Gene Symbol: Tmem163
Description: transmembrane protein 163
Alias: 2610024A01Rik, A-cre, Act-Cre, SV31, Tg(ACTB-cre)2Mrt, actin-cre, cre, transmembrane protein 163, TgN(ACTB-cre)2Mrt, beta-actin-cre, synaptic vesicle membrane protein of 31 kDa
Species: mouse
Products:     Tmem163

Top Publications

  1. Shim K, Minowada G, Coling D, Martin G. Sprouty2, a mouse deafness gene, regulates cell fate decisions in the auditory sensory epithelium by antagonizing FGF signaling. Dev Cell. 2005;8:553-64 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that antagonism of FGF signaling by SPRY2 is essential for establishing the cytoarchitecture of the organ of Corti and for hearing. ..
  2. Basson M, Akbulut S, Watson Johnson J, Simon R, Carroll T, Shakya R, et al. Sprouty1 is a critical regulator of GDNF/RET-mediated kidney induction. Dev Cell. 2005;8:229-39 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of negative feedback regulation of RTK signaling during kidney induction and suggest that failures in feedback control may underlie some human congenital kidney malformations. ..
  3. Simin K, Hill R, Song Y, Zhang Q, Bash R, Cardiff R, et al. Deciphering cancer complexities in genetically engineered mice. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2005;70:283-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, studies in these models continue to identify key tumorigenesis mechanisms. Furthermore, we are hopeful that the models will provide useful preclinical systems for diagnostic and therapeutic development. ..
  4. Leonardi R, Rehg J, Rock C, Jackowski S. Pantothenate kinase 1 is required to support the metabolic transition from the fed to the fasted state. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11107 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings also suggest that PanK1 may be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic disorders that feature hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. ..
  5. Klein O, Minowada G, Peterkova R, Kangas A, Yu B, Lesot H, et al. Sprouty genes control diastema tooth development via bidirectional antagonism of epithelial-mesenchymal FGF signaling. Dev Cell. 2006;11:181-90 pubmed
  6. Awatramani R, Soriano P, Rodriguez C, Mai J, Dymecki S. Cryptic boundaries in roof plate and choroid plexus identified by intersectional gene activation. Nat Genet. 2003;35:70-5 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the roof plate and choroid plexus may be formed of functional units that are capable of differentially organizing the generation of distinct neuronal cell types at different axial levels. ..
  7. Lewandoski M, Martin G. Cre-mediated chromosome loss in mice. Nat Genet. 1997;17:223-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, when male mice carrying a Y-linked transgene containing inverted loxP sites are mated with females carrying a cre gene that is obiquitously expressed in the early embryo, almost all their XY progeny lose the Y chromosome early ..
  8. Yeh S, Tsai M, Xu Q, Mu X, Lardy H, Huang K, et al. Generation and characterization of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice: an in vivo model for the study of androgen functions in selective tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13498-503 pubmed
    By using a cre-lox conditional knockout strategy, we report here the generation of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. Phenotype analysis shows that ARKO male mice have a female-like appearance and body weight...
  9. Lefebvre J, Zhang Y, Meister M, Wang X, Sanes J. gamma-Protocadherins regulate neuronal survival but are dispensable for circuit formation in retina. Development. 2008;135:4141-51 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Meyers E, Lewandoski M, Martin G. An Fgf8 mutant allelic series generated by Cre- and Flp-mediated recombination. Nat Genet. 1998;18:136-41 pubmed
    ..Analysis of embryos carrying different combinations of these alleles revealed requirements for Fgf8 gene function during gastrulation, as well as cardiac, craniofacial, forebrain, midbrain and cerebellar development. ..
  2. Garrett A, Weiner J. Control of CNS synapse development by {gamma}-protocadherin-mediated astrocyte-neuron contact. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11723-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results identify the first known contact-dependent mechanism by which perisynaptic astrocyte processes promote synaptogenesis. ..
