tPA

Summary

Gene Symbol: tPA
Description: plasminogen activator, tissue
Alias: AU020998, AW212668, D8Ertd2e, tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator, t-plasminogen activator
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Characterization of the murine plasminogen/urokinase-type plasminogen-activator system
    H R Lijnen
    Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Biochem 241:840-8. 1996
  2. ncbi Tissue plasminogen activator as a modulator of neuronal survival and function
    Stella E Tsirka
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 8651, U S A
    Biochem Soc Trans 30:222-5. 2002
  3. ncbi Arginine 260 of the amino-terminal domain of NR1 subunit is critical for tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling
    Monica Fernandez-Monreal
    CNRS UMR 6185, University of Caen, Centre Cyceron, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5229, 14074, Caen, France
    J Biol Chem 279:50850-6. 2004
  4. pmc Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient mice
    Leif R Lund
    Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen, Denmark
    EMBO J 25:2686-97. 2006
  5. pmc Tissue-type plasminogen activator and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediate cerebral ischemia-induced nuclear factor-kappaB pathway activation
    Xiaohui Zhang
    Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Whitehead Biomedical Research Bldg, 615 Michael St, Suite 505J, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Pathol 171:1281-90. 2007
  6. ncbi Proteolytic activation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by plasmin underlies excitotoxic neurodegeneration in mice
    John J Sheehan
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences and Program in Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
    J Neurosci 27:1738-45. 2007
  7. pmc Plasmin-mediated degradation of laminin gamma-1 is critical for ethanol-induced neurodegeneration
    Anna E Skrzypiec
    Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 66:785-94. 2009
  8. doi Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) induces stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) in endothelial cells through activation of lipoprotein receptor-related protein
    Yasuhiro Suzuki
    Department of Pharmacology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan, Japan
    Blood 114:3352-8. 2009
  9. doi Microglial low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediates the effect of tissue-type plasminogen activator on matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in the ischemic brain
    Chen Zhang
    Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29:1946-54. 2009
  10. pmc Truncation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 by plasmin promotes blood-brain barrier disruption
    Yao Yao
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 8651, USA
    J Cell Sci 124:1486-95. 2011

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications131 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Characterization of the murine plasminogen/urokinase-type plasminogen-activator system
    H R Lijnen
    Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Biochem 241:840-8. 1996
    ..However, quantitative differences were observed both in the presence of cells and in plasma which may contribute to a reduced u-PA-mediated fibrinolytic activity in the murine systems...
  2. ncbi Tissue plasminogen activator as a modulator of neuronal survival and function
    Stella E Tsirka
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 8651, U S A
    Biochem Soc Trans 30:222-5. 2002
    The tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin proteolytic system has been implicated in both physiological and pathological processes in the mammalian brain. The physiological roles include facilitating neurite outgrowth and pathfinding...
  3. ncbi Arginine 260 of the amino-terminal domain of NR1 subunit is critical for tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling
    Monica Fernandez-Monreal
    CNRS UMR 6185, University of Caen, Centre Cyceron, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5229, 14074, Caen, France
    J Biol Chem 279:50850-6. 2004
    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) has been involved in both physiological and pathological glutamatergic-dependent processes, such as synaptic plasticity, seizure, trauma, and stroke...
  4. pmc Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient mice
    Leif R Lund
    Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen, Denmark
    EMBO J 25:2686-97. 2006
    Simultaneous ablation of the two known activators of plasminogen (Plg), urokinase-type (uPA) and the tissue-type (tPA), results in a substantial delay in skin wound healing...
  5. pmc Tissue-type plasminogen activator and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediate cerebral ischemia-induced nuclear factor-kappaB pathway activation
    Xiaohui Zhang
    Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Whitehead Biomedical Research Bldg, 615 Michael St, Suite 505J, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Pathol 171:1281-90. 2007
    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase found in the intravascular space and the central nervous system...
  6. ncbi Proteolytic activation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by plasmin underlies excitotoxic neurodegeneration in mice
    John J Sheehan
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences and Program in Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
    J Neurosci 27:1738-45. 2007
    ..Finally, our results provide a mechanism that explains the resistance of plasminogen-deficient mice to excitotoxicity...
  7. pmc Plasmin-mediated degradation of laminin gamma-1 is critical for ethanol-induced neurodegeneration
    Anna E Skrzypiec
    Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 66:785-94. 2009
    ..Abrupt ethanol withdrawal (EW) may result in neuronal hyperexcitability leading to hallucinations, seizures, neurodegeneration, and sometimes death...
