Gene Symbol: Tmem173
Description: transmembrane protein 173
Alias: 2610307O08Rik, ERIS, MPYS, Mita, STING, stimulator of interferon genes protein, endoplasmic reticulum interferon stimulator, mediator of IRF3 activation, mitochondrial mediator of IRF3 activation, stimulator of interferon protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Tmem173

Top Publications

  1. Diner E, Burdette D, Wilson S, Monroe K, Kellenberger C, Hyodo M, et al. The innate immune DNA sensor cGAS produces a noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide that activates human STING. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..cGAMP activates an interferon response by binding to a downstream receptor called STING. Here, we identify natural variants of human STING (hSTING) that are poorly responsive to cGAMP yet, unexpectedly,..
  2. Rasmussen S, Horan K, Holm C, Stranks A, Mettenleiter T, Simon A, et al. Activation of autophagy by ?-herpesviruses in myeloid cells is mediated by cytoplasmic viral DNA through a mechanism dependent on stimulator of IFN genes. J Immunol. 2011;187:5268-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that HSV-1 genomic DNA induces autophagy in nonpermissive cells in a stimulator of IFN gene-dependent manner. ..
  3. Sharma S, Deoliveira R, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, et al. Innate immune recognition of an AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Immunity. 2011;35:194-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, AT-rich DNA sensing involved an unknown receptor that coupled to the STING, TBK1 and IRF3-IRF7 signaling pathway...
  4. Unterholzner L, Keating S, Baran M, Horan K, Jensen S, Sharma S, et al. IFI16 is an innate immune sensor for intracellular DNA. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..IFI16 directly associated with IFN-?-inducing viral DNA motifs. STING, a critical mediator of IFN-? responses to DNA, was recruited to IFI16 after DNA stimulation...
  5. Ishikawa H, Barber G. STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling. Nature. 2008;455:674-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the identification, following expression cloning, of a molecule (STING; stimulator of interferon genes) that appears essential for effective innate immune signalling processes...
  6. Sauer J, Sotelo Troha K, von Moltke J, Monroe K, Rae C, Brubaker S, et al. The N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced Goldenticket mouse mutant reveals an essential function of Sting in the in vivo interferon response to Listeria monocytogenes and cyclic dinucleotides. Infect Immun. 2011;79:688-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The transmembrane signaling adaptor Sting (Tmem173, Mita, Mpys, Eris) has recently been implicated in the induction of type I IFNs in response to cytosolic DNA and/..
  7. Jones J, Kayagaki N, Broz P, Henry T, Newton K, O Rourke K, et al. Absent in melanoma 2 is required for innate immune recognition of Francisella tularensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9771-6 pubmed publisher
    ..was reduced in infected macrophages lacking either the IFN-I receptor or stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Finally, AIM2-deficient mice displayed increased susceptibility to F...
  8. Prantner D, Darville T, Nagarajan U. Stimulator of IFN gene is critical for induction of IFN-beta during Chlamydia muridarum infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:2551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Independently, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the stimulator of IFN gene (STING) protein in HeLa cells and mouse oviduct epithelial cells significantly decreased IFN-beta mRNA expression, ..
  9. Ishikawa H, Ma Z, Barber G. STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity. Nature. 2009;461:788-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is critical for the induction of IFN by non-CpG intracellular DNA species ..

More Information


  1. Sun W, Li Y, Chen L, Chen H, You F, Zhou X, et al. ERIS, an endoplasmic reticulum IFN stimulator, activates innate immune signaling through dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ERIS (also known as STING or MITA) resided exclusively on ER membrane...
  2. Zhang Z, Yuan B, Bao M, Lu N, Kim T, Liu Y. The helicase DDX41 senses intracellular DNA mediated by the adaptor STING in dendritic cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:959-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of both DDX41 and the membrane-associated adaptor STING together had a synergistic effect in promoting Ifnb promoter activity...
