regulates TLR responses in dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we showed that a TREM-2 ligand is expressed on the surface of BMDCs, suggesting that the TREM-2 receptor transduces inhibitory signals due to recognition of an endogenous ligand. ..
  4. Hsieh C, Koike M, Spusta S, Niemi E, Yenari M, Nakamura M, et al. A role for TREM2 ligands in the phagocytosis of apoptotic neuronal cells by microglia. J Neurochem. 2009;109:1144-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior evidence indicates triggering receptor expressed by myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) promotes phagocytosis and retards inflammation...
  5. Piccio L, Buonsanti C, Mariani M, Cella M, Gilfillan S, Cross A, et al. Blockade of TREM-2 exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1290-301 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for TREM-2 during inflammatory responses in the CNS. ..
  6. Humphrey M, Daws M, Spusta S, Niemi E, Torchia J, Lanier L, et al. TREM2, a DAP12-associated receptor, regulates osteoclast differentiation and function. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:237-45 pubmed
    Deficiency of the signaling adapter protein DAP12 or its associated receptor TREM2 is associated with abnormal OC development in humans...
  7. Koth L, Cambier C, Ellwanger A, Solon M, Hou L, Lanier L, et al. DAP12 is required for macrophage recruitment to the lung in response to cigarette smoke and chemotaxis toward CCL2. J Immunol. 2010;184:6522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..previously found that two DAP12-associated receptors, myeloid DAP12-associated lectin-1 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), were highly induced in alveolar macrophages from habitual smokers...
  8. Zhao Y, Bhattacharjee S, Jones B, Dua P, Alexandrov P, Hill J, et al. Regulation of TREM2 expression by an NF-?B-sensitive miRNA-34a. Neuroreport. 2013;24:318-23 pubmed publisher
    Genetic deficits and loss of function for the triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2; encoded at chr6p21...
  9. Lanier L. DAP10- and DAP12-associated receptors in innate immunity. Immunol Rev. 2009;227:150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..DAP10- and DAP12-associated receptors have been shown to recognize both host-encoded ligands and ligands encoded by microbial pathogens, indicating that they play an important role in innate immune responses. ..
  10. Otero K, Shinohara M, Zhao H, Cella M, Gilfillan S, Colucci A, et al. TREM2 and ?-catenin regulate bone homeostasis by controlling the rate of osteoclastogenesis. J Immunol. 2012;188:2612-21 pubmed publisher
    b>TREM2 is an immunoreceptor expressed on osteoclasts (OC) and microglia that transmits intracellular signals through the adaptor DAP12...
  11. Sieber M, Jaenisch N, Brehm M, Guenther M, Linnartz Gerlach B, Neumann H, et al. Attenuated inflammatory response in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) knock-out mice following stroke. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52982 pubmed publisher
    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is a microglial surface receptor involved in phagocytosis...
  12. Takahashi K, Rochford C, Neumann H. Clearance of apoptotic neurons without inflammation by microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2. J Exp Med. 2005;201:647-57 pubmed
    ..Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is a recently identified innate immune receptor. Here, we show expression of TREM2 in microglia...
  13. Schmid C, Sautkulis L, Danielson P, Cooper J, Hasel K, Hilbush B, et al. Heterogeneous expression of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 on adult murine microglia. J Neurochem. 2002;83:1309-20 pubmed
  14. Hemmi H, Idoyaga J, Suda K, Suda N, Kennedy K, Noda M, et al. A new triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) family member, Trem-like 4, binds to dead cells and is a DNAX activation protein 12-linked marker for subsets of mouse macrophages and dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:1278-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, Treml4 is a new Trem family molecule that is abundantly expressed on CD8alpha(+) DCs and subsets of splenic resident macrophages, and can recognize dead cells by different types of phagocytes in spleen. ..
  15. Zhu M, Li D, Wu Y, Huang X, Wu M. TREM-2 promotes macrophage-mediated eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via a PI3K/Akt pathway. Scand J Immunol. 2014;79:187-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) is a cell surface receptor abundantly expressed on myeloid lineage cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells...
  16. Daws M, Lanier L, Seaman W, Ryan J. Cloning and characterization of a novel mouse myeloid DAP12-associated receptor family. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:783-91 pubmed
    ..Our studies define TREM-2 as a receptor family in mouse macrophages and demonstrate the capacity of these receptors to activate macrophage function through DAP12. ..