  8. doi Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) induces stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) in endothelial cells through activation of lipoprotein receptor-related protein
    Yasuhiro Suzuki
    Department of Pharmacology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan, Japan
    Blood 114:3352-8. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that t-PA deteriorates ICB via MMP-3 induction in endothelial cells, which is regulated through the LRP/nuclear factor-kappaB pathway...
  9. doi Microglial low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediates the effect of tissue-type plasminogen activator on matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in the ischemic brain
    Chen Zhang
    Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29:1946-54. 2009
    ..cerebral ischemia indicate that besides its thrombolytic effect, treatment with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) also induces an increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the ischemic tissue associated with the ..
  10. pmc Truncation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 by plasmin promotes blood-brain barrier disruption
    Yao Yao
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 8651, USA
    J Cell Sci 124:1486-95. 2011
    ..increases the permeability of BBB in both wild-type mice and mice deficient for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which converts plasminogen into active plasmin, suggesting that plasmin-mediated truncation of MCP1 plays an ..
  11. doi Tissue plasminogen activator induces microglial inflammation via a noncatalytic molecular mechanism involving activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling pathways and AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors
    David Pineda
    Cancer Research Programme, IMIM Hospital del Mar, C Dr Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    Glia 60:526-40. 2012
    ..Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease which best-known function is fibrinolysis, but it is also involved in many other ..
  12. pmc Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 contribute to sonic hedgehog-induced in vitro cerebral angiogenesis
    Hua Teng
    Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e33444. 2012
    ..This was associated with increases in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activation and reduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)...
  13. pmc tPA activates LDL receptor-related protein 1-mediated mitogenic signaling involving the p90RSK and GSK3beta pathway
    Ling Lin
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Am J Pathol 177:1687-96. 2010
    ..Here we define the intracellular signaling events by which tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) promotes renal interstitial fibroblast proliferation...
  14. pmc An octamer motif contributes to the expression of the retinoic acid-regulated zinc finger gene Rex-1 (Zfp-42) in F9 teratocarcinoma cells
    B A Hosler
    Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Mol Cell Biol 13:2919-28. 1993
    ....
  15. pmc Activin receptor-like kinase 1 modulates transforming growth factor-beta 1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis
    S P Oh
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:2626-31. 2000
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the balance between the ALK1 and ALK5 signaling pathways in endothelial cells plays a crucial role in determining vascular endothelial properties during angiogenesis...
  16. pmc Endocytic receptor LRP together with tPA and PAI-1 coordinates Mac-1-dependent macrophage migration
    Chunzhang Cao
    Department of Physiology and Surgery, Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, 21201, USA
    EMBO J 25:1860-70. 2006
    ..on Mac-1 recognition of a binary complex consisting of fibrin within the provisional matrix and the protease tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator)...
  17. ncbi The rewards of nicotine: regulation by tissue plasminogen activator-plasmin system through protease activated receptor-1
    Taku Nagai
    Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920 1192, Japan
    J Neurosci 26:12374-83. 2006
    ..Here we show that the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-plasmin system regulates nicotine-induced reward and dopamine release by activating protease activated receptor-1 (..
  18. ncbi Stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) is critical for intracranial bleeding after t-PA treatment of stroke in mice
    Y Suzuki
    Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Thromb Haemost 5:1732-9. 2007
    ..Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which can be activated through the plasminogen/plasmin system, may contribute to ICB after ischemic stroke...
  19. pmc Tissue-type plasminogen activator promotes murine myofibroblast activation through LDL receptor-related protein 1-mediated integrin signaling
    Kebin Hu
    Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:3821-32. 2007
    ..Here we describe a signaling pathway that leads to this activation. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) promoted TGF-beta1-mediated alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression in rat kidney interstitial fibroblasts...
  20. doi Galectin-1 is a novel functional receptor for tissue plasminogen activator in pancreatic cancer
    Oriol Roda
    Cancer Research Programme, Municipal Institute of Medical Research, Barcelona, Spain
    Gastroenterology 136:1379-90, e1-5. 2009
    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) exerts many different functions in addition to its role in fibrinolysis...
  21. pmc Angiopoietins 3 and 4: diverging gene counterparts in mice and humans
    D M Valenzuela
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1904-9. 1999
    ..Angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4 have very different distributions in their respective species, and angiopoietin-3 appears to act as an antagonist, whereas angiopoietin-4 appears to function as an agonist...
