Gene Symbol: Tnnt2
Description: troponin T2, cardiac
Alias: Tnt, cTnT, troponin T, cardiac muscle, cardiac TnT, cardiac muscle troponin T, tnTc
Species: mouse
Products:     Tnnt2

Top Publications

  1. Adameyko I, Mudry R, Houston Cummings N, Veselov A, Gregorio C, Tevosian S. Expression and regulation of mouse SERDIN1, a highly conserved cardiac-specific leucine-rich repeat protein. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:540-52 pubmed
    ..Cardiac specificity and localization patterns suggest that SERDIN1 is intimately integrated with the molecular pathways controlling cardiogenesis in vertebrates. ..
  2. Chandra M, Rundell V, Tardiff J, Leinwand L, de Tombe P, Solaro R. Ca(2+) activation of myofilaments from transgenic mouse hearts expressing R92Q mutant cardiac troponin T. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H705-13 pubmed
    The functional consequences of the R92Q mutation in cardiac troponin T (cTnT), linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in humans, are not well understood...
  3. Wang Y, Morimoto S, Du C, Lu Q, Zhan D, Tsutsumi T, et al. Up-regulation of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:636-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Local hyperthyroidism via transcriptional up-regulation of the Dio2 gene may be an important underlying mechanism for the hypertrophic cardiac remodelling in DCM. ..
  4. Du C, Morimoto S, Nishii K, Minakami R, Ohta M, Tadano N, et al. Knock-in mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by troponin mutation. Circ Res. 2007;101:185-94 pubmed
  5. GUINTO P, Haim T, Dowell Martino C, Sibinga N, Tardiff J. Temporal and mutation-specific alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis differentially determine the progression of cTnT-related cardiomyopathies in murine models. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H614-26 pubmed publisher
    Naturally occurring mutations in cardiac troponin T (cTnT) result in a clinical subset of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...
  6. Sugihara M, Odagiri F, Suzuki T, Murayama T, Nakazato Y, Unuma K, et al. Usefulness of running wheel for detection of congestive heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy mouse model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55514 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that approximately half of ?K210 DCM mice die suddenly before onset of CHF, whereas others develop CHF, deteriorate within 10 to 20 days, and die. ..
  7. Zhan D, Morimoto S, Du C, Wang Y, Lu Q, Tanaka A, et al. Therapeutic effect of {beta}-adrenoceptor blockers using a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy with a troponin mutation. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:64-71 pubmed publisher a knock-in mouse model of inherited DCM with a deletion mutation DeltaK210 in the cardiac troponin T gene (TNNT2). Therapeutic effects were examined on the basis of survival and myocardial remodelling...
  8. Lu D, Ma Y, Zhang W, Bao D, Dong W, Lian H, et al. Knockdown of cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibits oxidative stress and apoptosis in the cTnT(R141W) dilated cardiomyopathy transgenic mice. Hypertension. 2012;60:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of CYP2E1 significantly ameliorated the dilated left ventricle, thin wall, and dysfunctional contraction in the cTnT(R141W) and adriamycin-induced DCM mouse models...
  9. Sirenko S, Potter J, Knollmann B. Differential effect of troponin T mutations on the inotropic responsiveness of mouse hearts--role of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity increase. J Physiol. 2006;575:201-13 pubmed
    Troponin T (TnT) mutations that cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) and sudden cardiac death frequently increase myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, suggesting that their Ca2+-sensitizing effect contributes importantly to the FHC ..

More Information


  1. Suzuki T, Shioya T, Murayama T, Sugihara M, Odagiri F, Nakazato Y, et al. Multistep ion channel remodeling and lethal arrhythmia precede heart failure in a mouse model of inherited dilated cardiomyopathy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35353 pubmed publisher
    ..DCM mice at 1 month or before, on the contrary, are associated with low risk of death in spite of inborn disorder and enlarged heart. ..
  2. Ma Q, Zhou B, Pu W. Reassessment of Isl1 and Nkx2-5 cardiac fate maps using a Gata4-based reporter of Cre activity. Dev Biol. 2008;323:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications for our understanding of cardiac lineage diversification in vivo, and for the interpretation of Cre-based fate maps. ..
  3. Guo C, Sun Y, Zhou B, Adam R, Li X, Pu W, et al. A Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway controls mammalian cardiovascular and craniofacial morphogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings reveal a Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway that is crucial for mammalian cardiocraniofacial morphogenesis and provide insights into the pathogenesis of human del22q11 syndromes. ..
