Tnf

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tnf
Description: tumor necrosis factor
Alias: DIF, TNF-a, TNF-alpha, TNFSF2, TNFalpha, Tnfa, Tnfsf1a, Tnlg1f, tumor necrosis factor, cachectin, tumor necrosis factor ligand 1f, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Species: mouse
Products:     Tnf

Top Publications

  1. Bamias G, Dahman M, Arseneau K, Guanzon M, Gruska D, Pizarro T, et al. Intestinal-specific TNF? overexpression induces Crohn's-like ileitis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72594 pubmed publisher
    Human and animal studies have clearly established tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? as an important mediator of Crohn's disease pathogenesis...
  2. Yabal M, Muller N, Adler H, Knies N, Groß C, Damgaard R, et al. XIAP restricts TNF- and RIP3-dependent cell death and inflammasome activation. Cell Rep. 2014;7:1796-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Aberrant IL-1? secretion is TNF dependent and requires RIP3 but is independent of cIAP1/cIAP2...
  3. Remijsen Q, Goossens V, Grootjans S, Van den Haute C, Vanlangenakker N, Dondelinger Y, et al. Depletion of RIPK3 or MLKL blocks TNF-driven necroptosis and switches towards a delayed RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptosis. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1004 pubmed publisher
    In human cells, the RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL-PGAM5-Drp1 axis drives tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis through mitochondrial fission, but whether this pathway is conserved among mammals is not known...
  4. Mandal P, Berger S, Pillay S, Moriwaki K, Huang C, Guo H, et al. RIP3 induces apoptosis independent of pronecrotic kinase activity. Mol Cell. 2014;56:481-95 pubmed publisher
    ..RIP3 therefore holds both necroptosis and apoptosis in balance through a Ripoptosome-like platform. This work highlights a common mechanism unveiling RHIM-driven apoptosis by therapeutic or genetic perturbation of RIP3. ..
  5. Thorn C, Whitehead A. Differential transcription of the mouse acute phase serum amyloid A genes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Amyloid. 2002;9:229-36 pubmed
    ..e. they are primarily regulated by IL-1 and TNF. Here we establish that the BALB/c Saa1, Saa2 and Saa3 genes, in fact, respond differently to IL-1, TNF and IL-6...
  6. Jacobsen F, Veiby O, Stokke T, Jacobsen S. TNF-alpha bidirectionally modulates the viability of primitive murine hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. J Immunol. 1996;157:1193-9 pubmed
    It is well established that TNF-alpha can induce apoptosis in many normal and transformed cell types...
  7. Black R, Rauch C, Kozlosky C, Peschon J, Slack J, Wolfson M, et al. A metalloproteinase disintegrin that releases tumour-necrosis factor-alpha from cells. Nature. 1997;385:729-33 pubmed
    ..The release of soluble tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from its membrane-bound precursor is one of the most intensively studied shedding events because this ..
  8. Teoh N, Field J, Sutton J, Farrell G. Dual role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: studies in tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene knockout mice. Hepatology. 2004;39:412-21 pubmed
    Although hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is partially mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), we recently found that low-dose TNF before IR is hepatoprotective...
  9. Leon L, White A, Kluger M. Role of IL-6 and TNF in thermoregulation and survival during sepsis in mice. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:R269-77 pubmed
    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been implicated as key mediators in inflammation, morbidity, and mortality associated with sepsis...
  10. Drutskaya M, Ortiz M, Liepinsh D, Kuprash D, Nedospasov S, Keller J. Inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor on hematopoiesis seen in vitro are translated to increased numbers of both committed and multipotent progenitors in TNF-deficient mice. Exp Hematol. 2005;33:1348-56 pubmed
    The effects of TNF deficiency on myelopoiesis were evaluated in long-term (LTBMC) and short-term bone marrow cultures (STBMC) and compared to hematopoietic activity in vivo in TNF-deficient mice...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Bamias G, Dahman M, Arseneau K, Guanzon M, Gruska D, Pizarro T, et al. Intestinal-specific TNF? overexpression induces Crohn's-like ileitis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72594 pubmed publisher
    Human and animal studies have clearly established tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? as an important mediator of Crohn's disease pathogenesis...
