Gene Symbol: TR2
Description: nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 1
Alias: 4831444H07Rik, 80.3, Eenr, TR2, Tr2-11, nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group C member 1, 80-3 cNDA, early embryonic nuclear receptor, mTR2, nr2c1, nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group H, member 1, orphan nuclear receptor TR2, orphan receptor, TR2-11, testicular receptor 2
Species: mouse
Products:     TR2

Top Publications

  1. Shyr C, Collins L, Mu X, Platt K, Chang C. Spermatogenesis and testis development are normal in mice lacking testicular orphan nuclear receptor 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4661-6 pubmed
    Early in vitro cell culture studies suggested that testicular orphan nuclear receptor 2 (TR2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, may play important roles in the control of several pathways including retinoic acids, vitamin D, ..
  2. Gupta P, Park S, Farooqui M, Wei L. Orphan nuclear receptor TR2, a mediator of preadipocyte proliferation, is differentially regulated by RA through exchange of coactivator PCAF with corepressor RIP140 on a platform molecule GRIP1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:2269-82 pubmed
    b>Orphan nuclear receptor TR2 is a preadipocyte proliferator. Knockdown of TR2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes reduced their proliferation efficiency, whereas specific elevation of TR2 in these cells facilitated their proliferation...
  3. Lee C, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Wei L. Genomic structure, promoter identification, and chromosomal mapping of a mouse nuclear orphan receptor expressed in embryos and adult testes. Genomics. 1995;30:46-52 pubmed
    ..This gene was mapped to the distal region of mouse chromosome 10 and its locus has been designated Tr2-11...
  4. Park S, Hu X, Gupta P, Lin Y, Ha S, Wei L. SUMOylation of Tr2 orphan receptor involves Pml and fine-tunes Oct4 expression in stem cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:68-75 pubmed
    The Tr2 orphan nuclear receptor can be SUMOylated, resulting in the replacement of coregulators recruited to the regulatory region of its endogenous target gene, Oct4...
  5. Lee C, Chang L, Wei L. Distinct expression patterns and biological activities of two isoforms of the mouse orphan receptor TR2. J Endocrinol. 1997;152:245-55 pubmed
    An alternatively spliced variant of a testis-specific nuclear orphan receptor TR2-11 was identified and designated as TR2-11-t...
  6. Gupta P, Ho P, Huq M, Ha S, Park S, Khan A, et al. Retinoic acid-stimulated sequential phosphorylation, PML recruitment, and SUMOylation of nuclear receptor TR2 to suppress Oct4 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11424-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of Oct4 expression in normally proliferating stem cell culture of P19, mediated by SUMOylation of orphan nuclear receptor TR2. In the present study, we identify a signaling pathway initiated from the nongenomic activity of all-..
  7. Khan S, Park S, Huq M, Wei L. Protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of orphan nuclear receptor TR2: effects on receptor stability and activity. Proteomics. 2005;5:3885-94 pubmed
    In vivo metabolic labeling showed that orphan nuclear receptor TR2 could be phosphorylated...
  8. Lee C, Wei L. Characterization of the mouse nuclear orphan receptor TR2-11 gene promoter and its potential role in retinoic acid-induced P19 apoptosis. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;60:127-36 pubmed
    The complete mouse orphan nuclear receptor TR2-11 gene structure and its 5'-untranscribed region were characterized. This gene contains 14 exons, with the first exon encoding only the 5'-untranslated sequence...
  9. Lee C, Chang L, Wei L. Molecular cloning and characterization of a mouse nuclear orphan receptor expressed in embryos and testes. Mol Reprod Dev. 1996;44:305-14 pubmed
    ..comparison revealed a high degree of homology between this mouse cDNA and the human and rat orphan receptor Tr2-11 isolated from prostate cDNA libraries...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Lin T, Young W, Chang C. Multiple functions of the TR2-11 orphan receptor in modulating activation of two key cis-acting elements involved in the retinoic acid signal transduction system. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30121-8 pubmed
    The testicular receptor 2 (TR2) orphan receptor binds to hormone response elements (HREs) consisting of two AGGTCA half-site direct repeat consensus sequences (DR) with various spacing in the following order: DR1 > DR2 > DR5 DR4 ..