  3. Gall A, Treuting P, Elkon K, Loo Y, Gale M, Barber G, et al. Autoimmunity initiates in nonhematopoietic cells and progresses via lymphocytes in an interferon-dependent autoimmune disease. Immunity. 2012;36:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Trex1 is an essential negative regulator of the STING-dependent antiviral response...
  4. Chen H, Sun H, You F, Sun W, Zhou X, Chen L, et al. Activation of STAT6 by STING is critical for antiviral innate immunity. Cell. 2011;147:436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Viruses or cytoplasmic nucleic acids trigger STING (also named MITA/ERIS) to recruit STAT6 to the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to STAT6 phosphorylation on Ser(407) ..
  5. Saitoh T, Fujita N, Hayashi T, Takahara K, Satoh T, Lee H, et al. Atg9a controls dsDNA-driven dynamic translocation of STING and the innate immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20842-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the translocation and assembly of the essential signal transducers, stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), are required for dsDNA-triggered innate immune responses...
  6. Gao P, Ascano M, Zillinger T, Wang W, Dai P, Serganov A, et al. Structure-function analysis of STING activation by c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] and targeting by antiviral DMXAA. Cell. 2013;154:748-62 pubmed publisher
    ..triggers formation of the metazoan second messenger c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], which binds the signaling protein STING with subsequent activation of the interferon (IFN) pathway...
  7. Li X, Wu J, Gao D, Wang H, Sun L, Chen Z. Pivotal roles of cGAS-cGAMP signaling in antiviral defense and immune adjuvant effects. Science. 2013;341:1390-4 pubmed publisher
    ..cGas(-/-) mice were more susceptible to lethal infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) than wild-type mice. We also show that cGAMP is an adjuvant that boosts antigen-specific T cell activation and antibody production in mice. ..
  8. Zhong B, Yang Y, Li S, Wang Y, Li Y, Diao F, et al. The adaptor protein MITA links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 transcription factor activation. Immunity. 2008;29:538-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified MITA as a critical mediator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling by expression cloning...
  9. Burdette D, Monroe K, Sotelo Troha K, Iwig J, Eckert B, Hyodo M, et al. STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. Nature. 2011;478:515-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a transmembrane protein called STING (stimulator of IFN genes; also known as MITA, ERIS, MPYS and TMEM173) functions as an essential signalling adaptor, linking the cytosolic detection of DNA to the TBK1-IRF3 signalling ..
  10. Shu C, Yi G, Watts T, Kao C, Li P. Structure of STING bound to cyclic di-GMP reveals the mechanism of cyclic dinucleotide recognition by the immune system. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:722-4 pubmed publisher
    b>STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an innate immune sensor of cyclic dinucleotides that regulates the induction of type I interferons...
  11. Jin L, Waterman P, Jonscher K, Short C, Reisdorph N, Cambier J. MPYS, a novel membrane tetraspanner, is associated with major histocompatibility complex class II and mediates transduction of apoptotic signals. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5014-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a novel plasma membrane tetraspanner (MPYS) that is associated with MHC-II and mediates its transduction of death signals...
  12. Wu J, Sun L, Chen X, Du F, Shi H, Chen C, et al. Cyclic GMP-AMP is an endogenous second messenger in innate immune signaling by cytosolic DNA. Science. 2013;339:826-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This DNA signaling pathway requires the adaptor protein STING and the transcription factor IRF3, but the mechanism of DNA sensing is unclear...
  13. Jin L, Hill K, Filak H, Mogan J, Knowles H, Zhang B, et al. MPYS is required for IFN response factor 3 activation and type I IFN production in the response of cultured phagocytes to bacterial second messengers cyclic-di-AMP and cyclic-di-GMP. J Immunol. 2011;187:2595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-6, but not TNF, in response to cyclic-di-AMP and cyclic-di-GMP requires MPYS (also known as STING, MITA, and TMEM173)...
  14. Ablasser A, Goldeck M, Cavlar T, Deimling T, Witte G, Röhl I, et al. cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING. Nature. 2013;498:380-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein STING is critically required for the initiation of type I interferon signalling upon detection of cytosolic DNA of both ..