  2. Yabal M, Muller N, Adler H, Knies N, Groß C, Damgaard R, et al. XIAP restricts TNF- and RIP3-dependent cell death and inflammasome activation. Cell Rep. 2014;7:1796-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Aberrant IL-1? secretion is TNF dependent and requires RIP3 but is independent of cIAP1/cIAP2...
  3. Remijsen Q, Goossens V, Grootjans S, Van den Haute C, Vanlangenakker N, Dondelinger Y, et al. Depletion of RIPK3 or MLKL blocks TNF-driven necroptosis and switches towards a delayed RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptosis. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1004 pubmed publisher
    In human cells, the RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL-PGAM5-Drp1 axis drives tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis through mitochondrial fission, but whether this pathway is conserved among mammals is not known...
  4. Mandal P, Berger S, Pillay S, Moriwaki K, Huang C, Guo H, et al. RIP3 induces apoptosis independent of pronecrotic kinase activity. Mol Cell. 2014;56:481-95 pubmed publisher
    ..RIP3 therefore holds both necroptosis and apoptosis in balance through a Ripoptosome-like platform. This work highlights a common mechanism unveiling RHIM-driven apoptosis by therapeutic or genetic perturbation of RIP3. ..
  5. Thorn C, Whitehead A. Differential transcription of the mouse acute phase serum amyloid A genes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Amyloid. 2002;9:229-36 pubmed
    ..e. they are primarily regulated by IL-1 and TNF. Here we establish that the BALB/c Saa1, Saa2 and Saa3 genes, in fact, respond differently to IL-1, TNF and IL-6...
  6. Jacobsen F, Veiby O, Stokke T, Jacobsen S. TNF-alpha bidirectionally modulates the viability of primitive murine hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. J Immunol. 1996;157:1193-9 pubmed
    It is well established that TNF-alpha can induce apoptosis in many normal and transformed cell types...
  7. Black R, Rauch C, Kozlosky C, Peschon J, Slack J, Wolfson M, et al. A metalloproteinase disintegrin that releases tumour-necrosis factor-alpha from cells. Nature. 1997;385:729-33 pubmed
    ..The release of soluble tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from its membrane-bound precursor is one of the most intensively studied shedding events because this ..
  8. Teoh N, Field J, Sutton J, Farrell G. Dual role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: studies in tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene knockout mice. Hepatology. 2004;39:412-21 pubmed
    Although hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is partially mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), we recently found that low-dose TNF before IR is hepatoprotective...
  9. Leon L, White A, Kluger M. Role of IL-6 and TNF in thermoregulation and survival during sepsis in mice. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:R269-77 pubmed
    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been implicated as key mediators in inflammation, morbidity, and mortality associated with sepsis...
  10. Drutskaya M, Ortiz M, Liepinsh D, Kuprash D, Nedospasov S, Keller J. Inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor on hematopoiesis seen in vitro are translated to increased numbers of both committed and multipotent progenitors in TNF-deficient mice. Exp Hematol. 2005;33:1348-56 pubmed
    The effects of TNF deficiency on myelopoiesis were evaluated in long-term (LTBMC) and short-term bone marrow cultures (STBMC) and compared to hematopoietic activity in vivo in TNF-deficient mice...
  11. Endres R, Alimzhanov M, Plitz T, Fütterer A, Kosco Vilbois M, Nedospasov S, et al. Mature follicular dendritic cell networks depend on expression of lymphotoxin beta receptor by radioresistant stromal cells and of lymphotoxin beta and tumor necrosis factor by B cells. J Exp Med. 1999;189:159-68 pubmed
    ..Recent studies using gene-targeted mice have revealed that the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin (LT) alpha, and LTbeta, as well as their receptors TNF receptor p55 (TNFRp55) and ..
  12. Peschon J, Torrance D, Stocking K, Glaccum M, Otten C, Willis C, et al. TNF receptor-deficient mice reveal divergent roles for p55 and p75 in several models of inflammation. J Immunol. 1998;160:943-52 pubmed
    The pleiotropic activities of the potent proinflammatory cytokine TNF are mediated by two structurally related, but functionally distinct, receptors, p55 and p75, that are coexpressed on most cell types...
  13. Calzascia T, Pellegrini M, Hall H, Sabbagh L, Ono N, Elford A, et al. TNF-alpha is critical for antitumor but not antiviral T cell immunity in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3833-45 pubmed
    b>TNF-alpha antagonists are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but their use is associated with reactivation of latent infections...