  2. Young W, Lee Y, Smith S, Chang C. A bidirectional regulation between the TR2/TR4 orphan receptors (TR2/TR4) and the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:20877-85 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the expression of TR2, a close family member of TR4, could also be induced by CNTF...
  3. Tanabe O, McPhee D, Kobayashi S, Shen Y, Brandt W, Jiang X, et al. Embryonic and fetal beta-globin gene repression by the orphan nuclear receptors, TR2 and TR4. EMBO J. 2007;26:2295-306 pubmed
    The TR2 and TR4 orphan nuclear receptors comprise the DNA-binding core of direct repeat erythroid definitive, a protein complex that binds to direct repeat elements in the embryonic and fetal beta-type globin gene promoters...
  4. Franco P, Farooqui M, Seto E, Wei L. The orphan nuclear receptor TR2 interacts directly with both class I and class II histone deacetylases. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:1318-28 pubmed
    ..of in vivo and in vitro assays was employed to describe the ligand-independent interaction of the orphan nuclear receptor TR2 and histone deacetylase proteins...
  5. Tanabe O, Shen Y, Liu Q, Campbell A, Kuroha T, Yamamoto M, et al. The TR2 and TR4 orphan nuclear receptors repress Gata1 transcription. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2832-44 pubmed
    When the orphan nuclear receptors TR2 and TR4, the DNA-binding subunits of the DRED repressor complex, are forcibly expressed in erythroid cells of transgenic mice, embryos exhibit a transient mid-gestational anemia as a consequence of a ..
  6. Martin L, Tremblay J. Nuclear receptors in Leydig cell gene expression and function. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:3-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides an overview of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors as they relate to Leydig cell gene expression and function. ..
  7. L hôte D, Georges A, Todeschini A, Kim J, Benayoun B, Bae J, et al. Discovery of novel protein partners of the transcription factor FOXL2 provides insights into its physiopathological roles. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:3264-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that two of the partners (NR2C1 and GMEB1) can be sequestered in such aggregates...
  8. Olivares A, Han Y, Soto D, Flattery K, Marini J, Mollema N, et al. The nuclear hormone receptor gene Nr2c1 (Tr2) is a critical regulator of early retina cell patterning. Dev Biol. 2017;429:343-355 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers a novel role for testicular receptor 2 (Tr2, Nr2c1) in defining the early phase of retinal development and regulating normal retinal cell ..
  9. Lee C, Chinpaisal C, Wei L. Cloning and characterization of mouse RIP140, a corepressor for nuclear orphan receptor TR2. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:6745-55 pubmed yeast two-hybrid screening experiments by using the ligand binding domain (LBD) of nuclear orphan receptor TR2 as the bait...
  10. Lee H, Young W, Shih C, Chang C. Suppression of the human erythropoietin gene expression by the TR2 orphan receptor, a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10405-12 pubmed
    ..has been identified in the 3-minimal hypoxia-inducible enhancer of the human erythropoietin gene for the TR2 orphan receptor, an androgen-repressed transcription factor and a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor ..
  11. Lee Y, Lee H, Chang C. Recent advances in the TR2 and TR4 orphan receptors of the nuclear receptor superfamily. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;81:291-308 pubmed
    The human testicular receptor 2 (TR2) and TR4 orphan receptors are two evolutionarily related proteins belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily...
  12. Tanabe O, Katsuoka F, Campbell A, Song W, Yamamoto M, Tanimoto K, et al. An embryonic/fetal beta-type globin gene repressor contains a nuclear receptor TR2/TR4 heterodimer. EMBO J. 2002;21:3434-42 pubmed
    ..DRED is a 540 kDa complex; sequence determination showed that it contains the nuclear orphan receptors TR2 and TR4. TR2 and TR4 form a heterodimer that binds to the epsilon and gamma promoter DR1 sites...
  13. Yu Z, Lee C, Chinpaisal C, Wei L. A constitutive nuclear localization signal from the second zinc-finger of orphan nuclear receptor TR2. J Endocrinol. 1998;159:53-60 pubmed
    The orphan nuclear receptor TR2 and its truncated isoform deleted in the ligand binding domain (LBD) were localized exclusively in the nuclei as revealed by two methods of detection...