  15. Patel S, Blaauboer S, Tucker H, Mansouri S, Ruiz Moreno J, Hamann L, et al. The Common R71H-G230A-R293Q Human TMEM173 Is a Null Allele. J Immunol. 2017;198:776-787 pubmed publisher
    b>TMEM173 encodes MPYS/STING and is an innate immune sensor for cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) playing a critical role in infection, inflammation, and cancer...
  16. Stabell A, Meyerson N, Gullberg R, Gilchrist A, Webb K, Old W, et al. Dengue viruses cleave STING in humans but not in nonhuman primates, their presumed natural reservoir. elife. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..The dengue virus 2 (DENV2) - encoded protease cleaves human STING, reducing type I interferon production and boosting viral titers in humans...
  17. Kwon D, Park E, Sesaki H, Kang S. Carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) suppresses STING-mediated DNA sensing pathway through inducing mitochondrial fission. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:737-743 pubmed publisher
    Besides its important role in innate immune response to DNA virus infection, the regulatory function of STING in autoimmunity and cancer is emerging...
  18. Mitzel D, Lowry V, Shirali A, Liu Y, Stout Delgado H. Age-enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to increased Atg9A inhibition of STING-mediated IFN-? production during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. J Immunol. 2014;192:4273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae, and provide a possible mechanism to enhance these responses, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality in this population. ..
  19. Larkin B, Ilyukha V, Sorokin M, Buzdin A, Vannier E, Poltorak A. Cutting Edge: Activation of STING in T Cells Induces Type I IFN Responses and Cell Death. J Immunol. 2017;199:397-402 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was initially described as a sensor of intracellular bacterial and viral DNA and a promising adjuvant target in innate immune cells; more recently STING has also been shown to detect endogenous DNA ..
  20. Yang H, Wang H, Ren J, Chen Q, Chen Z. cGAS is essential for cellular senescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E4612-E4620 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that cGAS mediates cellular senescence and retards immortalization. This is distinct from, and complementary to, the role of cGAS in activating antitumor immunity. ..
  21. Heipertz E, Harper J, Walker W. STING and TRIF Contribute to Mouse Sepsis, Depending on Severity of the Disease Model. Shock. 2017;47:621-631 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we investigate two pathways that activate IRF3: the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway (that senses cytosolic DNA) and the TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) pathway ..
  22. Gray E, Winship D, Snyder J, Child S, Geballe A, Stetson D. The AIM2-like Receptors Are Dispensable for the Interferon Response to Intracellular DNA. Immunity. 2016;45:255-66 pubmed publisher
    Detection of intracellular DNA triggers activation of the STING-dependent interferon-stimulatory DNA (ISD) pathway, which is essential for antiviral responses...
  23. Kerur N, Fukuda S, Banerjee D, Kim Y, Fu D, Apicella I, et al. cGAS drives noncanonical-inflammasome activation in age-related macular degeneration. Nat Med. 2018;24:50-61 pubmed publisher
  24. Poltorak A, Kurmyshkina O, Volkova T. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING): A "new chapter" in virus-associated cancer research. Lessons from wild-derived mouse models of innate immunity. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2016;29:83-91 pubmed publisher
    Thanks to the numerous studies that have been carried out recently in the field of cytosolic DNA sensing, STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) is now recognized as a key mediator of innate immune signaling...
  25. Fang R, Wang C, Jiang Q, Lv M, Gao P, Yu X, et al. NEMO-IKK? Are Essential for IRF3 and NF-?B Activation in the cGAS-STING Pathway. J Immunol. 2017;199:3222-3233 pubmed publisher
    Cytosolic dsDNA activates the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of IFN genes (STING) pathway to produce cytokines, including type I IFNs...
  26. Zhang M, Zhang M, Zhang Q, Zhu G, Yuan L, Zhang D, et al. USP18 recruits USP20 to promote innate antiviral response through deubiquitinating STING/MITA. Cell Res. 2016;26:1302-1319 pubmed publisher
    b>STING (also known as MITA) mediates the innate antiviral signaling and ubiquitination of STING is key to its function. However, the deubiquitination process of STING is unclear...