  17. Jiang T, Tan L, Zhu X, Zhou J, Cao L, Tan M, et al. Silencing of TREM2 exacerbates tau pathology, neurodegenerative changes, and spatial learning deficits in P301S tau transgenic mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36:3176-3186 pubmed publisher
    ..As a novel susceptibility gene for these 2 diseases, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene encodes an immune receptor that is uniquely expressed by microglia...
  18. Krasemann S, Madore C, Cialic R, Baufeld C, Calcagno N, El Fatimy R, et al. The TREM2-APOE Pathway Drives the Transcriptional Phenotype of Dysfunctional Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Immunity. 2017;47:566-581.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2) induced APOE signaling, and targeting the TREM2-APOE pathway restored the homeostatic ..
  19. Hayashi M, Nakashima T, Taniguchi M, Kodama T, Kumanogoh A, Takayanagi H. Osteoprotection by semaphorin 3A. Nature. 2012;485:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravenous Sema3A administration in mice increased bone volume and expedited bone regeneration. Thus, Sema3A is a promising new therapeutic agent in bone and joint diseases. ..
  20. Zhao Y, Wu X, Li X, Jiang L, Gui X, Liu Y, et al. TREM2 Is a Receptor for β-Amyloid that Mediates Microglial Function. Neuron. 2018;97:1023-1031.e7 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have been linked to increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Neurobiological functions of TREM2 and its pathophysiological ligands remain elusive...
  21. Yoon S, Lee Y, Ha J, Lee Y, Kim H. TLT-1s, alternative transcripts of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-like transcript-1 (TLT-1), Inhibits the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-2 (TREM-2)-mediated signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:29620-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 and SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase-1 and recruited them to the TREM2-ITAM signaling complex...
  22. Peng Q, Malhotra S, Torchia J, Kerr W, Coggeshall K, Humphrey M. TREM2- and DAP12-dependent activation of PI3K requires DAP10 and is inhibited by SHIP1. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2) is the main DAP12-associated receptor in osteoclasts and, ..
  23. Chung D, Seaman W, Daws M. Characterization of TREM-3, an activating receptor on mouse macrophages: definition of a family of single Ig domain receptors on mouse chromosome 17. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:59-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, TREM-3 is a novel member of a family of immunoglobulin receptors that form an innate immune gene complex on chromosome 17. ..
  24. Sun M, Zhu M, Chen K, Nie X, Deng Q, Hazlett L, et al. TREM-2 promotes host resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by suppressing corneal inflammation via a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:3451-62 pubmed publisher
    To explore the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis...
  25. Cantoni C, Bollman B, Licastro D, Xie M, Mikesell R, Schmidt R, et al. TREM2 regulates microglial cell activation in response to demyelination in vivo. Acta Neuropathol. 2015;129:429-47 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial immunoreceptor whose loss-of-function mutations in humans cause ..
  26. Ulland T, Song W, Huang S, ULRICH J, Sergushichev A, Beatty W, et al. TREM2 Maintains Microglial Metabolic Fitness in Alzheimer's Disease. Cell. 2017;170:649-663.e13 pubmed publisher
    Elevated risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with hypomorphic variants of TREM2, a surface receptor required for microglial responses to neurodegeneration, including proliferation, survival, clustering, and ..
  27. Daws M, Sullam P, Niemi E, Chen T, Tchao N, Seaman W. Pattern recognition by TREM-2: binding of anionic ligands. J Immunol. 2003;171:594-9 pubmed
  28. Liu D, Dong Y, Liu Z, Niu B, Wang Y, Gao X. Impact of TREM-2 gene silencing on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in mice. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;394:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This study indicates that TREM-2 has a protective effect on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced ALI in mice, which has provided new potential targets for prevention and treatment of ALI. ..
  29. Jay T, Miller C, Cheng P, Graham L, Bemiller S, Broihier M, et al. TREM2 deficiency eliminates TREM2+ inflammatory macrophages and ameliorates pathology in Alzheimer's disease mouse models. J Exp Med. 2015;212:287-95 pubmed publisher
    Variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) confer high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases...
