Gene Symbol: Tnnc1
Description: troponin C, cardiac/slow skeletal
Alias: AI874626, TnC, cTnC, cTnI, tncc, troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
Species: mouse
Products:     Tnnc1

Top Publications

  1. Parmacek M, Vora A, Shen T, Barr E, Jung F, Leiden J. Identification and characterization of a cardiac-specific transcriptional regulatory element in the slow/cardiac troponin C gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:1967-76 pubmed
    The slow/cardiac troponin C (cTnC) gene has been used as a model system for defining the molecular mechanisms that regulate cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific gene expression during mammalian development...
  2. Ahmad F, Banerjee S, Lage M, Huang X, Smith S, Saba S, et al. The role of cardiac troponin T quantity and function in cardiac development and dilated cardiomyopathy. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2642 pubmed publisher
    ..The severity of DCM depends on the ratio of mutant to wildtype Tnnt2 transcript. cTnT is essential for sarcomere formation, but normal embryonic heart looping occurs without contractile activity. ..
  3. Niro C, Demignon J, Vincent S, Liu Y, Giordani J, Sgarioto N, et al. Six1 and Six4 gene expression is necessary to activate the fast-type muscle gene program in the mouse primary myotome. Dev Biol. 2010;338:168-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vivo wide transcriptomal analysis of the function of the master myogenic determinants, Six, identifies them as novel markers for the differential activation of a specific muscle program during mammalian somitic myogenesis. ..
  4. Kuo C, Morrisey E, Anandappa R, Sigrist K, Lu M, Parmacek M, et al. GATA4 transcription factor is required for ventral morphogenesis and heart tube formation. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1048-60 pubmed
    ..However, they define a critical role for GATA4 in regulating the rostral-to-caudal and lateral-to-ventral folding of the embryo that is needed for normal cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  5. Huynh Q, Butters C, Leiden J, Tobacman L. Effects of cardiac thin filament Ca2+: statistical mechanical analysis of a troponin C site II mutant. Biophys J. 1996;70:1447-55 pubmed
    Cardiac thin filaments contain many troponin C (TnC) molecules, each with one regulatory Ca2+ binding site. A statistical mechanical model for the effects of these sites is presented and investigated...
  6. Bakker M, Boukens B, Mommersteeg M, Brons J, Wakker V, Moorman A, et al. Transcription factor Tbx3 is required for the specification of the atrioventricular conduction system. Circ Res. 2008;102:1340-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a mechanism in which Tbx3 represses differentiation into ventricular working myocardium, thereby imposing the conduction system phenotype on cells within its expression domain. ..
  7. Dilg D, Saleh R, Phelps S, Rose Y, Dupays L, Murphy C, et al. HIRA Is Required for Heart Development and Directly Regulates Tnni2 and Tnnt3. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161096 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we show here that HIRA has locus-specific effects on gene expression and that histone chaperone activity is vital for normal heart development, impinging on pathways regulated by an established cardiac transcription factor. ..
  8. Issa L, Palmer S, Guven K, Santucci N, Hodgson V, Popovic K, et al. MusTRD can regulate postnatal fiber-specific expression. Dev Biol. 2006;293:104-15 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with our initial predictions for hMusTRD1alpha1 and suggest that slow fiber genes contain a specific common regulatory element that can be targeted by MusTRD proteins. ..
  9. Brunskill E, Witte D, Yutzey K, Potter S. Novel cell lines promote the discovery of genes involved in early heart development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:507-20 pubmed
    ..The results show that the 1H and ECL-2 cell lines can be used to discover novel genes expressed in the early cardiomyocyte. ..

More Information


  1. Tsika R, Schramm C, Simmer G, Fitzsimons D, Moss R, Ji J. Overexpression of TEAD-1 in transgenic mouse striated muscles produces a slower skeletal muscle contractile phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36154-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel in vivo data support a role for TEAD-1 in modulating slow muscle gene expression. ..
  2. MacGowan G, Evans C, Hu T, Debrah D, Mullet S, Chen H, et al. Troponin I protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and ventricular function. Cardiovasc Res. 2004;63:245-55 pubmed
    Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) results in a reduction of maximal actomyosin ATPase activity, an effect that is more marked at higher levels of calcium (Ca2+) and is likely to reduce active force ..
  3. Villani R, Hodgson S, Legrand J, Greaney J, Wong H, Pichol Thievend C, et al. Dominant-negative Sox18 function inhibits dermal papilla maturation and differentiation in all murine hair types. Development. 2017;144:1887-1895 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray expression studies identified WNT5A and TNC as potential downstream effectors of SOX18 that are important for epidermal WNT signalling...