  27. Baum R, Sharma S, Carpenter S, Li Q, Busto P, Fitzgerald K, et al. Cutting edge: AIM2 and endosomal TLRs differentially regulate arthritis and autoantibody production in DNase II-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2015;194:873-7 pubmed publisher
    ..triple knockout (TKO) mice deficient in DNase II/IFNaR together with deficiency in either stimulator of IFN genes (STING) or absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), we reveal central roles for the STING and AIM2 pathways in arthritis...
  28. Corrales L, Glickman L, McWhirter S, Kanne D, Sivick K, Katibah G, et al. Direct Activation of STING in the Tumor Microenvironment Leads to Potent and Systemic Tumor Regression and Immunity. Cell Rep. 2015;11:1018-30 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of recent observations indicating that IFN-β expression was dependent upon activation of the host STING pathway, we hypothesized that direct engagement of STING through intratumoral (IT) administration of specific ..
  29. Kranzusch P, Wilson S, Lee A, Berger J, Doudna J, Vance R. Ancient Origin of cGAS-STING Reveals Mechanism of Universal 2',3' cGAMP Signaling. Mol Cell. 2015;59:891-903 pubmed publisher
    In humans, the cGAS-STING immunity pathway signals in response to cytosolic DNA via 2',3' cGAMP, a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) second messenger containing mixed 2'-5' and 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds...
  30. Maelfait J, Liverpool L, Bridgeman A, Ragan K, Upton J, Rehwinkel J. Sensing of viral and endogenous RNA by ZBP1/DAI induces necroptosis. EMBO J. 2017;36:2529-2543 pubmed publisher
  31. Parvatiyar K, Zhang Z, Teles R, Ouyang S, Jiang Y, Iyer S, et al. The helicase DDX41 recognizes the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP and cyclic di-AMP to activate a type I interferon immune response. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:1155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) or cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is dependent on a signaling axis that involves the adaptor STING, the kinase TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3...
  32. Warner J, Irizarry Caro R, Bennion B, Ai T, Smith A, Miner C, et al. STING-associated vasculopathy develops independently of IRF3 in mice. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3279-3292 pubmed publisher
    Patients with stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) develop systemic inflammation characterized by vasculopathy, interstitial lung disease, ulcerative skin lesions, and premature ..
  33. Jin L, Lenz L, Cambier J. Cellular reactive oxygen species inhibit MPYS induction of IFNβ. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15142 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that MPYS, a.k.a. STING, which was recently shown to mediate activation of IFNβ expression during infection, is a ROS sensor...
  34. Dong G, You M, Ding L, Fan H, Liu F, Ren D, et al. STING Negatively Regulates Double-Stranded DNA-Activated JAK1-STAT1 Signaling via SHP-1/2 in B Cells. Mol Cells. 2015;38:441-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING) has been demonstrated to be a critical hub of type I IFN induction in cytosolic DNA-..
  35. Kondo T, Kobayashi J, Saitoh T, Maruyama K, Ishii K, Barber G, et al. DNA damage sensor MRE11 recognizes cytosolic double-stranded DNA and induces type I interferon by regulating STING trafficking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..physically interacted with dsDNA in the cytoplasm and was required for activation of stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and IRF3...
  36. Deng L, Liang H, Xu M, Yang X, Burnette B, Arina A, et al. STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Promotes Radiation-Induced Type I Interferon-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Immunogenic Tumors. Immunity. 2014;41:843-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that adaptor protein STING, but not MyD88, is required for type I IFN-dependent antitumor effects of radiation...
  37. Zhang L, Mo J, Swanson K, Wen H, Petrucelli A, Gregory S, et al. NLRC3, a member of the NLR family of proteins, is a negative regulator of innate immune signaling induced by the DNA sensor STING. Immunity. 2014;40:329-41 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also named MITA, MYPS, or ERIS) is an intracellular DNA sensor that induces type I interferon through its interaction with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)...