  3. Lewandoski M, Meyers E, Martin G. Analysis of Fgf8 gene function in vertebrate development. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:159-68 pubmed
  4. Xiao A, Wu H, Pandolfi P, Louis D, van Dyke T. Astrocyte inactivation of the pRb pathway predisposes mice to malignant astrocytoma development that is accelerated by PTEN mutation. Cancer Cell. 2002;1:157-68 pubmed
    ..These studies establish a highly penetrant preclinical model for astrocytoma based on events observed in the human disease and further provide insight into the role of PTEN mutation in astrocytoma progression. ..
  5. Srinivas S, Watanabe T, Lin C, William C, Tanabe Y, Jessell T, et al. Cre reporter strains produced by targeted insertion of EYFP and ECFP into the ROSA26 locus. BMC Dev Biol. 2001;1:4 pubmed
    ..The non-overlapping emission spectra of EYFP and ECFP make them ideal for double labeling studies in living tissues. ..
  6. Yeh S, Hu Y, Wang P, Xie C, Xu Q, Tsai M, et al. Abnormal mammary gland development and growth retardation in female mice and MCF7 breast cancer cells lacking androgen receptor. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1899-908 pubmed
    ..Together, our data provide the first in vivo evidence showing that AR-mediated MAPK and ER activation may play important roles for mammary gland development and MCF7 breast cancer cell proliferation. ..
  7. Taranova O, Magness S, Fagan B, Wu Y, Surzenko N, Hutton S, et al. SOX2 is a dose-dependent regulator of retinal neural progenitor competence. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1187-202 pubmed
  8. Olauson H, Lindberg K, Amin R, Jia T, Wernerson A, Andersson G, et al. Targeted deletion of Klotho in kidney distal tubule disrupts mineral metabolism. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:1641-51 pubmed
    ..Taken together, renal FGF23-Klotho signaling, which is disrupted in CKD, is essential for homeostatic control of mineral metabolism. ..
  9. Ferguson S, Ferguson S, Raimondi A, Paradise S, Shen H, Mesaki K, et al. Coordinated actions of actin and BAR proteins upstream of dynamin at endocytic clathrin-coated pits. Dev Cell. 2009;17:811-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also demonstrate that the relationship between dynamin and actin is intimately connected to dynamin's endocytic role and that dynamin terminates a powerful actin- and BAR protein-dependent tubulating activity...
  10. Farago A, Awatramani R, Dymecki S. Assembly of the brainstem cochlear nuclear complex is revealed by intersectional and subtractive genetic fate maps. Neuron. 2006;50:205-18 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings provide new platforms for investigating the development and evolution of auditory and cerebellar systems. ..
  11. Arnold J, Werling U, Braunstein E, Liao J, Nowotschin S, Edelmann W, et al. Inactivation of Tbx1 in the pharyngeal endoderm results in 22q11DS malformations. Development. 2006;133:977-87 pubmed
    ..These results show that Tbx1 in the PE is required for the patterning and development of the pharyngeal apparatus, thereby disrupting the formation of its derivative structures. ..
  12. Weiner J, Koo S, Nicolas S, Fraboulet S, Pfaff S, Pourquie O, et al. Axon fasciculation defects and retinal dysplasias in mice lacking the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule BEN/ALCAM/SC1. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;27:59-69 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that BEN promotes fasciculation of multiple axonal populations and uncover an unexpected function for BEN in retinal histogenesis...
  13. Takeda H, Rust A, Ward J, Yew C, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Smad4 in gastric cancer development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E2057-65 pubmed publisher
    ..SB mutagenesis has, thus, helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving SMAD4-induced GC growth and discover genes with potential clinical importance in human GC. ..
  14. Kim J, Cook M, Carey M, Shen C, Regehr W, Dymecki S. Linking genetically defined neurons to behavior through a broadly applicable silencing allele. Neuron. 2009;63:305-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence for separability by genetic lineage of serotonin-modulated behaviors; collectively, these findings demonstrate broad utility of RC::PFtox for dissecting neuron functions. ..