  22. ncbi Male fertility and protein C inhibitor/plasminogen activator inhibitor-3 (PCI): localization of PCI in mouse testis and failure of single plasminogen activator knockout to restore spermatogenesis in PCI-deficient mice
    Pavel Uhrin
    Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, Center for Biomolecular Medicine and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Fertil Steril 88:1049-57. 2007
    ..To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the testicular abnormalities and infertility of previously generated male protein C inhibitor (PCI)-deficient mice...
  23. ncbi Physiological consequences of loss of plasminogen activator gene function in mice
    P Carmeliet
    Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142
    Nature 368:419-24. 1994
    ..Mice with combined t-PA and u-PA deficiency suffer extensive spontaneous fibrin deposition, with its associated effects on growth, fertility and survival...
  24. ncbi A different form of long-lasting potentiation revealed in tissue plasminogen activator mutant mice
    U Frey
    Federal Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 16:2057-63. 1996
    ..Most remarkably, t-PA-deficient mice exhibit a different form of long-lasting potentiation that is characterized by an NMDA receptor-dependent modification of GABA transmission in the CA1 region...
  25. pmc Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is effective in fibrin clearance in the absence of its receptor or tissue-type plasminogen activator
    T H Bugge
    Division of Developmental Biology, Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:5899-904. 1996
    ..in the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), urokinase receptor (uPAR), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen permits a critical, genetic-based analysis of the physiological and pathological roles of the two ..
  26. ncbi An extracellular proteolytic cascade promotes neuronal degeneration in the mouse hippocampus
    S E Tsirka
    Department of Pharmacology, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
    J Neurosci 17:543-52. 1997
    Mice lacking the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are resistant to excitotoxin-mediated hippocampal neuronal degeneration. We have used genetic and cellular analyses to study the role of tPA in neuronal cell death...
  27. ncbi Neuronal death in the hippocampus is promoted by plasmin-catalyzed degradation of laminin
    Z L Chen
    Department of Pharmacology, University at Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
    Cell 91:917-25. 1997
    ..acids can provoke neuronal death in the hippocampus, and the extracellular proteases tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasmin (ogen) have been implicated in this death...
  28. ncbi Role of plasminogen system components in focal cerebral ischemic infarction: a gene targeting and gene transfer study in mice
    N Nagai
    Center for Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, KU Leuven, Belgium
    Circulation 99:2440-4. 1999
    ..ischemic infarction (FCI) was studied in mice deficient in plasminogen (Plg-/-), in tissue or urokinase plasminogen activator (tPA-/- or uPA-/-), or in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 or alpha2-antiplasmin (PAI-1(-/-) or alpha2-AP-/-).
  29. ncbi Neuronal death and blood-brain barrier breakdown after excitotoxic injury are independent processes
    Z L Chen
    Department of Pharmacology, University at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
    J Neurosci 19:9813-20. 1999
    ..These results indicate that excitotoxin-induced neuronal death and BBB breakdown are separable events in the hippocampus...
  30. ncbi Mouse carotid artery ligation induces platelet-leukocyte-dependent luminal fibrin, required for neointima development
    T Kawasaki
    Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, University of Leuven, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Leuven, Belgium
    Circ Res 88:159-66. 2001
    ..Delayed coagulation then results in formation of a fibrin matrix, which is used by smooth muscle cells to migrate into the lumen...
  31. ncbi Mice lacking tPA, uPA, or plasminogen genes showed delayed functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush
    L B Siconolfi
    Neuroscience Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Neurosci 21:4348-55. 2001
    ..These proteases include the plasminogen activators (PAs), tissue PA (tPA) and urokinase PA (uPA), and their substrate, plasminogen...
  32. ncbi The pro- or antiangiogenic effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 is dose dependent
    Laetitia Devy
    Laboratory of Tumor and Developmental Biology, University of Liege, Tour de Pathologie B23, Sart Tilman, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    FASEB J 16:147-54. 2002
    ..The single deficiency of tPA, uPA, or uPAR, as well as combined deficiencies of uPA and tPA, did not dramatically affect microvessel formation...
  33. ncbi Partial rescue of neural apoptosis in the Lurcher mutant mouse through elimination of tissue plasminogen activator
    Weiquan Lu
    Program in Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology and Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, NY 11794 8651, USA
    Development 129:2043-50. 2002
    ..stroke) is promoted by an extracellular cascade involving the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)...
  34. pmc Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in onset and effector phases of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
    Weiquan Lu
    Program in Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
    J Neurosci 22:10781-9. 2002
    ..In the brains of MS patients, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein are upregulated, and changes in the levels of tPA correlate with progression of the disease...