  38. Zhu Q, Man S, Gurung P, Liu Z, Vogel P, Lamkanfi M, et al. Cutting edge: STING mediates protection against colorectal tumorigenesis by governing the magnitude of intestinal inflammation. J Immunol. 2014;193:4779-82 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) is a cytoplasmic innate immune sensor for cyclic dinucleotides that also serves a dual role as an adaptor molecule for a number of intracellular DNA receptors...
  39. Pokatayev V, Hasin N, Chon H, Cerritelli S, Sakhuja K, Ward J, et al. RNase H2 catalytic core Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-related mutant invokes cGAS-STING innate immune-sensing pathway in mice. J Exp Med. 2016;213:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that the G37S mutation led to increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes dependent on the cGAS-STING signaling pathway...
  40. Ma F, Li B, Yu Y, Iyer S, Sun M, Cheng G. Positive feedback regulation of type I interferon by the interferon-stimulated gene STING. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:202-12 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an important regulator of the innate immune response to cytoplasmic DNA. However, regulation of STING itself is largely unknown...
  41. Souza Fonseca Guimaraes F, Parlato M, de Oliveira R, Golenbock D, Fitzgerald K, Shalova I, et al. Interferon-? and granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor production by natural killer cells involves different signaling pathways and the adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? production was found to be MyD88- and TLR9-dependent, whereas GM-CSF was TLR9-independent but dependent on STING (stimulator of interferon genes), a cytosolic adaptor recently described for DNA sensing...
  42. Parker Z, Murphy A, Leib D. Role of the DNA Sensor STING in Protection from Lethal Infection following Corneal and Intracerebral Challenge with Herpes Simplex Virus 1. J Virol. 2015;89:11080-91 pubmed publisher
    b>STING is a protein in the cytosolic DNA and cyclic dinucleotide sensor pathway that is critical for the initiation of innate responses to infection by various pathogens...
  43. Huang L, Li L, Lemos H, Chandler P, Pacholczyk G, Baban B, et al. Cutting edge: DNA sensing via the STING adaptor in myeloid dendritic cells induces potent tolerogenic responses. J Immunol. 2013;191:3509-13 pubmed publisher
    Cytosolic DNA sensing via the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) adaptor incites autoimmunity by inducing type I IFN (IFN-??). In this study, we show that DNA is also sensed via STING to suppress immunity by inducing IDO...
  44. Su Y, Tu Z, Yang C, Chin K, Chuah M, Liang Z, et al. Crystallization studies of the murine c-di-GMP sensor protein STING. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2012;68:906-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the mammalian ER membrane protein STING (stimulator of IFN genes; also known as MITA, ERIS, MPYS and TMEM173) has been found to be the master regulator linking the detection of cytosolic DNA to TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) ..
  45. Cavlar T, Deimling T, Ablasser A, Hopfner K, Hornung V. Species-specific detection of the antiviral small-molecule compound CMA by STING. EMBO J. 2013;32:1440-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that CMA mediates a cell-intrinsic type I IFN response, depending on the ER-resident protein STING. CMA directly binds to STING and triggers a strong antiviral response through the TBK1/IRF3 route...
  46. Ahn J, Xia T, Konno H, Konno K, Ruiz P, Barber G. Inflammation-driven carcinogenesis is mediated through STING. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5166 pubmed publisher
    ..etoposide induce nuclear DNA leakage into the cytosol that intrinsically activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent cytokine production...
  47. Wang F, Alain T, Szretter K, Stephenson K, Pol J, Atherton M, et al. S6K-STING interaction regulates cytosolic DNA-mediated activation of the transcription factor IRF3. Nat Immunol. 2016;17:514-522 pubmed publisher
    ..interaction of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR downstream effector and kinase S6K1 and the signaling adaptor STING in a manner dependent on the DNA sensor cGAS...