  4. Nimura K, Ura K, Shiratori H, Ikawa M, Okabe M, Schwartz R, et al. A histone H3 lysine 36 trimethyltransferase links Nkx2-5 to Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Nature. 2009;460:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that WHSC1 functions together with developmental transcription factors to prevent the inappropriate transcription that can lead to various pathophysiologies. ..
  5. Misra C, Sachan N, McNally C, Koenig S, Nichols H, Guggilam A, et al. Congenital heart disease-causing Gata4 mutation displays functional deficits in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002690 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the Gata4 G295S mutation functions as a hypomorph in vivo and leads to defects in cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryogenesis, which may contribute to the development of congenital heart defects in humans. ..
  6. Scruggs S, Walker L, Lyu T, Geenen D, Solaro R, Buttrick P, et al. Partial replacement of cardiac troponin I with a non-phosphorylatable mutant at serines 43/45 attenuates the contractile dysfunction associated with PKCepsilon phosphorylation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006;40:465-73 pubmed
    ..with the decline in function was an increased phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins including cardiac troponin I (cTnI)...
  7. Danalache B, Gutkowska J, Slusarz M, Berezowska I, Jankowski M. Oxytocin-Gly-Lys-Arg: a novel cardiomyogenic peptide. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13643 pubmed publisher
    ..These results raise the possibility that C-terminally extended OT molecules stimulate CM differentiation and contribute to heart growth during fetal life. ..
  8. Mommersteeg M, Brown N, Prall O, de Gier de Vries C, Harvey R, Moorman A, et al. Pitx2c and Nkx2-5 are required for the formation and identity of the pulmonary myocardium. Circ Res. 2007;101:902-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest a cellular mechanism for pulmonary myocardium formation and highlight the key roles played by Pitx2c and Nkx2-5 in its formation and identity. ..
  9. Yamane A, Ohnuki Y, Saeki Y. Delayed embryonic development of mouse masseter muscle correlates with delayed MyoD family expression. J Dent Res. 2000;79:1933-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the delayed expression of the myoD family genes in the masseter correlates with delayed differentiation and maturation, probably due to the later functional requirements of the masseter than of the tongue. ..
  10. Kreutziger K, Piroddi N, McMichael J, Tesi C, Poggesi C, Regnier M. Calcium binding kinetics of troponin C strongly modulate cooperative activation and tension kinetics in cardiac muscle. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;50:165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..and relaxation in cardiac muscle are regulated at the thin filament via Ca(2+) binding to cardiac troponin C (cTnC) and strong cross-bridge binding...
  11. Chen Z, Friedrich G, Soriano P. Transcriptional enhancer factor 1 disruption by a retroviral gene trap leads to heart defects and embryonic lethality in mice. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2293-301 pubmed
    ..Although transcription of a number of muscle-specific genes believed to be TEF-1 targets appears normal, the defect in cardiogenesis is likely attributable to diminished transcription of one or several cardiac-specific genes. ..
  12. Tachampa K, Kobayashi T, Wang H, Martin A, Biesiadecki B, Solaro R, et al. Increased cross-bridge cycling kinetics after exchange of C-terminal truncated troponin I in skinned rat cardiac muscle. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15114-21 pubmed publisher
    The precise mechanism of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) proteolysis in myocardial stunning is not fully understood...
  13. Tasheva E, Ke A, Deng Y, Jun C, Takemoto L, Koester A, et al. Differentially expressed genes in the lens of mimecan-null mice. Mol Vis. 2004;10:403-16 pubmed
    ..Our results provide insight into the function of mimecan in the lens and enable further characterization of molecular mechanisms by which this protein exerts its biological roles. ..
  14. Farah C, Reinach F. The troponin complex and regulation of muscle contraction. FASEB J. 1995;9:755-67 pubmed
    ..In vertebrate skeletal and cardiac muscle the Ca(2+)-binding protein troponin C (TnC) is one subunit of the ternary troponin complex which, through its association with actin and tropomyosin on the ..
  15. Liang B, Chung F, Qu Y, Pavlov D, Gillis T, Tikunova S, et al. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related cardiac troponin C mutation L29Q affects Ca2+ binding and myofilament contractility. Physiol Genomics. 2008;33:257-66 pubmed publisher
    The cardiac troponin C (cTnC) mutation, L29Q, has been found in a patient with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...
  16. Sakakibara I, Santolini M, Ferry A, Hakim V, Maire P. Six homeoproteins and a Iinc-RNA at the fast MYH locus lock fast myofiber terminal phenotype. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004386 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional fast-sarcomeric unit formation is achieved by the coordinate expression of fast MYHs and linc-MYH, under the control of a common Six-bound enhancer. ..
  17. Sadayappan S, Finley N, Howarth J, Osinska H, Klevitsky R, Lorenz J, et al. Role of the acidic N' region of cardiac troponin I in regulating myocardial function. FASEB J. 2008;22:1246-57 pubmed
    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation modulates myocardial contractility and relaxation during beta-adrenergic stimulation...