  35. pmc The hippocampal laminin matrix is dynamic and critical for neuronal survival
    Zu Lin Chen
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 14:2665-76. 2003
    ..2) was posttranscriptional, because there was no effect on laminin mRNA expression; and 3) occurred in both tPA(-/-) and plasminogen(-/-) mice, indicating that increased plasmin activity was not responsible...
  36. pmc Tissue plasminogen activator is a potent activator of PDGF-CC
    Linda Fredriksson
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Stockholm Branch, Stockholm, Sweden
    EMBO J 23:3793-802. 2004
    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease involved in the degradation of blood clots through the activation of plasminogen to plasmin...
  37. ncbi Cleavage of proBDNF by tPA/plasmin is essential for long-term hippocampal plasticity
    Petti T Pang
    Section on Neural Development and Plasticity, Laboratory of Cellular and Synaptic Neurophysiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHD, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 306:487-91. 2004
    ..Two secretory proteins, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been implicated in this process, but their relationship is ..
  38. ncbi Tissue-type plasminogen activator crosses the intact blood-brain barrier by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-mediated transcytosis
    Karim Benchenane
    INSERM Avenir tPA in the working brain, Universite de Caen, GIP Cyceron, Caen, France
    Circulation 111:2241-9. 2005
    Accumulating evidence demonstrates a critical involvement of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in pathological and physiological brain conditions...
  39. ncbi Tissue-type plasminogen activator: a multifaceted modulator of neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity
    Andre L Samson
    Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Monash University, Level 6 Burnet Building, Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 89 Commercial Road, Prahran 3181, Victoria, Australia
    Neuron 50:673-8. 2006
    ....
  40. pmc Reduction of hippocampal cell death and proteolytic responses in tissue plasminogen activator knockout mice after transient global cerebral ischemia
    S R Lee
    Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Neuroscience 150:50-7. 2007
    Knockout mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are protected against hippocampal excitotoxicity...
  41. pmc tPA-mediated generation of plasmin is catalyzed by the proteoglycan NG2
    Westley B Nolin
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
    Glia 56:177-89. 2008
    ..we describe here a potentially synergistic therapeutic opportunity based on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), an extracellular protease that converts plasminogen (plg) into the active protease plasmin...
  42. pmc Tissue-type plasminogen activator and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein induce Akt phosphorylation in the ischemic brain
    Jie An
    Institute of Pharmacology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, China
    Blood 112:2787-94. 2008
    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is found in the intravascular space and in the central nervous system. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is expressed in neurons and in perivascular astrocytes...
  43. doi Tissue plasminogen activator promotes axonal outgrowth on CNS myelin after conditioned injury
    Kenneth Minor
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 8004, USA
    J Neurochem 109:706-15. 2009
    ..The following study suggests that the proteolytic enzyme tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plays a major function in 'conditioning-injury induced' axon regeneration...
  44. pmc Neutralisation of uPA with a monoclonal antibody reduces plasmin formation and delays skin wound healing in tPA-deficient mice
    Annika Jögi
    Finsen Laboratory, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen Biocenter, Copenhagen, Denmark
    PLoS ONE 5:e12746. 2010
    ..the two plasminogen activators, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)...
  45. pmc Beneficial and detrimental effects of plasmin(ogen) during infection and sepsis in mice
    Yongzhi Guo
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 6:e24774. 2011
    ..In this study, by using mice lacking genes for plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and urokinase-type PA (uPA), we have investigated the functional roles of active plasmin in infection and sepsis...
  46. pmc Coordinated induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and inhibition of plasminogen activator gene expression by hypoxia promotes pulmonary vascular fibrin deposition
    D J Pinsky
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 102:919-28. 1998
    ..in PAI-1 mRNA compared with normoxic controls; in contrast, transcripts for both tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) decreased under hypoxic conditions...
  47. pmc Key role of tissue plasminogen activator in neurovascular coupling
    Laibaik Park
    Division of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1073-8. 2008
    ..Here, we show that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease implicated in NMDA receptor signaling, is required for the flow increase evoked by ..
  48. ncbi Excitotoxin-induced neuronal degeneration and seizure are mediated by tissue plasminogen activator
    S E Tsirka
    Department of Pharmacology, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
    Nature 377:340-4. 1995
    ..When neuronal activity is stimulated in the adult rat and mouse hippocampus, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease that converts inactive plasminogen to the active protease plasmin, is transcriptionally induced...