  48. Choo M, Sano Y, Kim C, Yasuda K, Li X, Lin X, et al. TLR sensing of bacterial spore-associated RNA triggers host immune responses with detrimental effects. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1297-1311 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests a role for bacterial spore-associated RNA in microbial pathogenesis and illustrates a little known aspect of interactions between the host and spore-forming bacteria. ..
  49. Li Y, Chen R, Zhou Q, Xu Z, Li C, Wang S, et al. LSm14A is a processing body-associated sensor of viral nucleic acids that initiates cellular antiviral response in the early phase of viral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11770-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found that LSm14A-mediated IFN-? induction requires RIG-I-VISA or MITA after RNA or DNA virus infection, respectively, and viral infection causes translocation of LSm14A to peroxisomes, ..
  50. Quinn K, Zak D, Costa A, Yamamoto A, Kastenmüller K, Hill B, et al. Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1129-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Abrogation of type I IFN or stimulator of IFN genes (STING) signaling increased Ag expression and accelerated CD8 T cell response kinetics but did not alter memory responses ..
  51. Maelfait J, Bridgeman A, Benlahrech A, Cursi C, Rehwinkel J. Restriction by SAMHD1 Limits cGAS/STING-Dependent Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to HIV-1. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1492-1501 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the spontaneous IFN response in SAMHD1-deficient cells and mice requires the cGAS/STING cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway...
  52. Woo S, Fuertes M, Corrales L, Spranger S, Furdyna M, Leung M, et al. STING-dependent cytosolic DNA sensing mediates innate immune recognition of immunogenic tumors. Immunity. 2014;41:830-42 pubmed publisher
    ..CD8(+) T cell priming against tumors was defective in mice lacking stimulator of interferon genes complex (STING), but not other innate signaling pathways, suggesting involvement of a cytosolic DNA sensing pathway...
  53. Brunette R, Young J, Whitley D, Brodsky I, Malik H, Stetson D. Extensive evolutionary and functional diversity among mammalian AIM2-like receptors. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1969-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of intracellular DNA activates STING-dependent type I interferons (IFNs) and the ASC-dependent inflammasome...
  54. Wang Q, Liu X, Cui Y, Tang Y, Chen W, Li S, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase AMFR and INSIG1 bridge the activation of TBK1 kinase by modifying the adaptor STING. Immunity. 2014;41:919-33 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, ERIS, or MPYS) is essential for host immune responses triggered by microbial DNAs. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying STING-mediated signaling are not fully understood...
  55. Chin K, Tu Z, Su Y, Yu Y, Chen H, Lo Y, et al. Novel c-di-GMP recognition modes of the mouse innate immune adaptor protein STING. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:352-66 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian ER protein STING (stimulator of interferon genes; also known as MITA, ERIS, MPYS or TMEM173) is an adaptor protein that links the detection of cytosolic dsDNA to the activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and its ..
  56. Dai P, Wang W, Cao H, Avogadri F, Dai L, Drexler I, et al. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara triggers type I IFN production in murine conventional dendritic cells via a cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1003989 pubmed publisher
    ..MVA induction of type I IFN is fully dependent on STING (stimulator of IFN genes) and the newly discovered cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-..
  57. Wang Y, Lian Q, Yang B, Yan S, Zhou H, He L, et al. TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005012 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response...
  58. Ahn J, Gutman D, Saijo S, Barber G. STING manifests self DNA-dependent inflammatory disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19386-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we report here that Stimulator of IFN Genes (STING) is responsible for inflammation-related embryonic death in DNase II defective mice initiated by self DNA...
  59. Hanson M, Crespo M, Abraham W, Moynihan K, Szeto G, Chen S, et al. Nanoparticulate STING agonists are potent lymph node-targeted vaccine adjuvants. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2532-46 pubmed publisher
    Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are agonists of stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and have potential as vaccine adjuvants. However, cyclic di-GMP (cdGMP) injected s.c...
  60. Gehrke N, Mertens C, Zillinger T, Wenzel J, Bald T, Zahn S, et al. Oxidative damage of DNA confers resistance to cytosolic nuclease TREX1 degradation and potentiates STING-dependent immune sensing. Immunity. 2013;39:482-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, oxidized DNA represents a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) with important implications for infection, sterile inflammation, and autoimmunity. ..