  15. Gould T, Yonemura S, Oppenheim R, Ohmori S, Enomoto H. The neurotrophic effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on spinal motoneurons are restricted to fusimotor subtypes. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2131-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, although GDNF influences several aspects of MN development, the survival-promoting effects of GDNF during programmed cell death are mostly confined to spindle-innervating MNs. ..
  16. Eswarakumar V, Schlessinger J. Skeletal overgrowth is mediated by deficiency in a specific isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3937-42 pubmed
  17. Valdez G, Heyer M, Feng G, Sanes J. The role of muscle microRNAs in repairing the neuromuscular junction. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93140 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that miR-206 is the major microRNA that regulates repair of the NMJ following nerve injury. ..
  18. Prasad T, Weiner J. Direct and Indirect Regulation of Spinal Cord Ia Afferent Terminal Formation by the ?-Protocadherins. Front Mol Neurosci. 2011;4:54 pubmed publisher
  19. Mahoney Rogers A, Zhang J, Shim K. Sprouty1 and Sprouty2 limit both the size of the otic placode and hindbrain Wnt8a by antagonizing FGF signaling. Dev Biol. 2011;353:94-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define a FGF-responsive window during which cells can be continually recruited into the otic domain and uncover SPRY regulation of the size of a putative Wnt inductive center. ..
  20. Zhong W, Jiang M, Schonemann M, Meneses J, Pedersen R, Jan L, et al. Mouse numb is an essential gene involved in cortical neurogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6844-9 pubmed
    ..5 (E11. 5). These findings suggest that m-numb is an essential gene that plays a role in promoting progenitor cell fate during cortical neurogenesis. ..
  21. Currle D, Cheng X, Hsu C, Monuki E. Direct and indirect roles of CNS dorsal midline cells in choroid plexus epithelia formation. Development. 2005;132:3549-59 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies demonstrate intimate DM-CPe relationships throughout the CNS and highlight two distinct tCPe domains, including a posterior domain whose genesis depends on DM cells in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. ..
  22. Neilson J, Winslow M, Hur E, Crabtree G. Calcineurin B1 is essential for positive but not negative selection during thymocyte development. Immunity. 2004;20:255-66 pubmed
  23. Biswas K, Das R, Eggington J, Qiao H, North S, Stauffer S, et al. Functional evaluation of BRCA2 variants mapping to the PALB2-binding and C-terminal DNA-binding domains using a mouse ES cell-based assay. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:3993-4006 pubmed publisher
  24. Simrick S, Szumska D, Gardiner J, Jones K, Sagar K, Morrow B, et al. Biallelic expression of Tbx1 protects the embryo from developmental defects caused by increased receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1310-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that genetic factors that enhance RTK signaling ought to be considered as potential genetic modifiers of this syndrome. ..
  25. Kao A, Eisenhut R, Martens L, Nakamura A, Huang A, Bagley J, et al. A neurodegenerative disease mutation that accelerates the clearance of apoptotic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that cells that might otherwise recover from damage or injury are destroyed in progranulin mutants, which in turn facilitates disease progression. ..
  26. McGrath J, Somlo S, Makova S, Tian X, Brueckner M. Two populations of node monocilia initiate left-right asymmetry in the mouse. Cell. 2003;114:61-73 pubmed
  27. Hall M, Murray C, Valdez M, Perantoni A. Mesoderm-specific Stat3 deletion affects expression of Sox9 yielding Sox9-dependent phenotypes. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006610 pubmed publisher
  28. Park S, Zhen G, Verhaeghe C, Nakagami Y, Nguyenvu L, Barczak A, et al. The protein disulfide isomerase AGR2 is essential for production of intestinal mucus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6950-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that AGR2 is a unique member of the PDI family, with a specialized and nonredundant role in intestinal mucus production. ..
  29. Jain S, Golden J, Wozniak D, Pehek E, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. RET is dispensable for maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult mice. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11230-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, RET deficiency in these neurons does not cause major sensorimotor abnormalities. Hence our results support the idea that RET signaling is not critical for the normal physiology of the SNC and VTA in adult mice. ..