  49. ncbi Developmental expression of mouse stromelysin-3 mRNA
    O Lefebvre
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC, CNRS INSERM U184 ULP, Illkirch, C U de Strasbourg, France
    Development 121:947-55. 1995
    ....
  50. pmc Fibrin deposition in tissues from endotoxin-treated mice correlates with decreases in the expression of urokinase-type but not tissue-type plasminogen activator
    K Yamamoto
    Department of Vascular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Clin Invest 97:2440-51. 1996
    ..Changes in tissue-type plasminogen activator gene expression do not appear to be essential for fibrin deposition/dissolution in this murine model of sepsis...
  51. ncbi A linkage map of mouse chromosome 8: further definition of homologous linkage relationships between mouse chromosome 8 and human chromosomes 8, 16, and 19
    T A Howard
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Genomics 10:207-13. 1991
    ..5 cM-Junb/Ucp-10.5 cM-Mt-1-27.2 cM-Acta2-0.9 cM-Aprt. These data provide further definition of mouse chromosome 8 linkage relationships and the relationship between segments of this chromosome and human chromosomes 8, 16, and 19...
  52. ncbi Mouse Sin3A interacts with and can functionally substitute for the amino-terminal repression of the Myc antagonist Mxi1
    G Rao
    Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Oncogene 12:1165-72. 1996
    ....
  53. ncbi Expression of myc-family, myc-interacting, and myc-target genes during preimplantation mouse development
    A D Domashenko
    Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    Mol Reprod Dev 47:57-65. 1997
    ....
  54. ncbi The mouse genome encodes a single homolog of the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin 1
    K M Huttner
    Joint Program in Neonatology, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    FEBS Lett 413:45-9. 1997
    ..These data indicate that mBD-1 is a close homolog of hBD-1, and suggest that analysis of its role in mouse host defense may provide significant insights into human epithelial innate immunity...
  55. ncbi Pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus antibodies are pathogenic in plasminogen activator knockout mice
    M G Mahoney
    Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 113:22-5. 1999
    ..These data definitively demonstrate that plasminogen activator is not necessary for pemphigus immunoglobulin G to induce acantholysis in the neonatal mouse model of pemphigus...
  56. ncbi Increased clearance explains lower plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator by estradiol: evidence for potently enhanced mannose receptor expression in mice
    M Lansink
    Gaubius Laboratory, TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Blood 94:1330-6. 1999
    ....
  57. pmc A murine model of myocardial microvascular thrombosis
    P D Christie
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Clin Invest 104:533-9. 1999
    ..This study used mice with modifications of the thrombomodulin (TM) gene, the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) gene, and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene...
  58. ncbi Tissue plasminogen activator controls multiple forms of synaptic plasticity and memory
    P Calabresi
    Clinica Neurologica, Dip Neuroscienze, Universita di Tor Vergata, Via di Tor Vergata 135, Rome 00133, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 12:1002-12. 2000
    ..These data indicate that t-PA plays a critical role in the formation of various forms of synaptic plasticity and memory...
  59. ncbi Vascular release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 impairs fibrinolysis during acute arterial thrombosis in mice
    T Kawasaki
    Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, University of Leuven, and Center for Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Leuven, Belgium
    Blood 96:153-60. 2000
    ..Hence, during acute thrombosis, fibrinolysis is efficiently prevented by plasma alpha(2)-AP, but also by vascular PAI-1, locally released into the circulation after endothelial injury...
  60. ncbi Plasmin-dependent and -independent effects of plasminogen activators and inhibitor-1 on ex vivo angiogenesis
    S Brodsky
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8152, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 281:H1784-92. 2001
    ..the necessary and sufficient components of the PA system [PAI-1, urokinase-type PA (uPA), or tissue-type PA (tPA), and plasminogen (Plg)] for angiogenesis, we examined angiogenic competence of vascular explant cultures obtained ..
  61. pmc The tissue plasminogen activator-plasmin system participates in the rewarding effect of morphine by regulating dopamine release
    Taku Nagai
    Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466 8560, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3650-5. 2004
    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen (plg) to plasmin, which in turn functions to degrade extracellular matrix proteins in the central nervous system...
  62. ncbi Plasminogen activator expression correlates with genetic differences in vascular remodeling
    Vyacheslav A Korshunov
    Center for Cardiovascular Research, Aab Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Vasc Res 41:481-90. 2004
    ..In summary, flow-induced IMT of the carotid is genetically determined and correlates with t-PA and u-PA expression in 2 inbred mouse strains...