  61. Härtlova A, Erttmann S, Raffi F, Schmalz A, Resch U, Anugula S, et al. DNA damage primes the type I interferon system via the cytosolic DNA sensor STING to promote anti-microbial innate immunity. Immunity. 2015;42:332-343 pubmed publisher
    ..system by DNA damage involved release of DNA into the cytoplasm where it activated the cytosolic DNA sensing STING-mediated pathway, which in turn enhanced responses to innate stimuli by activating the expression of Toll-like ..
  62. Guo H, König R, Deng M, Riess M, Mo J, Zhang L, et al. NLRX1 Sequesters STING to Negatively Regulate the Interferon Response, Thereby Facilitating the Replication of HIV-1 and DNA Viruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;19:515-528 pubmed publisher
    ..NLRX1 sequesters the DNA-sensing adaptor STING from interaction with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which is a requisite for IFN-1 induction in response to DNA...
  63. Man S, Karki R, Malireddi R, Neale G, Vogel P, Yamamoto M, et al. The transcription factor IRF1 and guanylate-binding proteins target activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by Francisella infection. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection of F. novicida detected by the DNA sensor cGAS and its adaptor STING induced type I interferon-dependent expression of IRF1, which drove the expression of guanylate-binding proteins (..
  64. Klarquist J, Hennies C, Lehn M, Reboulet R, Feau S, Janssen E. STING-mediated DNA sensing promotes antitumor and autoimmune responses to dying cells. J Immunol. 2014;193:6124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, this molecular pathway requires STING, but not TLR or NLR function, and results in the activation of IRF3 in a TBK1-dependent manner...
  65. Cerboni S, Jeremiah N, Gentili M, Gehrmann U, Conrad C, Stolzenberg M, et al. Intrinsic antiproliferative activity of the innate sensor STING in T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1769-1785 pubmed publisher
    ..T lymphocytes from patients carrying constitutive active mutations in TMEM173 encoding STING showed impaired proliferation and reduced numbers of memory cells...
  66. Holm C, Rahbek S, Gad H, Bak R, Jakobsen M, Jiang Z, et al. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10680 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses...
  67. Webster S, Brode S, Ellis L, Fitzmaurice T, Elder M, Gekara N, et al. Detection of a microbial metabolite by STING regulates inflammasome activation in response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006383 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified STING but not cGAS as a central mediator of interferon regulated inflammasome activation...
  68. Dobbs N, Burnaevskiy N, Chen D, Gonugunta V, Alto N, Yan N. STING Activation by Translocation from the ER Is Associated with Infection and Autoinflammatory Disease. Cell Host Microbe. 2015;18:157-68 pubmed publisher
    b>STING is an ER-associated membrane protein that is critical for innate immune sensing of pathogens...
  69. Chan M, Onji M, Fukui R, Kawane K, Shibata T, Saitoh S, et al. DNase II-dependent DNA digestion is required for DNA sensing by TLR9. Nat Commun. 2015;6:5853 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that DNase II is required for TLR9 activation by bacterial genomic DNA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TLR9 responds to DNA fragments generated by DNase II. ..
  70. Mao Y, Luo W, Zhang L, Wu W, Yuan L, Xu H, et al. STING-IRF3 Triggers Endothelial Inflammation in Response to Free Fatty Acid-Induced Mitochondrial Damage in Diet-Induced Obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:920-929 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an important molecule in immunity and inflammation...
  71. Prantner D, Perkins D, Lai W, Williams M, Sharma S, Fitzgerald K, et al. 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) activates stimulator of interferon gene (STING)-dependent innate immune pathways and is regulated by mitochondrial membrane potential. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39776-88 pubmed publisher response to DMXAA in mouse macrophages requires the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum resident protein STING. Addition of the antioxidant diphenylene iodonium (DPI) diminished DMXAA-induced IFN-?, but this decrease was ..