  4. Nishii K, Morimoto S, Minakami R, Miyano Y, Hashizume K, Ohta M, et al. Targeted disruption of the cardiac troponin T gene causes sarcomere disassembly and defects in heartbeat within the early mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2008;322:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to determine the in vivo function of cTnT, we created a null cTnT allele in the mouse TNNT2 locus...
  5. Chen L, Fulcoli F, Tang S, Baldini A. Tbx1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of multipotent heart progenitors. Circ Res. 2009;105:842-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Tbx1 is a key regulator of CPC homeostasis as it modulates positively their proliferation and negatively their differentiation. ..
  6. Harmon A, Nakano A. Nkx2-5 lineage tracing visualizes the distribution of second heart field-derived aortic smooth muscle. Genesis. 2013;51:862-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Chu M, Wang L, Wang H, Shen T, Yang Y, Sun Y, et al. A novel role of CDX1 in embryonic epicardial development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103271 pubmed publisher
    ..5 dpc in mice is necessary for further subepicardial invasion of EPDCs and contribution to coronary vascular endothelium or smooth muscle cells. ..
  8. Odagiri F, Inoue H, Sugihara M, Suzuki T, Murayama T, Shioya T, et al. Effects of candesartan on electrical remodeling in the hearts of inherited dilated cardiomyopathy model mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101838 pubmed publisher of the ARBs, on cardiac function and electrical remodeling in the hearts of inherited DCM model mice (TNNT2 ?K210). DCM mice were treated with candesartan in drinking water for 2 months from 1 month of age...
  9. Mohamed R, Morimoto S, Ibrahim I, Zhan D, Du C, Arioka M, et al. GSK-3? heterozygous knockout is cardioprotective in a knockin mouse model of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310:H1808-15 pubmed publisher
    ..knockout mutation of GSK-3? (GSK-3?(+/-) KO), together with a ?K210 knockin mutation in cardiac troponin T (?K210 cTnT KI), which was proved to be one of the genetic causes of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)...
  10. Manning E, GUINTO P, Tardiff J. Correlation of molecular and functional effects of mutations in cardiac troponin T linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an integrative in silico/in vitro approach. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:14515-23 pubmed publisher
    Nearly 70% of all of the known cTnT mutations that cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy fall within the TNT1 region that is critical to cTn-Tm binding...
  11. Gollapudi S, Mamidi R, Mallampalli S, Chandra M. The N-terminal extension of cardiac troponin T stabilizes the blocked state of cardiac thin filament. Biophys J. 2012;103:940-8 pubmed
    Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is a key component of contractile regulatory proteins. cTnT is characterized by a ?32 amino acid N-terminal extension (NTE), the function of which remains unknown...
  12. Kobayashi M, Debold E, Turner M, Kobayashi T. Cardiac muscle activation blunted by a mutation to the regulatory component, troponin T. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:26335-49 pubmed publisher
    ..impaired by a point mutation of the highly conserved basic residue R205A, residing in the short helix H1(T2) of cTnT, whereas the mutations to nearby residues exhibited little effect on function...
  13. Feng H, Jin J. Coexistence of cardiac troponin T variants reduces heart efficiency. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H97-H105 pubmed publisher
    ..contraction of the myocardium and rhythmic pumping function of the heart, a single form of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is present in the adult cardiac muscle of humans and most other vertebrate species...
  14. Sumandea M, Vahebi S, SUMANDEA C, Garcia Cazarin M, Staidle J, Homsher E. Impact of cardiac troponin T N-terminal deletion and phosphorylation on myofilament function. Biochemistry. 2009;48:7722-31 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is a phosphoprotein that modulates cardiac muscle contraction through its extensive and diverse interactions with neighboring thin filament proteins...
  15. Mastrototaro G, Liang X, Li X, Carullo P, Piroddi N, Tesi C, et al. Nebulette knockout mice have normal cardiac function, but show Z-line widening and up-regulation of cardiac stress markers. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;107:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the nebulette disease causing mutations have dominant gain-of-function effects. ..