  14. Chinpaisal C, Chang L, Hu X, Lee C, Wen W, Wei L. The orphan nuclear receptor TR2 suppresses a DR4 hormone response element of the mouse CRABP-I gene promoter. Biochemistry. 1997;36:14088-95 pubmed
    The mouse orphan nuclear receptor TR2-11-f suppressed the expression of reporters fused to a hormone response element of the mouse cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I gene promoter...
  15. Immervoll T, Adamski J, Graw J. Polymorphism in the murine Tr2-11 gene encoding an orphan receptor, and its exclusion as a candidate gene for the cataract mutation Cat3. Biol Chem. 1998;379:83-5 pubmed
    Since the dominant cataract mutation Cat3 was mapped very closely to the murine nuclear receptor TR2-11 gene locus, the corresponding coding region was amplified by PCR using either genomic DNA or eye-derived cDNA of wild-type (C3Hx102)..
  16. Shyr C, Kang H, Tsai M, Liu N, Ku P, Huang K, et al. Roles of testicular orphan nuclear receptors 2 and 4 in early embryonic development and embryonic stem cells. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2454-62 pubmed publisher
    ..With no identified cognate ligands, their physiological roles remain unclear. Here we showed the phenotypes of TR2(-/-):TR4(-/-) mutant embryos, which reveal that the loss of TR2 and TR4 causes early embryonic lethality and ..
  17. Cui S, Kolodziej K, Obara N, Amaral Psarris A, Demmers J, Shi L, et al. Nuclear receptors TR2 and TR4 recruit multiple epigenetic transcriptional corepressors that associate specifically with the embryonic ?-type globin promoters in differentiated adult erythroid cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3298-311 pubmed publisher
    Nuclear receptors TR2 and TR4 (TR2/TR4) were previously shown to bind in vitro to direct repeat elements in the mouse and human embryonic and fetal ?-type globin gene promoters and to play critical roles in the silencing of these genes...
  18. Baker J, Wood B, Karpinski B, LaMantia A, Maynard T. Testicular receptor 2, Nr2c1, is associated with stem cells in the developing olfactory epithelium and other cranial sensory and skeletal structures. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;20:71-9 pubmed publisher
    Comparative genomic analysis of the nuclear receptor family suggests that the testicular receptor 2, Nr2c1, undergoes positive selection in the human-chimpanzee clade based upon a significant increase in nonsynonymous compared to ..
  19. Gupta P, Ho P, Ha S, Lin Y, Wei L. HDAC3 as a molecular chaperone for shuttling phosphorylated TR2 to PML: a novel deacetylase activity-independent function of HDAC3. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4363 pubmed publisher
    b>TR2 is an orphan nuclear receptor specifically expressed in early embryos (Wei and Hsu, 1994), and a transcription factor for transcriptional regulation of important genes in stem cells including the gate keeper Oct4 (Park et al. 2007)...
  20. Loster J, Immervoll T, Schmitt John T, Graw J. Cat3vl and Cat3vao cataract mutations on mouse chromosome 10: phenotypic characterization, linkage studies and analysis of candidate genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;257:97-102 pubmed
    ..have been obtained for the genes encoding the proteoglycans lumican and decorin, the nuclear orphan receptor Tr2-11 and the transcription factor Elk3...
  21. Campbell A, Cui S, Shi L, Urbonya R, Mathias A, Bradley K, et al. Forced TR2/TR4 expression in sickle cell disease mice confers enhanced fetal hemoglobin synthesis and alleviated disease phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that nuclear receptors TR2 and TR4 repress expression of the human embryonic ?-globin and fetal ?-globin genes in definitive erythroid cells...
  22. Cui S, Tanabe O, Sierant M, Shi L, Campbell A, Lim K, et al. Compound loss of function of nuclear receptors Tr2 and Tr4 leads to induction of murine embryonic β-type globin genes. Blood. 2015;125:1477-87 pubmed publisher
    The orphan nuclear receptors TR2 and TR4 have been shown to play key roles in repressing the embryonic and fetal globin genes in erythroid cells...