  14. Tsuge M, Yasui K, Ichiyawa T, Saito Y, Nagaoka Y, Yashiro M, et al. Increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the blood induces early activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the brain. Microbiol Immunol. 2010;54:417-24 pubmed publisher
    Increases of cytokine in the blood play important roles in the pathogenesis of influenza-associated encephalopathy. TNF-alpha was administered intravenously to wild-type mice, after which blood, CSF and brain tissue were obtained, and ..
  15. Cowley S, Sedgwick J, Elkins K. Differential requirements by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for soluble and membrane TNF in control of Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain intramacrophage growth. J Immunol. 2007;179:7709-19 pubmed
    During primary infection with intracellular bacteria, the membrane-associated form of TNF provides some TNF functions, but the relative contributions during memory responses are not well-characterized...
  16. Mohammed F, Smookler D, Taylor S, Fingleton B, Kassiri Z, Sanchez O, et al. Abnormal TNF activity in Timp3-/- mice leads to chronic hepatic inflammation and failure of liver regeneration. Nat Genet. 2004;36:969-77 pubmed
    Tumor-necrosis factor (TNF), a pleiotropic cytokine, triggers physiological and pathological responses in several organs...
  17. Allie N, Alexopoulou L, Quesniaux V, Fick L, Kranidioti K, Kollias G, et al. Protective role of membrane tumour necrosis factor in the host's resistance to mycobacterial infection. Immunology. 2008;125:522-34 pubmed publisher
    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a critical role in the recruitment and activation of mononuclear cells in mycobacterial infection...
  18. Korner H, Cook M, Riminton D, Lemckert F, Hoek R, Ledermann B, et al. Distinct roles for lymphotoxin-alpha and tumor necrosis factor in organogenesis and spatial organization of lymphoid tissue. Eur J Immunol. 1997;27:2600-9 pubmed
    Specialized roles for the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT) were characterized in TNF/LT alpha -/- and TNF -/- mice established by direct gene targeting of C57BL/6 ES cells...
  19. Saunders B, Briscoe H, Britton W. T cell-derived tumour necrosis factor is essential, but not sufficient, for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;137:279-87 pubmed
    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is critical for sustained protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
  20. Schwitalla S, Fingerle A, Cammareri P, Nebelsiek T, Göktuna S, Ziegler P, et al. Intestinal tumorigenesis initiated by dedifferentiation and acquisition of stem-cell-like properties. Cell. 2013;152:25-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data support the concept of bidirectional conversion and highlight the importance of inflammatory signaling for dedifferentiation and generation of tumor-initiating cells in vivo. ..
  21. Shrestha B, Zhang B, Purtha W, Klein R, Diamond M. Tumor necrosis factor alpha protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by promoting trafficking of mononuclear leukocytes into the central nervous system. J Virol. 2008;82:8956-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, studies using cell culture offer conflicting answers regarding whether tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has an anti-WNV function...
  22. Oshima M, Oshima H, Matsunaga A, Taketo M. Hyperplastic gastric tumors with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia caused by tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent inflammation in cyclooxygenase-2/microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2005;65:9147-51 pubmed
    ..and acquired immunity in the gastric hyperplasia of K19-C2mE mice, we introduced knockout mutations for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; Tnf), interleukin-1 receptor-alpha chain (Il1r1), and Rag2 genes, respectively...
  23. Haimerl F, Erhardt A, Sass G, Tiegs G. Down-regulation of the de-ubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 2 contributes to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced hepatocyte survival. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:495-504 pubmed publisher
    b>Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) stimulation of hepatocytes induces either cell survival or apoptosis, which seems to be regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system...
  24. Baracchi F, Opp M. Sleep-wake behavior and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both interleukin-1 beta receptor 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:982-93 pubmed publisher
    Data indicate that interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS)...
  25. Omori E, Matsumoto K, Sanjo H, Sato S, Akira S, Smart R, et al. TAK1 is a master regulator of epidermal homeostasis involving skin inflammation and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19610-7 pubmed
    ..the mutant skin revealed that TAK1 deficiency results in a striking increase in apoptosis in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF). TAK1-deficient keratinocytes cannot activate NF-kappaB or JNK upon TNF treatment...