  16. Meus M, Hertig V, Villeneuve L, Jasmin J, Calderone A. Nestin Expressed by Pre-Existing Cardiomyocytes Recapitulated in Part an Embryonic Phenotype; Suppressive Role of p38 MAPK. J Cell Physiol. 2017;232:1717-1727 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1717-1727, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  17. Wang Q, Reiter R, Huang Q, Jin J, Lin J. Comparative studies on the expression patterns of three troponin T genes during mouse development. Anat Rec. 2001;263:72-84 pubmed
    In vertebrates, three troponin T (TnT) genes, cardiac TnT (cTnT), skeletal muscle fast-twitch TnT (fTnT), and slow-twitch TnT (sTnT), have evolved for the regulation of striated muscle contraction...
  18. Memo M, Leung M, Ward D, dos Remedios C, Morimoto S, Zhang L, et al. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy mutations uncouple troponin I phosphorylation from changes in myofibrillar Ca²? sensitivity. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;99:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this blunts the response to ?-adrenergic stimulation and could be the cause of DCM in the long term. ..
  19. Ferrantini C, Coppini R, Pioner J, Gentile F, Tosi B, Mazzoni L, et al. Pathogenesis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is Mutation Rather Than Disease Specific: A Comparison of the Cardiac Troponin T E163R and R92Q Mouse Models. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Two hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mouse models carrying the R92Q and the E163R TNNT2 mutations were investigated...
  20. Kracklauer M, Feng H, Jiang W, Lin J, Lin J, Jin J. Discontinuous thoracic venous cardiomyocytes and heart exhibit synchronized developmental switch of troponin isoforms. FEBS J. 2013;280:880-91 pubmed publisher
  21. Stopp S, Gründl M, Fackler M, Malkmus J, Leone M, Naumann R, et al. Deletion of Gas2l3 in mice leads to specific defects in cardiomyocyte cytokinesis during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:8029-8034 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results suggest that GAS2L3 plays a specific role in cardiomyocyte cytokinesis and proliferation during heart development. ..
  22. Hagiwara N, Ma B, Ly A. Slow and fast fiber isoform gene expression is systematically altered in skeletal muscle of the Sox6 mutant, p100H. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:301-11 pubmed
    ..Together with our earlier report, demonstrating early postnatal muscle defects in the Sox6 null-p100H mutant, the present results suggest that Sox6 likely plays an important role in muscle development...
  23. Hakim Z, DiMichele L, Doherty J, Homeister J, Beggs H, Reichardt L, et al. Conditional deletion of focal adhesion kinase leads to defects in ventricular septation and outflow tract alignment. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5352-64 pubmed
    ..Future studies will be necessary to determine the precise contributions of the additional nkx2-5-derived lineages to the phenotypes observed. ..
  24. von Gise A, Zhou B, Honor L, Ma Q, Petryk A, Pu W. WT1 regulates epicardial epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ?-catenin and retinoic acid signaling pathways. Dev Biol. 2011;356:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our study shows that Wt1 regulates epicardial EMT and heart development through canonical Wnt, non-canonical Wnt, and retinoic acid signaling pathways. ..
  25. Lim D, Oberst L, McCluggage M, Youker K, Lacy J, DeMayo F, et al. Decreased left ventricular ejection fraction in transgenic mice expressing mutant cardiac troponin T-Q(92), responsible for human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000;32:365-74 pubmed
    ..determined the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in transgenic mice expressing mutant cardiac troponin T (cTnT)-Q(92), known to cause HCM in humans...
  26. Huang Z, Young Seok H, Zhou B, Chen J, Chen J, Tao Y, et al. CIP, a cardiac Isl1-interacting protein, represses cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2012;110:818-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, overexpression of CIP repressed agonist-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our studies therefore identify CIP as a novel regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  27. Iijima Y, Nagai T, Mizukami M, Matsuura K, Ogura T, Wada H, et al. Beating is necessary for transdifferentiation of skeletal muscle-derived cells into cardiomyocytes. FASEB J. 2003;17:1361-3 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that some part of skeletal muscle cells can transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes and that direct cell-to-cell contact and contraction of neighboring cardiomyocytes are important for the transdifferentiation. ..
  28. McGinley A, Li Y, Deliu Z, Wang Q. Additional sex combs-like family genes are required for normal cardiovascular development. Genesis. 2014;52:671-86 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we conclude that normal heart development requires both ASXL proteins. In particular, ASXL2 plays an important role in heart morphogenesis and the transition from fetal to postnatal circulation. ..