  72. Swanson K, Junkins R, Kurkjian C, Holley Guthrie E, Pendse A, El Morabiti R, et al. A noncanonical function of cGAMP in inflammasome priming and activation. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3611-3626 pubmed publisher
    ..cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) binds to DNA and produces cGAMP, which in turn binds to stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to activate IFN-I...
  73. Cao Y, Guan K, He X, Wei C, Zheng Z, Zhang Y, et al. Yersinia YopJ negatively regulates IRF3-mediated antibacterial response through disruption of STING-mediated cytosolic DNA signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1863:3148-3159 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a critical adapter for the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and subsequent ..
  74. Kobayashi H, Kobayashi C, Nakamura Ishizu A, Karigane D, Haeno H, Yamamoto K, et al. Bacterial c-di-GMP affects hematopoietic stem/progenitors and their niches through STING. Cell Rep. 2015;11:71-84 pubmed publisher that c-di-GMP comprehensively regulated both HSPCs and their niche cells through an innate immune sensor, STING, thereby inducing entry into the cell cycle and mobilization of HSPCs while decreasing the number and repopulation ..
  75. Tufail Y, Cook D, Fourgeaud L, Powers C, Merten K, Clark C, et al. Phosphatidylserine Exposure Controls Viral Innate Immune Responses by Microglia. Neuron. 2017;93:574-586.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies PLSCR1 as a potent target through which the innate immune response to viral vectors, and potentially other stimuli, may be controlled. ..
  76. Lam E, Stein S, Falck Pedersen E. Adenovirus detection by the cGAS/STING/TBK1 DNA sensing cascade. J Virol. 2014;88:974-81 pubmed publisher
    ..GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), a DNA sensor that produces a cyclic guanine-adenine dinucleotide (cGAMP) inducer of STING, has been examined to determine its role in generating an antiadenoviral response...
  77. Takashima K, Takeda Y, Oshiumi H, Shime H, Okabe M, Ikawa M, et al. STING in tumor and host cells cooperatively work for NK cell-mediated tumor growth retardation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:1764-71 pubmed publisher
    An interferon-inducing DNA sensor STING participates in tumor rejection in mouse models. Here we examined what mechanisms contribute to STING-dependent growth retardation of B16 melanoma sublines by NK cells in vivo...
  78. Ager C, Reilley M, Nicholas C, Bartkowiak T, Jaiswal A, Curran M. Intratumoral STING Activation with T-cell Checkpoint Modulation Generates Systemic Antitumor Immunity. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017;5:676-684 pubmed publisher
    ..checkpoint-modulating antibodies targeting CTLA-4, PD-1, and 4-1BB together with myeloid agonists targeting either STING or Flt3 in the TRAMP-C2 model of prostate cancer to determine whether low-dose intratumoral delivery of these ..
  79. Iversen M, Reinert L, Thomsen M, Bagdonaite I, Nandakumar R, Cheshenko N, et al. An innate antiviral pathway acting before interferons at epithelial surfaces. Nat Immunol. 2016;17:150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies a previously unknown layer of antiviral defense that exerts its action on epithelial surfaces before the classical IFN response is operative. ..
  80. Carroll E, Jin L, Mori A, Muñoz Wolf N, Oleszycka E, Moran H, et al. The Vaccine Adjuvant Chitosan Promotes Cellular Immunity via DNA Sensor cGAS-STING-Dependent Induction of Type I Interferons. Immunity. 2016;44:597-608 pubmed publisher
    ..IFNs, IFN-stimulated genes and dendritic cell maturation by chitosan required the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS and STING, implicating this pathway in dendritic cell activation...
  81. Hasan M, Fermaintt C, Gao N, Sakai T, Miyazaki T, Jiang S, et al. Cytosolic Nuclease TREX1 Regulates Oligosaccharyltransferase Activity Independent of Nuclease Activity to Suppress Immune Activation. Immunity. 2015;43:463-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This function of the TREX1 C terminus suggests a potential therapeutic option for TREX1-fs mutant-associated diseases. ..