  26. Campa V, Iglesias J, Carcedo M, Rodriguez R, Riera J, Ramos S, et al. Polyinosinic acid induces TNF and NO production as well as NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcriptional activation in the monocytemacrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Inflamm Res. 2005;54:328-37 pubmed
    ..by the acquisition of a mature macrophage morphology and the production of inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO). The activation by poly I has distinctive features...
  27. Harmsen A, Kusser K, Hartson L, Tighe M, Sunshine M, Sedgwick J, et al. Cutting edge: organogenesis of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) occurs independently of lymphotoxin-alpha (LT alpha) and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-gamma, but the organization of NALT is LT alpha dependent. J Immunol. 2002;168:986-90 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the organogenesis of NALT occurs through unique mechanisms. ..
  28. Moore R, Owens D, Stamp G, Arnott C, Burke F, East N, et al. Mice deficient in tumor necrosis factor-alpha are resistant to skin carcinogenesis. Nat Med. 1999;5:828-31 pubmed
    ..cancer, we studied susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis in mice deficient for the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha (refs. 5,6)...
  29. Malaviya R, Ikeda T, Ross E, Abraham S. Mast cell modulation of neutrophil influx and bacterial clearance at sites of infection through TNF-alpha. Nature. 1996;381:77-80 pubmed
    ..The mast-cell chemoattractant TNF-alpha was implicated in the neutrophil response because TNF-alpha was locally released only in +/+ and W/Wv+MC mice,..
  30. Swann J, Vesely M, Silva A, Sharkey J, Akira S, Schreiber R, et al. Demonstration of inflammation-induced cancer and cancer immunoediting during primary tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:652-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the reported role of TNF in chronic inflammation, TNF-deficient mice were significantly more susceptible to MCA-induced sarcoma than WT mice...
  31. Takeuchi H, Jin S, Wang J, Zhang G, Kawanokuchi J, Kuno R, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces neurotoxicity via glutamate release from hemichannels of activated microglia in an autocrine manner. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21362-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secreted from activated microglia may elicit neurodegeneration through caspase-dependent ..
  32. Sun J, Sukhova G, Wolters P, Yang M, Kitamoto S, Libby P, et al. Mast cells promote atherosclerosis by releasing proinflammatory cytokines. Nat Med. 2007;13:719-24 pubmed
    ..In vivo, adoptive transfer of syngeneic wild-type or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-deficient mast cells restored atherogenesis to Ldlr(-/-)Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice...
  33. Baluk P, Yao L, Feng J, Romano T, Jung S, Schreiter J, et al. TNF-alpha drives remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics in sustained airway inflammation in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2954-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we sought to determine whether TNF-alpha drives the changes in blood vessels and lymphatics in M. pulmonis-infected mice...
  34. Kontoyiannis D, Pasparakis M, Pizarro T, Cominelli F, Kollias G. Impaired on/off regulation of TNF biosynthesis in mice lacking TNF AU-rich elements: implications for joint and gut-associated immunopathologies. Immunity. 1999;10:387-98 pubmed
    We addressed the impact of deleting TNF AU-rich elements (ARE) from the mouse genome on the regulation of TNF biosynthesis and the physiology of the host...
  35. Banks T, Rouse B, Kerley M, Blair P, Godfrey V, Kuklin N, et al. Lymphotoxin-alpha-deficient mice. Effects on secondary lymphoid organ development and humoral immune responsiveness. J Immunol. 1995;155:1685-93 pubmed
    ..These data illustrate the utility of this mouse model as a system for understanding lymphoid organ development and its effects on immune responsiveness. ..
  36. Kaufmann T, Jost P, Pellegrini M, Puthalakath H, Gugasyan R, Gerondakis S, et al. Fatal hepatitis mediated by tumor necrosis factor TNFalpha requires caspase-8 and involves the BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim. Immunity. 2009;30:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..and acute liver diseases, can be a consequence of overactivation of the immune system and is often mediated by TNFalpha. Injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus the transcriptional inhibitor D(+)-galactosamine (GalN) or ..
  37. Musicki K, Briscoe H, Tran S, Britton W, Saunders B. Differential requirements for soluble and transmembrane tumor necrosis factor in the immunological control of primary and secondary Listeria monocytogenes infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:3180-9 pubmed
    The relative contributions of transmembrane tumor necrosis factor (memTNF) and soluble tumor necrosis factor (solTNF) in innate and adaptive immunity are poorly defined...