  29. Manuylov N, Manuylova E, Avdoshina V, TEVOSIAN S. Serdin1/Lrrc10 is dispensable for mouse development. Genesis. 2008;46:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that, in striking contrast to the zebrafish lrrc10 knockdown, Lrrc10-null mice develop normally and exhibit no discernable phenotype. ..
  30. Song L, Yan W, Chen X, Deng C, Wang Q, Jiao K. Myocardial smad4 is essential for cardiogenesis in mouse embryos. Circ Res. 2007;101:277-85 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study provides the first mouse model showing that Smad4 plays essential roles during cardiogenesis. ..
  31. Rog Zielinska E, Thomson A, Kenyon C, Brownstein D, Moran C, Szumska D, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor is required for foetal heart maturation. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:3269-82 pubmed publisher
  32. Laveborn E, Lindmark K, Skagerlind M, Stegmayr B. NT-proBNP and troponin T levels differ after haemodialysis with a low versus high flux membrane. Int J Artif Organs. 2015;38:69-75 pubmed publisher
    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP), and high sensitive cardiac troponin T (TnT) are markers that are elevated in chronic kidney disease and correlate with increased risk of mortality...
  33. Dorr K, Amin N, Kuchenbrod L, Labiner H, Charpentier M, Pevny L, et al. Casz1 is required for cardiomyocyte G1-to-S phase progression during mammalian cardiac development. Development. 2015;142:2037-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies establish a role for CASZ1 in mammalian cardiomyocyte cell cycle progression in both the first and second heart fields. ..
  34. Jain R, Li D, Gupta M, Manderfield L, Ifkovits J, Wang Q, et al. HEART DEVELOPMENT. Integration of Bmp and Wnt signaling by Hopx specifies commitment of cardiomyoblasts. Science. 2015;348:aaa6071 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Bmp signals characterize adult stem cell niches in other tissues where Hopx-mediated inhibition of Wnt is likely to contribute to stem cell quiescence and to explain the role of Hopx as a tumor suppressor. ..
  35. Liang X, Wang G, Lin L, Lowe J, Zhang Q, Bu L, et al. HCN4 dynamically marks the first heart field and conduction system precursors. Circ Res. 2013;113:399-407 pubmed publisher
  36. Huang Q, Feng H, Liu J, Du J, Stull L, Moravec C, et al. Co-expression of skeletal and cardiac troponin T decreases mouse cardiac function. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C213-22 pubmed multiple troponin T (TnT) isoforms, normal adult human cardiac muscle contains a single isoform of cardiac TnT. To understand the significance of myocardial TnT homogeneity, we examined the effect of TnT heterogeneity on ..
  37. Choy L, Yeo J, Tse V, Chan S, Tse G. Cardiac disease and arrhythmogenesis: Mechanistic insights from mouse models. Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2016;12:1-10 pubmed
    ..Mouse models can serve as useful systems in which to explore how protein defects contribute to arrhythmias and direct future therapy. ..
  38. Knollmann B, Blatt S, Horton K, de Freitas F, Miller T, Bell M, et al. Inotropic stimulation induces cardiac dysfunction in transgenic mice expressing a troponin T (I79N) mutation linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10039-48 pubmed
    The cardiac troponin T (TnT) I79N mutation has been linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a high incidence of sudden death, despite causing little or no cardiac hypertrophy...
  39. Davis J, Davis L, Correll R, Makarewich C, Schwanekamp J, Moussavi Harami F, et al. A Tension-Based Model Distinguishes Hypertrophic versus Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Cell. 2016;165:1147-1159 pubmed publisher
    ..This tension-based model also has the potential to inform pharmacologic treatment options in cardiomyopathy patients. ..
  40. Yu Z, Wei H, Jin J. Chronic coexistence of two troponin T isoforms in adult transgenic mouse cardiomyocytes decreased contractile kinetics and caused dilatative remodeling. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C24-32 pubmed publisher cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice coexpressing a fast skeletal muscle TnT together with the endogenous cardiac TnT. Without the influence of extracellular matrix, coexistence of the two TnT isoforms resulted in lower ..
  41. Chen H, Poduri A, Numi H, Kivela R, Saharinen P, McKay A, et al. VEGF-C and aortic cardiomyocytes guide coronary artery stem development. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4899-914 pubmed publisher
    ..Studying this niche for cardiomyocyte development, and its relationship with CAs, has the potential to identify methods for stimulating vascular regrowth as a treatment for cardiovascular disease. ..