  30. Yuan P, Condello C, Keene C, Wang Y, Bird T, Paul S, et al. TREM2 Haplodeficiency in Mice and Humans Impairs the Microglia Barrier Function Leading to Decreased Amyloid Compaction and Severe Axonal Dystrophy. Neuron. 2016;90:724-39 pubmed publisher
    Haplodeficiency of the microglia gene TREM2 increases risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the mechanisms remain uncertain...
  31. Zheng H, Liu C, Atagi Y, Chen X, Jia L, Yang L, et al. Opposing roles of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-like transcript 2 in microglia activation. Neurobiol Aging. 2016;42:132-41 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), which has been proposed to regulate the inflammatory responses and the clearance of apoptotic neurons and/or amyloid-?, are genetically linked to increased risk for ..
  32. ULRICH J, Finn M, Wang Y, Shen A, Mahan T, Jiang H, et al. Altered microglial response to A? plaques in APPPS1-21 mice heterozygous for TREM2. Mol Neurodegener. 2014;9:20 pubmed publisher
    Recent genome-wide association studies linked variants in TREM2 to a strong increase in the odds of developing Alzheimer's disease. The mechanism by which TREM2 influences the susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease is currently unknown...
  33. Bouchon A, Dietrich J, Colonna M. Cutting edge: inflammatory responses can be triggered by TREM-1, a novel receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes. J Immunol. 2000;164:4991-5 pubmed
    ..To mediate activation, TREM-1 associates with the transmembrane adapter molecule DAP12. Thus, TREM-1 mediates activation of neutrophil and monocytes, and may have a predominant role in inflammatory responses. ..
  34. Zhong L, Zhang Z, Li X, Liao C, Mou P, Wang T, et al. TREM2/DAP12 Complex Regulates Inflammatory Responses in Microglia via the JNK Signaling Pathway. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:204 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, TREM1 acts as an amplifier of the immune response, while TREM2 functions as a negative regulator...
  35. Varnum M, Clayton K, Yoshii Kitahara A, Yonemoto G, Koro L, Ikezu S, et al. A split-luciferase complementation, real-time reporting assay enables monitoring of the disease-associated transmembrane protein TREM2 in live cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10651-10663 pubmed publisher
    b>Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a single transmembrane molecule uniquely expressed in microglia...
  36. Weehuizen T, Hommes T, Lankelma J, de Jong H, Roelofs J, de Vos A, et al. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM)-2 Impairs Host Defense in Experimental Melioidosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0004747 pubmed publisher
  37. Barrow A, Raynal N, Andersen T, Slatter D, Bihan D, Pugh N, et al. OSCAR is a collagen receptor that costimulates osteoclastogenesis in DAP12-deficient humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3505-16 pubmed publisher
  38. Zhu C, Herrmann U, Li B, Abakumova I, Moos R, Schwarz P, et al. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 is involved in prion-induced microglial activation but does not contribute to prion pathogenesis in mouse brains. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36:1994-2003 pubmed publisher
    Dysfunctional variants of the innate immune cell surface receptor TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2) were identified as major genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions...
  39. Saber M, Kokiko Cochran O, Puntambekar S, Lathia J, Lamb B. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 Deficiency Alters Acute Macrophage Distribution and Improves Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2017;34:423-435 pubmed publisher
    ..This includes genetic studies demonstrating that mutations in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is associated with a higher risk for not only AD but also multiple neurodegenerative ..
  40. Whittaker G, Orr S, Quigley L, Hughes L, Francischetti I, Zhang W, et al. The linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/non-T cell activation linker (NTAL) regulates triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 signaling and macrophage inflammatory responses independently of the linker for activation of T cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data identify LAB as a critical, LAT-independent regulator of TREM-2 signaling and macrophage development capable of controlling subsequent inflammatory responses. ..
  41. Floyd H, Jennings Gee J, Kock N, Miller M. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung tumors from bitransgenic Ki-rasG12C expressing mice. Mol Carcinog. 2006;45:506-17 pubmed
  42. Jay T, Hirsch A, Broihier M, Miller C, Neilson L, Ransohoff R, et al. Disease Progression-Dependent Effects of TREM2 Deficiency in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. J Neurosci. 2017;37:637-647 pubmed publisher
    ..of immune-related genetic risk factors for AD, including coding variants in the gene TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2)...
