Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Tpm2
Description: tropomyosin 2, beta
Alias: Tpm-2, Trop-2, tropomyosin beta chain
- Perry S. Vertebrate tropomyosin: distribution, properties and function. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2001;22:5-49 pubmed..It is uncertain how the role of TM in muscle compares to that in non-muscle systems and if its function in the former tissue is unique to muscle. ..
- Kee A, Hardeman E. Tropomyosins in skeletal muscle diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;644:143-57 pubmed..These genes include alpha-skeletal actin (ACTA1), beta-tropomyosin (TPM2), alpha-tropomyosin slow (TPM3), nebulin (NEB), troponin I fast (TNNI2), troponin T slow (TNNT1), troponin T fast (..
- Gooding C, Smith C. Tropomyosin exons as models for alternative splicing. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;644:27-42 pubmed..In particular, mutually exclusive exon pairs in the betaTm (TPM2) and alphaTm (TPM1) genes are among the most intensively studied models for striated and smooth muscle specific ..
- Patel J, Fitzsimons D, Buck S, Muthuchamy M, Wieczorek D, Moss R. PKA accelerates rate of force development in murine skinned myocardium expressing alpha- or beta-tropomyosin. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H2732-9 pubmed..These results show that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins significantly alters the static and dynamic mechanical properties of myocardium, and these effects occur regardless of the type of Tm expressed...
- Schleef M, Zuhlke C, Schöffl F, Jockusch H. Subtractive cDNA cloning as a tool to analyse secondary effects of a muscle disease. Characterization of affected genes in the myotonic ADR mouse. Neuromuscul Disord. 1994;4:205-17 pubmed..A cDNA derived from the 1100 nucleotide parvalbumin transcript was cloned and the sequence for the as yet unknown 3' extended trailer, generated by alternative polyadenylation, was determined. ..
- Zhu J, Bilan P, Moyers J, Antonetti D, Kahn C. Rad, a novel Ras-related GTPase, interacts with skeletal muscle beta-tropomyosin. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:768-73 pubmed..These data suggest that Rad may be involved in skeletal muscle motor function and cytoskeletal organization. ..
- Larsen A, Lametsch R, Elce J, Larsen J, Thomsen B, Larsen M, et al. Genetic disruption of calpain correlates with loss of membrane blebbing and differential expression of RhoGDI-1, cofilin and tropomyosin. Biochem J. 2008;411:657-66 pubmed..These results suggest a regulatory connection between calpain and RhoGDI-1 in promoting formation of membrane blebs. ..
- Kubo E, Shibata S, Shibata T, Kiyokawa E, Sasaki H, Singh D. FGF2 antagonizes aberrant TGF? regulation of tropomyosin: role for posterior capsule opacity. J Cell Mol Med. 2017;21:916-928 pubmed publisher..We propose that understanding the physiological link between levels of FGF2, Tpm1/2 expression and TGF?s-driven EMT orchestration may provide clue(s) to develop therapeutic strategies to treat PCO based on Tpm1/2. ..
- Geeves M, Hitchcock Degregori S, Gunning P. A systematic nomenclature for mammalian tropomyosin isoforms. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2015;36:147-53 pubmed publisher..The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website has been amended to include the nomenclature for the human, mouse and rat genes. ..
- Jagatheesan G, Rajan S, Petrashevskaya N, Schwartz A, Boivin G, Arteaga G, et al. Rescue of tropomyosin-induced familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mice by transgenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H949-58 pubmed..These results demonstrate that alterations in calcium response by modification of contractile proteins can prevent the pathological and physiological effects of this disease. ..
- Wang Y, Rubenstein P. Splicing of two alternative exon pairs in beta-tropomyosin pre-mRNA is independently controlled during myogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:12004-10 pubmed..Furthermore, during myogenesis, there is a sequential switch in the internal alternative exon, the terminal exon, and the poly(A) site from the nonmuscle to the muscle type. ..
- Schiaffino S, Reggiani C. Molecular diversity of myofibrillar proteins: gene regulation and functional significance. Physiol Rev. 1996;76:371-423 pubmed..Both myosin and troponin isoforms contribute to the differences in the resistance to fatigue of muscle fibers...