  42. Mamidi R, Mallampalli S, Wieczorek D, Chandra M. Identification of two new regions in the N-terminus of cardiac troponin T that have divergent effects on cardiac contractile function. J Physiol. 2013;591:1217-34 pubmed publisher
    Abstract? Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) has a highly acidic extended N-terminus, the physiological role of which remains poorly understood...
  43. Espinoza Lewis R, Yu L, He F, Liu H, Tang R, Shi J, et al. Shox2 is essential for the differentiation of cardiac pacemaker cells by repressing Nkx2-5. Dev Biol. 2009;327:376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together our results demonstrate that Shox2 plays an essential role in the SAN and pacemaker development by controlling a genetic cascade through the repression of Nkx2-5. ..
  44. Murray T, Smyrnias I, Schnelle M, Mistry R, Zhang M, Beretta M, et al. Redox regulation of cardiomyocyte cell cycling via an ERK1/2 and c-Myc-dependent activation of cyclin D2 transcription. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;79:54-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this pathway acts to maintain the proliferative capacity of cardiomyocytes in Nox4 Tg pups in vivo and so delays their exit from the cell cycle after birth. ..
  45. Lescroart F, Chabab S, Lin X, Rulands S, Paulissen C, Rodolosse A, et al. Early lineage restriction in temporally distinct populations of Mesp1 progenitors during mammalian heart development. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:829-40 pubmed publisher
  46. Yan J, Sultana N, Zhang L, Park D, Shekhar A, Hu J, et al. Generation of a tamoxifen inducible Tnnt2MerCreMer knock-in mouse model for cardiac studies. Genesis. 2015;53:377-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Tnnt2, encoding thin-filament sarcomeric protein cardiac troponin T, plays critical roles in heart development and function in mammals...
  47. Moore R, Abdullah S, Tardiff J. Allosteric effects of cardiac troponin TNT1 mutations on actomyosin binding: a novel pathogenic mechanism for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014;552-553:21-8 pubmed publisher
    The majority of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations in (cTnT) occur within the alpha-helical tropomyosin binding TNT1 domain. A highly charged region at the C-terminal end of TNT1 unwinds to create a flexible "hinge"...
  48. Chen L, Ma Y, Kim E, Yu W, Schwartz R, Qian L, et al. Conditional ablation of Ezh2 in murine hearts reveals its essential roles in endocardial cushion formation, cardiomyocyte proliferation and survival. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31005 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of Hey2 expression by Ezh2 may be independent of Notch signaling activity. Our work defines an indispensible role of the chromatin remodeling factor Ezh2 in normal cardiovascular development. ..
  49. Aly M, Wiltshire S, Chahrour G, Osti J, Vidal S. Complex genetic control of host susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. Genes Immun. 2007;8:193-204 pubmed
    ..7 (P=0.0045), as well as sarcolemmal disruption in females (P=0.0015). These results provide strong evidence for the presence of loci contributing to the susceptibility of mice to viral myocarditis. ..
  50. Huang W, Feng Y, Liang J, Yu H, Wang C, Wang B, et al. Loss of microRNA-128 promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration. Nat Commun. 2018;9:700 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that miR-128 serves as a critical regulator of endogenous CM proliferation, and might be a novel therapeutic target for heart repair. ..
  51. Matalon R, Surendran S, McDonald J, Okorodudu A, Tyring S, Michals Matalon K, et al. Abnormal expression of genes associated with development and inflammation in the heart of mouse maternal phenylketonuria offspring. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2005;18:557-65 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that altered gene expression affects protein production. These changes are likely involved in the cardiovascular defects seen in the mouse...
  52. Ladd A, Stenberg M, Swanson M, Cooper T. Dynamic balance between activation and repression regulates pre-mRNA alternative splicing during heart development. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:783-93 pubmed
    Cardiac troponin T (cTNT) exon 5 splicing is developmentally regulated such that it is included in embryonic but not adult heart...
  53. Ridge L, Mitchell K, Al Anbaki A, Shaikh Qureshi W, Stephen L, Tenin G, et al. Non-muscle myosin IIB (Myh10) is required for epicardial function and coronary vessel formation during mammalian development. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007068 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies on the EHC mutant demonstrate a requirement for NMHC IIB in epicardial function and coronary vessel formation, highlighting the importance of this protein in cardiac development and ultimately, embryonic survival. ..