  38. Pfeffer K, Matsuyama T, Kundig T, Wakeham A, Kishihara K, Shahinian A, et al. Mice deficient for the 55 kd tumor necrosis factor receptor are resistant to endotoxic shock, yet succumb to L. monocytogenes infection. Cell. 1993;73:457-67 pubmed
    The multiple biological activities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are mediated by two distinct cell surface receptors of 55 kd (TNFRp55) and 75 kd (TNFRp75). Using gene targeting, we generated a TNFRp55-deficient mouse strain...
  39. Fremond C, Yeremeev V, Nicolle D, Jacobs M, Quesniaux V, Ryffel B. Fatal Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection despite adaptive immune response in the absence of MyD88. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1790-9 pubmed
    ..While primary MyD88(-/-) macrophages and DCs are defective in TNF, IL-12, and NO production in response to mycobacterial stimulation, the upregulation of costimulatory molecules ..
  40. Kruglov A, Kuchmiy A, Grivennikov S, Tumanov A, Kuprash D, Nedospasov S. Physiological functions of tumor necrosis factor and the consequences of its pathologic overexpression or blockade: mouse models. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2008;19:231-44 pubmed publisher
    b>TNF is an exciting cytokine which has helped to establish many paradigms in immunology...
  41. Chen X, Bäumel M, Männel D, Howard O, Oppenheim J. Interaction of TNF with TNF receptor type 2 promotes expansion and function of mouse CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:154-61 pubmed
    Although TNF is a major proinflammatory cytokine, increasing evidence indicates that TNF also has immunosuppressive feedback effects...
  42. Kassiotis G, Pasparakis M, Kollias G, Probert L. TNF accelerates the onset but does not alter the incidence and severity of myelin basic protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:774-80 pubmed
    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induction in TNF gene-targeted mice has resulted in conflicting reports in part due to the strong association of TNF with the MHC locus...
  43. Togbe D, Grivennikov S, Noulin N, Couillin I, Maillet I, Jacobs M, et al. T cell-derived TNF down-regulates acute airway response to endotoxin. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:768-79 pubmed
    ..Local TNF production may contribute to lung dysfunction and inflammation, although pulmonary neutrophil recruitment occurs in ..
  44. Takeuchi O, Hoshino K, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Takada H, Ogawa T, et al. Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components. Immunity. 1999;11:443-51 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo and TLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition. ..
  45. Alexopoulou L, Pasparakis M, Kollias G. A murine transmembrane tumor necrosis factor (TNF) transgene induces arthritis by cooperative p55/p75 TNF receptor signaling. Eur J Immunol. 1997;27:2588-92 pubmed
    The arthritogenic activities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its p55TNF-receptor (R) have been well documented in experimental animal models of arthritis, and in transgenic mice expressing wild-type or mutant transmembrane human TNF ..
  46. Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu S. A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane protein: ramifications for the complex physiology of TNF. Cell. 1988;53:45-53 pubmed
    b>Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a monocyte-derived cytotoxin that has been implicated in tumor regression, septic shock, and cachexia. The mechanism by which TNF induces these different disease states is unclear...
  47. Yang X, Tisch R, Singer S, Cao Z, Liblau R, Schreiber R, et al. Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha on insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in NOD mice. I. The early development of autoimmunity and the diabetogenic process. J Exp Med. 1994;180:995-1004 pubmed
    b>Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha is a cytokine that has potent immune regulatory functions...
  48. Zakharova M, Ziegler H. Paradoxical anti-inflammatory actions of TNF-alpha: inhibition of IL-12 and IL-23 via TNF receptor 1 in macrophages and dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2005;175:5024-33 pubmed
    IL-12 and TNF-alpha are central proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages and dendritic cells. Disregulation of TNF-alpha is associated with sepsis and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis...
  49. Gugasyan R, Voss A, Varigos G, Thomas T, Grumont R, Kaur P, et al. The transcription factors c-rel and RelA control epidermal development and homeostasis in embryonic and adult skin via distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5733-45 pubmed
    ..Using mice lacking RelA and c-rel, which survive throughout embryogenesis on a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-deficient background (rela(-/-) c-rel(-/-) tnfalpha(-/-)), we show that c-rel and RelA are ..