  63. ncbi The urokinase/urokinase receptor system mediates the IgG immune complex-induced inflammation in lung
    Nelli Shushakova
    Department of Nephrology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    J Immunol 175:4060-8. 2005
    ..The findings indicate an important link between the uPA/uPAR system and the two main components involved in the IC inflammation, namely, complement and FcgammaRs...
  64. ncbi The effect of tissue type-plasminogen activator deletion and associated fibrin(ogen) deposition on macrophage localization in peritoneal inflammation
    Andrew D Cook
    Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Royal Parade, Parkville, 3010, Victoria, Australia
    Thromb Haemost 95:659-67. 2006
    ..Peritoneal inflammation in t-PA-/- mice represents a useful model to study the progression of intra-abdominal adhesions during surgery and clinical peritonitis...
  65. pmc Purkinje neuron degeneration in nervous (nr) mutant mice is mediated by a metabolic pathway involving excess tissue plasminogen activator
    Jianxue Li
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7847-52. 2006
    ..increase in mRNA expression and protein concentration in the nr cerebellum of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a gene closely linked to the mapped but as-yet-uncloned nr locus...
  66. ncbi PAI-1 deficiency reduces liver fibrosis after bile duct ligation in mice through activation of tPA
    Hongtao Wang
    Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    FEBS Lett 581:3098-104. 2007
    ..This change correlated with increased tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, and increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), but not MMP-2 activity...
  67. pmc The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediates tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced microglial activation in the ischemic brain
    Chen Zhang
    Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Pathol 174:586-94. 2009
    ..Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase that is found in the intravascular space and the CNS...
  68. pmc Local protease signaling contributes to neural tube closure in the mouse embryo
    Eric Camerer
    Cardiovasular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Dev Cell 18:25-38. 2010
    ..Together, our results suggest a role for protease-activated receptor signaling in neural tube closure and identify a local protease network that may trigger Par2 signaling and monitor and regulate epithelial integrity in this context...
  69. pmc Decreased serotonin levels associated with behavioral disinhibition in tissue plasminogen activator deficient (tPA-/-) mice
    Konstantinos Pothakos
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11733, USA
    Brain Res 1326:135-42. 2010
    Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) is a serine protease expressed in different areas of the mammalian brain. It has been used clinically to dissolve clots and shown to have a role in neurodegeneration...
  70. pmc Tissue plasminogen activator prevents white matter damage following stroke
    Fernando Correa
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, INSERM U919, Caen Cedex, F 14074 France
    J Exp Med 208:1229-42. 2011
    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only available treatment for acute stroke. In addition to its vascular fibrinolytic action, tPA exerts various effects within the brain, ranging from synaptic plasticity to control of cell fate...
  71. doi Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator "tPA" in ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned-place preference
    Amine Bahi
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P O Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
    Behav Brain Res 226:250-8. 2012
    ..In our previous studies we have shown that the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is involved in the rewarding properties of morphine and amphetamine...
  72. pmc Axonal regrowth after spinal cord injury via chondroitinase and the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system
    Noreen Bukhari
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, New York, NY 11794 8651, USA
    J Neurosci 31:14931-43. 2011
    ..We report that the clearance of the core protein by the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin proteolytic system partially contributes to ChABC-promoted plasticity...
  73. pmc Mice deficient in urokinase-type plasminogen activator have delayed healing of tympanic membrane perforations
    Yue Shen
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 7:e51303. 2012
    ..to plasmin is performed by two plasminogen activators (PAs), urokinase-type PA (uPA) and tissue-type PA (tPA)...
  74. doi Tissue plasminogen activator arrests Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis
    Shin Bi Oh
    Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Neurobiol Aging 35:511-9. 2014
    ..This study was aimed to determine whether endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) modulates the pathogenic process of AD...
  75. doi Impact of alcohol consumption on the outcome of ischemic stroke and thrombolysis: role of the hepatic clearance of tissue-type plasminogen activator
    Eloïse Lemarchand
    From the INSERM UMR S U919 serine proteases and pathophysiology of the neurovascular unit SP2U Université Caen Basse Normandie, GIP Cyceron, Caen, France E L, M G, S M D L, H V, Y R, A M, D V, C A, M R Service d Hématologie CHU Caen, France Y R and Délégation Recherche Clinique et Innovation DRCI, CHU de Caen, Caen, France M R
    Stroke 46:1641-50. 2015
    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only acute treatment for ischemic stroke. Unfortunately, the benefit of tPA-driven thrombolysis is not systematic, and understanding the reasons for this is mandatory...