  43. Quan D, Cooper M, Potter J, Roberts M, Cheng H, Jarvis G. TREM-2 binds to lipooligosaccharides of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and is expressed on reproductive tract epithelial cells. Mucosal Immunol. 2008;1:229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that gonococci can interact with TREM-2 receptors through binding to LOS and Opa protein and initiate cell signaling and cytokine production. ..
  44. Kang S, Kurti A, Baker K, Liu C, Colonna M, ULRICH J, et al. Behavioral and transcriptomic analysis of Trem2-null mice: not all knockout mice are created equal. Hum Mol Genet. 2018;27:211-223 pubmed publisher
    ..Human genetic studies have demonstrated that triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) coding variants have a strong association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases...
  45. Wu K, Byers D, Jin X, Agapov E, Alexander Brett J, Patel A, et al. TREM-2 promotes macrophage survival and lung disease after respiratory viral infection. J Exp Med. 2015;212:681-97 pubmed publisher
  46. Hommes T, Dessing M, Veer C, Florquin S, Colonna M, de Vos A, et al. Role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1/3 in Klebsiella-derived pneumosepsis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;53:647-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Although TREM-1/3 and TREM-2 influence macrophage responsiveness to K. pneumoniae in vitro, only TREM-1/3 contribute to the host response during Klebsiella pneumonia in vivo, serving a protective role. ..
  47. Atagi Y, Liu C, Painter M, Chen X, Verbeeck C, Zheng H, et al. Apolipoprotein E Is a Ligand for Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2). J Biol Chem. 2015;290:26043-50 pubmed publisher
    Several heterozygous missense mutations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have recently been linked to risk for a number of neurological disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, and ..
  48. Poliani P, Wang Y, Fontana E, Robinette M, Yamanishi Y, Gilfillan S, et al. TREM2 sustains microglial expansion during aging and response to demyelination. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Like other tissue-resident macrophage populations, microglia express the surface receptor triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), which binds polyanions, such as dextran sulphate and bacterial LPS, and activates ..
  49. Sharif O, Gawish R, Warszawska J, Martins R, Lakovits K, Hladik A, et al. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 inhibits complement component 1q effector mechanisms and exerts detrimental effects during pneumococcal pneumonia. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004167 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is the first to disclose a role for TREM-2 in clinically relevant respiratory tract infections and demonstrates a previously unknown link between TREM-2 and opsonin production within the lungs. ..
  50. Belloli S, Pannese M, Buonsanti C, Maiorino C, Di Grigoli G, Carpinelli A, et al. Early upregulation of 18-kDa translocator protein in response to acute neurodegenerative damage in TREM2-deficient mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2017;53:159-168 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the TREM2 gene confer risk for Alzheimer's disease and susceptibility for Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  51. Raha A, Henderson J, Stott S, Vuono R, Foscarin S, Friedland R, et al. Neuroprotective Effect of TREM-2 in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Model. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;55:199-217 pubmed
    ..Recently, a rare mutation in the gene Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) has been associated with a substantial increase in the risk of developing late onset ..
  52. Chertoff M, Shrivastava K, Gonzalez B, Acarin L, Gimenez Llort L. Differential modulation of TREM2 protein during postnatal brain development in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72083 pubmed publisher
    ..such molecule recently described to be involved in modulation of immune response is TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2)...
  53. Beckmann N, Giorgetti E, Neuhaus A, Zurbruegg S, Accart N, Smith P, et al. Brain region-specific enhancement of remyelination and prevention of demyelination by the CSF1R kinase inhibitor BLZ945. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018;6:9 pubmed publisher
    ..dysfunction in the external capsule with an increase of myelin debris was obvious in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) knock-out mice treated with cuprizone...
  54. Yin J, Liu X, He Q, Zhou L, Yuan Z, Zhao S. Vps35-dependent recycling of Trem2 regulates microglial function. Traffic. 2016;17:1286-1296 pubmed publisher
    b>Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2), an immune-modulatory receptor, is preferentially expressed in microglia of central nervous system...
  55. Wang Y, Ulland T, ULRICH J, Song W, Tzaferis J, Hole J, et al. TREM2-mediated early microglial response limits diffusion and toxicity of amyloid plaques. J Exp Med. 2016;213:667-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial receptor that recognizes changes in the lipid microenvironment, which may occur during amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation and neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's ..