  30. Zhang J, Wright K, Mahoney Rogers A, Barrett M, Shim K. Compensatory regulation of the size of the inner ear in response to excess induction of otic progenitors by fibroblast growth factor signaling. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:1317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that growth plasticity exists in the mammalian otic placode and cup, and that FGF signaling may not be sufficient to induce the genetic program that maintains otic fate. ..
  31. Mogha A, Benesh A, Patra C, Engel F, Schoneberg T, Liebscher I, et al. Gpr126 functions in Schwann cells to control differentiation and myelination via G-protein activation. J Neurosci. 2013;33:17976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data support a model in which Gpr126 functions in SCs for proper development and myelination and provide evidence that these functions are mediated via G-protein-signaling pathways. ..
  32. Yang C, McLeod A, Cotton A, de Leeuw C, Laprise S, Banks K, et al. Targeting of >1.5 Mb of human DNA into the mouse X chromosome reveals presence of cis-acting regulators of epigenetic silencing. Genetics. 2012;192:1281-93 pubmed publisher
    ..As only one of the human transgenes analyzed escaped X chromosome inactivation, we conclude that elements permitting ongoing expression from the inactive X are rare in the human genome...
  33. Howard S, Deroo T, Fujita Y, Itasaki N. A positive role of cadherin in Wnt/?-catenin signalling during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23899 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly we present data suggesting that cadherins are required for augmented activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in vivo. This suggests that cadherins play a crucial role in ?-catenin-dependent transcription...
  34. Plummer N, Evsyukova I, Robertson S, De Marchena J, Tucker C, Jensen P. Expanding the power of recombinase-based labeling to uncover cellular diversity. Development. 2015;142:4385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These new indicator alleles will provide experimental access to cell populations at unprecedented resolution, facilitating analysis of their developmental origin and anatomical, molecular and physiological properties. ..
  35. Shen S, Lau J, Zhu M, Zou J, Fuller D, Li Q, et al. The importance of Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kilodaltons sterile-alpha motif domain in thymic selection and T-cell activation. Blood. 2009;114:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data demonstrated that the SAM domain is indispensable for optimal SLP-76 signaling. ..
  36. Grieshammer U, Lewandoski M, Prevette D, Oppenheim R, Martin G. Muscle-specific cell ablation conditional upon Cre-mediated DNA recombination in transgenic mice leads to massive spinal and cranial motoneuron loss. Dev Biol. 1998;197:234-47 pubmed
    ..The data reported here demonstrate the utility of a binary transgenic system for obtaining mouse embryos in which a specific cell population has been ablated, so that its role in embryonic development can be studied. ..
  37. Chiou S, Kim Kiselak C, Risca V, Heimann M, Chuang C, Burds A, et al. A conditional system to specifically link disruption of protein-coding function with reporter expression in mice. Cell Rep. 2014;7:2078-86 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this potentially generalizable strategy, we generated and analyzed mice with this conditional knockin reporter targeted to the Hmga2 locus. ..
  38. Pirity M, Wang W, Wolf L, Tamm E, Schreiber Agus N, Cvekl A. Rybp, a polycomb complex-associated protein, is required for mouse eye development. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:39 pubmed
    ..We propose that the multiple functions for Rybp in regulating mouse retinal and lens development are mediated by genetic, epigenetic and physical interactions between these genes and proteins. ..
  39. Enshell Seijffers D, Lindon C, Wu E, Taketo M, Morgan B. Beta-catenin activity in the dermal papilla of the hair follicle regulates pigment-type switching. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the signals that specify two biologically distinct quantitative traits are partially uncoupled despite their common regulation by the ?-catenin pathway in the same cells. ..
  40. Shapiro Shelef M, Lin K, McHeyzer Williams L, Liao J, McHeyzer Williams M, Calame K. Blimp-1 is required for the formation of immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells and pre-plasma memory B cells. Immunity. 2003;19:607-20 pubmed
    ..B cells lacking Blimp-1 cannot secrete Ig or induce muS mRNA when stimulated ex vivo. Furthermore, although prdm1-/- B cells fail to induce XBP-1, XBP-1 cannot rescue plasmacytic differentiation without Blimp-1. ..