  50. Okabe Y, Kawane K, Nagata S. IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7-dependent and -independent gene induction by mammalian DNA that escapes degradation. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophages in DNase II-deficient mice accumulate undigested DNA and constitutively produce IFN-beta as well as TNF-alpha. The IFN-beta causes severe anemia in the DNase II(-/-) embryos, which die prenatally...
  51. Lovas A, Weidemann A, Albrecht D, Wiechert L, Weih D, Weih F. p100 Deficiency is insufficient for full activation of the alternative NF-?B pathway: TNF cooperates with p52-RelB in target gene transcription. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42741 pubmed publisher
  52. Le Hir M, Bluethmann H, Kosco Vilbois M, Muller M, Di Padova F, Moore M, et al. Differentiation of follicular dendritic cells and full antibody responses require tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 signaling. J Exp Med. 1996;183:2367-72 pubmed
    Using mice double deficient for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin alpha (LT alpha), we demonstrated that TNF and/or LT alpha are necessary for development of a normal splenic microarchitecture and for isotype switch after ..
  53. Gabele E, Froh M, Arteel G, Uesugi T, Hellerbrand C, Scholmerich J, et al. TNFalpha is required for cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis in the mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:348-53 pubmed publisher
    b>TNFalpha, a mediator of hepatotoxicity in several animal models, is elevated in acute and chronic liver diseases...
  54. Beg A, Baltimore D. An essential role for NF-kappaB in preventing TNF-alpha-induced cell death. Science. 1996;274:782-4 pubmed
    ..In particular, the RelA (p65) subunit is required for induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent genes...
  55. Connolly M, Bedrosian A, Mallen St Clair J, Mitchell A, Ibrahim J, Stroud A, et al. In liver fibrosis, dendritic cells govern hepatic inflammation in mice via TNF-alpha. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The proinflammatory and immunogenic effects of fibrotic DCs were contingent on their production of TNF-alpha...
  56. Benson E, Goebl M, Yang F, Kapur R, McClintick J, Sanghani S, et al. Loss of SIMPL compromises TNF-alpha-dependent survival of hematopoietic progenitors. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:71-81 pubmed publisher
    Emerging work has revealed an integral role of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway in the regulation of hematopoiesis...
  57. Engwerda C, Mynott T, Sawhney S, de Souza J, Bickle Q, Kaye P. Locally up-regulated lymphotoxin alpha, not systemic tumor necrosis factor alpha, is the principle mediator of murine cerebral malaria. J Exp Med. 2002;195:1371-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that LTalpha, not TNFalpha, is the principal mediator of murine CM. Mice deficient in TNFalpha (B6...
  58. Rogers J, Berman J. TNF-alpha inhibits the further development of committed progenitors while stimulating multipotential progenitors in mouse long-term bone marrow cultures. J Immunol. 1994;153:4694-703 pubmed
    We studied simultaneously the effect of TNF on both relatively primitive and more mature hematopoietic progenitors by using a modification of the mouse long-term bone marrow culture system of Dexter...
  59. Lacerda L, Somers S, Opie L, Lecour S. Ischaemic postconditioning protects against reperfusion injury via the SAFE pathway. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Factor Enhancement (SAFE) pathway, which involves the activation of the cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3)...
  60. Apostolaki M, Manoloukos M, Roulis M, Wurbel M, Muller W, Papadakis K, et al. Role of beta7 integrin and the chemokine/chemokine receptor pair CCL25/CCR9 in modeled TNF-dependent Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:2025-35 pubmed publisher
    ..expression in peripheral activated/memory intestinal-homing CD8alphabeta lymphocytes, and predominance of tumor necrosis factor/interferon-gamma-producing CD8alphabeta lymphocytes in the epithelium...
  61. Prinz M, Montrasio F, Klein M, Schwarz P, Priller J, Odermatt B, et al. Lymph nodal prion replication and neuroinvasion in mice devoid of follicular dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:919-24 pubmed
    ..Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), whose development and maintenance in germinal centers depends on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT) signaling, are thought to be indispensable for extraneural prion pathogenesis...
  62. Chen X, Wu X, Zhou Q, Howard O, Netea M, Oppenheim J. TNFR2 is critical for the stabilization of the CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T. cell phenotype in the inflammatory environment. J Immunol. 2013;190:1076-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, TNF partially abrogated this effect of TCR stimulation and stabilized Foxp3 expression...