  56. Zhong L, Chen X, Zhang Z, Wang Z, Shi X, Xu K, et al. DAP12 Stabilizes the C-terminal Fragment of the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-2 (TREM2) and Protects against LPS-induced Pro-inflammatory Response. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:15866-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a DAP12-associated receptor expressed in microglia, macrophages, and other myeloid-derived cells...
  57. Wang Y, Cella M, Mallinson K, ULRICH J, Young K, Robinette M, et al. TREM2 lipid sensing sustains the microglial response in an Alzheimer's disease model. Cell. 2015;160:1061-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial surface receptor that triggers intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation...
  58. Wei P, Lu Q, Cui G, Guan Z, Yang L, Sun C, et al. The role of TREM-2 in internalization and intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2015;163:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings provide a novel interpretation of Brucella intracellular growth through inhibition of NO production produced by TREM-2-mediated activated macrophages. ..
  59. Zheng H, Jia L, Liu C, Rong Z, Zhong L, Yang L, et al. TREM2 Promotes Microglial Survival by Activating Wnt/?-Catenin Pathway. J Neurosci. 2017;37:1772-1784 pubmed publisher
    b>Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), which is expressed on myeloid cells including microglia in the CNS, has recently been identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  60. Zhai Q, Li F, Chen X, Jia J, Sun S, Zhou D, et al. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2, a Novel Regulator of Immunocyte Phenotypes, Confers Neuroprotection by Relieving Neuroinflammation. Anesthesiology. 2017;127:98-110 pubmed publisher
    ..At 3 days after reperfusion, the effects of activation and suppression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 on immunocyte phenotypes (n = 5), neurobehavioral scores (n = 7), infarct volumes (n = 8), ..
  61. Jiang T, Zhang Y, Chen Q, Gao Q, Zhu X, Zhou J, et al. TREM2 modifies microglial phenotype and provides neuroprotection in P301S tau transgenic mice. Neuropharmacology. 2016;105:196-206 pubmed publisher
    As a novel risk gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene encodes a type I transmembrane receptor that is uniquely expressed by the microglia in the brain...
  62. Gonçalves L, Rodrigues Duarte L, Rodo J, Vieira de Moraes L, Marques I, Penha Gonçalves C. TREM2 governs Kupffer cell activation and explains belr1 genetic resistance to malaria liver stage infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:19531-6 pubmed publisher
    ..to search for mechanisms underlying natural host resistance to infection and identified triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) and MHC class II molecules as determinants of Plasmodium berghei liver stage ..
  63. Mazaheri F, Snaidero N, Kleinberger G, Madore C, Daria A, Werner G, et al. TREM2 deficiency impairs chemotaxis and microglial responses to neuronal injury. EMBO Rep. 2017;18:1186-1198 pubmed publisher
    Sequence variations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have been linked to an increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration...
  64. Helming L, Tomasello E, Kyriakides T, Martinez F, Takai T, Gordon S, et al. Essential role of DAP12 signaling in macrophage programming into a fusion-competent state. Sci Signal. 2008;1:ra11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, DAP12 is involved in programming of macrophages through the regulation of gene and protein expression to induce a fusion-competent state. ..
  65. Chang J, Chang E, Kim H, Kim S. Enhanced inhibitory effects of a novel CpG motif on osteoclast differentiation via TREM-2 down-regulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings provide evidence for the potential use of CpG-KSK13 as an anti-osteoclastogenic agent for human and for pre-clinical animals. ..
  66. Kleinberger G, Yamanishi Y, Suarez Calvet M, Czirr E, Lohmann E, Cuyvers E, et al. TREM2 mutations implicated in neurodegeneration impair cell surface transport and phagocytosis. Sci Transl Med. 2014;6:243ra86 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have been linked to Nasu-Hakola disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and FTD-..
  67. Kobayashi M, Konishi H, Sayo A, Takai T, Kiyama H. TREM2/DAP12 Signal Elicits Proinflammatory Response in Microglia and Exacerbates Neuropathic Pain. J Neurosci. 2016;36:11138-11150 pubmed
    ..present study showed that the DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12) and its associated "triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2" (TREM2) were predominantly expressed by microglia in the dorsal horn after spinal nerve ..
  68. Jiang T, Yu J, Zhu X, Tan M, Gu L, Zhang Y, et al. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 knockdown exacerbates aging-related neuroinflammation and cognitive deficiency in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2014;35:1243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a newly identified risk gene for AD, which regulates inflammatory process in ..
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