  76. pmc Hepatocyte growth factor acts as a mitogen and chemoattractant for postnatal subventricular zone-olfactory bulb neurogenesis
    Tsu Wei Wang
    Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Mol Cell Neurosci 48:38-50. 2011
    ..These results suggest that HGF influences multiple steps in postnatal forebrain neurogenesis. HGF is a mitogen for SVZ neural progenitors, and regulates their differentiation and olfactory bulb migration...
  77. ncbi Rapid physical mapping of cloned DNA on banded mouse chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization
    A L Boyle
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510
    Genomics 12:106-15. 1992
    ..Clones hybridizing to each murine chromosome have been identified, thus providing a panel of marker probes to assist in chromosome identification...
  78. ncbi Meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes triggers the translation and polyadenylation of dormant tissue-type plasminogen activator mRNA
    J Huarte
    Institute of Histology and Embryology, University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland
    Genes Dev 1:1201-11. 1987
    ....
  79. ncbi Chromosomal assignment of three novel mouse genes expressed in testicular cells
    L Lemaire
    Institut fur Genetik, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Dusseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany
    Genomics 21:409-14. 1994
    ....
  80. ncbi Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions and transforming growth factor-beta expression during mouse prostate morphogenesis
    T L Timme
    Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
    Endocrinology 134:1039-45. 1994
    ....
  81. pmc Mice lacking the gene encoding tissue-type plasminogen activator show a selective interference with late-phase long-term potentiation in both Schaffer collateral and mossy fiber pathways
    Y Y Huang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:8699-704. 1996
    ..These results provide genetic evidence that t-PA is a downstream effector gene important for L-LTP and show that modest impairment of L-LTP in CA1 and CA3 does not result in hippocampus-dependent behavioral phenotypes...
  82. ncbi Expression of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, its receptor, c-met, and tissue-type plasminogen activator during development of the murine olfactory system
    D P Thewke
    Neuroscience Program and Department of Biochemistry Biophysics and Genetics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Neurosci 16:6933-44. 1996
    ..system and compared with the expression of a known activator of HGF/SF, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)...
  83. ncbi Urokinase-generated plasmin activates matrix metalloproteinases during aneurysm formation
    P Carmeliet
    Centre for Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Nat Genet 17:439-44. 1997
    ....
  84. ncbi Insulin-like growth factor II receptor, transforming growth factor-beta, and Cdk4 expression and the developmental epigenetics of mouse palate morphogenesis and dysmorphogenesis
    M Melnick
    Laboratory for Developmental Genetics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90089 0641, USA
    Dev Dyn 211:11-25. 1998
    ..plasminogen, plasminogen activators [urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)], and Cdk4 in developing palates; 2) on embryonic day 14 (E14), which is a critical day for palatal growth, B10...
  85. ncbi Increased sensitivity to cocaine, and over-responding during cocaine self-administration in tPA knockout mice
    T L Ripley
    Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK
    Brain Res 826:117-27. 1999
    Tissue plasminogen activator, tPA, is induced in the brain by electrical activity leading to synaptic remodeling. It is also induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by acute cocaine...
  86. pmc Neuronal migration is retarded in mice lacking the tissue plasminogen activator gene
    N W Seeds
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:14118-23. 1999
    ..In the developing cerebellum, granule neurons turn on the gene for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as they begin their migration into the cerebellar molecular layer...
  87. ncbi Role of tissue plasminogen activator receptor LRP in hippocampal long-term potentiation
    M Zhuo
    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 20:542-9. 2000
    ..Both LRP and several of its ligands, including tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), apolipoprotein E/lipoproteins, alpha(2)-macroglobulin, and the beta-amyloid precursor protein, have been ..
  88. ncbi Urokinase mediates fibrinolysis in the pulmonary microvasculature
    K Bdeir
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Blood 96:1820-6. 2000
    ..In contrast, uPA(-/-) and tissue-type plasminogen activator tPA(-/-) mice, but not uPAR(-/-) mice, showed a marked impairment in pulmonary fibrinolysis throughout the experimental ..
  89. ncbi Evidence for impairment of behavioural inhibition in performance of operant tasks in tPA-/- mice
    T L Ripley
    Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
    Behav Brain Res 125:215-27. 2001
    We have previously shown that mice that lack the serine protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), show over-responding on the active lever during time-out periods in an I.V. cocaine self-administration task...
  90. pmc Permissive proteolytic activity for visual cortical plasticity
    Nobuko Mataga
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Brain Science Institute, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama, 351 0198, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:7717-21. 2002
    The serine protease, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key regulator of extracellular proteolytic cascades...