- McMichael B, Kotadiya P, Singh T, Holliday L, Lee B. Tropomyosin isoforms localize to distinct microfilament populations in osteoclasts. Bone. 2006;39:694-705 pubmed..This compartmentalization of tropomyosins to specific actin structures within osteoclasts is likely to play a critical role in determining the dynamic properties of the actin cytoskeleton and thus osteoclast activity. ..
- Braverman R, Cooper H, Lee H, Prasad G. Anti-oncogenic effects of tropomyosin: isoform specificity and importance of protein coding sequences. Oncogene. 1996;13:537-45 pubmed..Expression of TM2 protein, on the other hand, has no effect on the transformed phenotype of DT cells. These data indicate that isoforms 1 and 2 of TMs perform distinct physiological roles. ..
- McInnes C, Leader D. The tropomyosin mRNAs of mouse striated muscles: molecular cloning of beta-tropomyosin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;951:117-22 pubmed..The identities of these species are uncertain, but they may correspond to alternatively spliced products of the same RNA transcripts that give rise to the predominant tropomyosin isoforms of striated muscle. ..
- Nakagawa N, Hoshijima M, Oyasu M, Saito N, Tanizawa K, Kuroda S. ENH, containing PDZ and LIM domains, heart/skeletal muscle-specific protein, associates with cytoskeletal proteins through the PDZ domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;272:505-12 pubmed
- Wang Y, Rubenstein P. Choice of 3' cleavage/polyadenylation site in beta-tropomyosin RNA processing is differentiation-dependent in mouse BC3H1 muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:2728-36 pubmed..Thus, in the processing of beta-TM gene transcripts, selection of alternative terminal exons and alternative poly(A) sites are not necessarily linked as they appear to be in other gene systems. ..
- Yang J, Zhu Z, Wang H, Li F, Du X, Ma R. Trop2 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of murine compact-bone derived MSCs. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:859-67 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our findings help to establish a close functional link between Trop2 and MSCs, and to provide a tool for future investigation of Trop2 in other types of stem cells. ..
- Takenaga K, Nakamura Y, Tokunaga K, Kageyama H, Sakiyama S. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA that encodes mouse fibroblast tropomyosin isoform 2. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:5561-5 pubmed..Takenaga, Y. Nakamura, and S. Sakiyama, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:3934-3937, 1988) at the protein level. ..
- Dong G, Loukinova E, Smith C, Chen Z, Van Waes C. Genes differentially expressed with malignant transformation and metastatic tumor progression of murine squamous cell carcinoma. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1997;28-29:90-100 pubmed
- Trerotola M, Ganguly K, Fazli L, Fedele C, Lu H, Dutta A, et al. Trop-2 is up-regulated in invasive prostate cancer and displaces FAK from focal contacts. Oncotarget. 2015;6:14318-28 pubmed
- Gariboldi M, Manenti G, Dragani T, Pierotti M. Chromosome mapping of nine tropomyosin-related sequences in mice. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:273-7 pubmed
- McDougall A, Hooper S, Zahra V, Cole T, Lo C, Doran T, et al. Trop2 regulates motility and lamellipodia formation in cultured fetal lung fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L508-21 pubmed publisher..1 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1; P < 0.001). Our data suggest that Trop2 regulates cell proliferation and motility and that it does so by regulating the ERK pathway and several critical components of the cell migration apparatus. ..
- Muthuchamy M, Grupp I, Grupp G, O Toole B, Kier A, Boivin G, et al. Molecular and physiological effects of overexpressing striated muscle beta-tropomyosin in the adult murine heart. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30593-603 pubmed
- Muthuchamy M, Pajak L, Howles P, Doetschman T, Wieczorek D. Developmental analysis of tropomyosin gene expression in embryonic stem cells and mouse embryos. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:3311-23 pubmed..Our results show for the first time that the alpha- and beta-TM striated muscle transcripts are present in the earliest functional stages of the heart, and these TM isoforms are identical to those present throughout cardiac development. ..