  18. Ding J, Xu X, Yang D, Chu P, Dalton N, Ye Z, et al. Dilated cardiomyopathy caused by tissue-specific ablation of SC35 in the heart. EMBO J. 2004;23:885-96 pubmed
    ..These studies raise a new paradigm for the etiology of certain human heart diseases of genetic or environmental origin that may be triggered by dysfunction in RNA processing. ..
  19. Parmacek M, Leiden J. Structure and expression of the murine slow/cardiac troponin C gene. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:13217-25 pubmed
    Cardiac troponin C (cTnC) is the calcium-binding subunit of the myofibrillar thin filament that regulates excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle...
  20. Vikstrom K, Leinwand L. Contractile protein mutations and heart disease. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1996;8:97-105 pubmed
    ..Biochemical data from studies of mutant myosin suggest a dominant-negative mechanism for inheritance of this disease. The most likely primary defect is sarcomere dysfunction, which is followed by the major clinical symptoms. ..
  21. Hagiwara N, Ma B, Ly A. Slow and fast fiber isoform gene expression is systematically altered in skeletal muscle of the Sox6 mutant, p100H. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:301-11 pubmed
    ..Together with our earlier report, demonstrating early postnatal muscle defects in the Sox6 null-p100H mutant, the present results suggest that Sox6 likely plays an important role in muscle development...
  22. Parvatiyar M, Pinto J, Liang J, Potter J. Predicting cardiomyopathic phenotypes by altering Ca2+ affinity of cardiac troponin C. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27785-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The main findings from this study were as follows: 1) cTnC mutants demonstrated distinct functional phenotypes reminiscent of bona fide HCM, RCM, and DCM mutations; 2) a ..
  23. Parmacek M, Bengur A, Vora A, Leiden J. The structure and regulation of expression of the murine fast skeletal troponin C gene. Identification of a developmentally regulated, muscle-specific transcriptional enhancer. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:15970-6 pubmed
    ..160-amino acid sTnC protein shares 70% amino acid sequence identity with the slow/cardiac isoform of troponin C (cTnC). However, three areas of significant sequence divergence were identified...
  24. Jin J, Wang J, Zhang J. Expression of cDNAs encoding mouse cardiac troponin T isoforms: characterization of a large sample of independent clones. Gene. 1996;168:217-21 pubmed
    ..Three novel alternative splicing acceptor sites in the 5'-untranslated portion of exon 2 have been identified with different frequencies. ..
  25. Du J, Liu J, Feng H, Hossain M, Gobara N, Zhang C, et al. Impaired relaxation is the main manifestation in transgenic mice expressing a restrictive cardiomyopathy mutation, R193H, in cardiac TnI. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2604-13 pubmed publisher
    Transgenic mice were generated to express a restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) R192H mutation in the heart (cTnI(193His) mice)...
  26. Yin X, Choudhury M, Bag J. Overexpression of sTnC polypeptide in muscle cells is controlled by its rapid degradation. FEBS Lett. 2002;517:45-9 pubmed
    ..Analyses of the mRNA and polypeptide levels of several thin filament complements showed no effect of overexpression of the sTnC mRNA. ..
  27. Sumandea M, Vahebi S, SUMANDEA C, Garcia Cazarin M, Staidle J, Homsher E. Impact of cardiac troponin T N-terminal deletion and phosphorylation on myofilament function. Biochemistry. 2009;48:7722-31 pubmed publisher
    ..with recombinant cTn engineered to contain modified cTnT (truncated, phosphorylated) in the presence of wild-type cTnI and cTnC...
  28. Heikinheimo M, Scandrett J, Wilson D. Localization of transcription factor GATA-4 to regions of the mouse embryo involved in cardiac development. Dev Biol. 1994;164:361-73 pubmed
    ..The temporal and spacial patterns of GATA-4 expression support a role for this factor in the regulation of cardiac differentiation, analogous to the established role of transcription factor GATA-1 in the regulation of hematopoiesis. ..
  29. Yamane A, Mayo M, Shuler C, Crowe D, Ohnuki Y, Dalrymple K, et al. Expression of myogenic regulatory factors during the development of mouse tongue striated muscle. Arch Oral Biol. 2000;45:71-8 pubmed
  30. Homsher E, Lee D, Morris C, Pavlov D, Tobacman L. Regulation of force and unloaded sliding speed in single thin filaments: effects of regulatory proteins and calcium. J Physiol. 2000;524 Pt 1:233-43 pubmed
    ..native bovine cardiac tropomyosin (nTm), and either native bovine cardiac troponin (nTn), troponin containing a TnC mutant, CBMII, in which the sole regulatory site in cardiac TnC (site II) is inactivated (CBMII-Tn), or troponin ..