  91. pmc Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors
    Robert Pawlak
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:443-8. 2005
    ..Here we show that tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease implicated in neuronal plasticity and seizures, is induced in the limbic system by chronic ethanol ..
  92. ncbi The role of tissue plasminogen activator in methamphetamine-related reward and sensitization
    Taku Nagai
    Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsuruma cho, Showa Ku, Nagoya 466 8560, Japan
    J Neurochem 92:660-7. 2005
    In the central nervous system, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and remodeling...
  93. ncbi Phospholipase D1-promoted release of tissue plasminogen activator facilitates neurite outgrowth
    Yan Zhang
    Program in Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    J Neurosci 25:1797-805. 2005
    ..Seizure susceptibility is modulated by the enzyme tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the normal physiological role of which includes promotion of synaptic reorganization in the mossy fiber pathway ..
  94. pmc Fibrin-induced skin fibrosis in mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator
    Alexander de Giorgio-Miller
    Department of Medicine, University College London, Rayne Institute, London, UK
    Am J Pathol 167:721-32. 2005
    ..Collagen accumulation was significantly increased in the presence of inhibitor and in tPA-deficient, but not uPA-deficient, fibroblasts compared with controls...
  95. ncbi Role of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) in a mouse model of neonatal white matter lesions: interaction with plasmin inhibitors and anti-inflammatory drugs
    P Leroux
    INSERM Avenir Dr V Laudenbach, Mécanismes et Traitement des Troubles du Développement Cérébral, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen University, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France
    Neuroscience 146:670-8. 2007
    ..Conversely, a t-PA-dependent inflammatory process occurred with high-dose ibotenic acid. Potential strategies for PVL in preterm neonates may include fibrinolytic monitoring for prevention and anti-inflammatory agents for treatment...
  96. ncbi c-Myc is essential for urokinase plasminogen activator expression on hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells
    YongZhong Hou
    Department of Physiology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Ohnohigashi 377 2, Osakasayama, Osaka 589 8511, Japan
    Cardiovasc Res 75:186-94. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether c-Myc regulates expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) on hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
  97. pmc SM22alpha-targeted deletion of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A in mice impairs cardiac and vascular development, and influences organogenesis
    Nesrine El-Bizri
    Cardiopulmonary Research Program, Vera Moulton Wall Center for Pulmonary Vascular Disease, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, CA, USA
    Development 135:2981-91. 2008
    ..Thus, loss of Bmpr1a, by decreasing MMP2 and/or MMP9 activity, can account for vascular dilatation and persistence of brain microvessels, leading to the impaired organogenesis documented in the brain...
  98. doi Plasminogen activators are involved in the degradation of bone by osteoclasts
    Vincent Everts
    Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam ACTA, Universiteit van Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit, Research Institute MOVE, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Bone 43:915-20. 2008
    ..Yet, several findings suggest that the two types of plasminogen activators (PA), the tissue- and urokinase-type PA (tPA and uPA, respectively) are also involved in this process...
  99. pmc The urokinase receptor (uPAR) facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Joppe W R Hovius
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine CEMM, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000447. 2009
    ..B. burgdorferi numbers in vivo, and phagocytotic capacity in vitro, were unaltered in uPA, tPA (low fibrinolytic activity) and PAI-1 (high fibrinolytic activity) knock-out mice compared to WT controls...
  100. pmc Neuroserpin protects neurons from ischemia-induced plasmin-mediated cell death independently of tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibition
    Jialing Wu
    Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Whitehead Biomedical Research Building, 615 Michael St, Suite 505J, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Pathol 177:2576-84. 2010
    The serine proteinase tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and the serine proteinase inhibitor neuroserpin are both expressed in areas of the brain with the highest vulnerability to hypoxia/ischemia...
  101. doi A synthetic peptide derived from staphylokinase enhances plasminogen activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator
    K Okada
    Department of Physiology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka, Japan
    J Thromb Haemost 9:997-1006. 2011
    ..A synthetic nonadecapeptide (SP; GPYLMVNVTGVDGKGNELL) previously enhanced the activation of plasminogen by the SAK/plasmin complex...

Research Grants1

  1. The Mechanism of IVIG Action in Pemphigus
    Zhi Liu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The overall goal of this project is to study the mechanisms of WIG action in autoantibody-mediated diseases and develop novel therapies to replace current immunosuppressive treatments, which confer severe side effects. ..