  41. Park C, Asin Cayuela J, Camara Y, Shi Y, Pellegrini M, Gaspari M, et al. MTERF3 is a negative regulator of mammalian mtDNA transcription. Cell. 2007;130:273-85 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, MTERF3 is the first example of a mitochondrial protein that acts as a specific repressor of mammalian mtDNA transcription initiation in vivo. ..
  42. Swanson K, Junkins R, Kurkjian C, Holley Guthrie E, Pendse A, El Morabiti R, et al. A noncanonical function of cGAMP in inflammasome priming and activation. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3611-3626 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, cGAS/cGAMP amplify both inflammasome and IFN-I to control murine cytomegalovirus. Thus, cGAMP activates the inflammasome in addition to IFN-I, and activation of both is needed to control infection by a DNA virus. ..
  43. Bloom A, Miller B, Sanes J, DiAntonio A. The requirement for Phr1 in CNS axon tract formation reveals the corticostriatal boundary as a choice point for cortical axons. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2593-606 pubmed
    ..Thus, in the mammalian nervous system Phr1 is required for formation of major CNS axon tracts via a mechanism that is both cell-nonautonomous and independent of DLK. ..
  44. Uesaka T, Nagashimada M, Yonemura S, Enomoto H. Diminished Ret expression compromises neuronal survival in the colon and causes intestinal aganglionosis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, enteric neuron survival is sensitive to RET dosage, and cell death is potentially involved in the etiology of HSCR. ..
  45. Zuo W, Zhang T, Wu D, Guan S, Liew A, Yamamoto Y, et al. p63(+)Krt5(+) distal airway stem cells are essential for lung regeneration. Nature. 2015;517:616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to propagate these cells in culture while maintaining their intrinsic lineage commitment suggests their potential in stem cell-based therapies for acute and chronic lung diseases. ..
  46. Knosp W, Knox S, Lombaert I, Haddox C, Patel V, Hoffman M. Submandibular parasympathetic gangliogenesis requires sprouty-dependent Wnt signals from epithelial progenitors. Dev Cell. 2015;32:667-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, K5+ progenitors produce Wnt signals to establish the PSG-epithelial communication required for organ innervation and progenitor cell maintenance. ..
  47. Agrawal P, Wang M, Kim S, Lewis A, Bush J. Embryonic expression of EphA receptor genes in mice supports their candidacy for involvement in cleft lip and palate. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:1470-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in EPHA family genes may cause CL/P and also suggest that functional redundancy between family members may be at play. ..
  48. Martinez Espinosa P, Yang C, González Pérez V, Xia X, Lingle C. Knockout of the BK β2 subunit abolishes inactivation of BK currents in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells and results in slow-wave burst activity. J Gen Physiol. 2014;144:275-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, CCs from β2 KO mice show an increased tendency toward spontaneous burst firing, suggesting that the particular properties of BK channels in the absence of β2 subunits may predispose to burst firing. ..
  49. Menon S, Chi H, Zhang H, Deng X, Flavell R, Wei N. COP9 signalosome subunit 8 is essential for peripheral T cell homeostasis and antigen receptor-induced entry into the cell cycle from quiescence. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:1236-45 pubmed
    ..Our data define a CSN-dependent pathway of transcriptional control that is essential for antigen-induced initiation of T cell proliferation. ..
  50. Fish J, Cantu Gutierrez M, Dang L, Khyzha N, Chen Z, Veitch S, et al. Dynamic regulation of VEGF-inducible genes by an ERK/ERG/p300 transcriptional network. Development. 2017;144:2428-2444 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings elucidate a novel transcriptional pathway contributing to VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. ..
  51. Cheng X, Hsu C, Currle D, Hu J, Barkovich A, Monuki E. Central roles of the roof plate in telencephalic development and holoprosencephaly. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7640-9 pubmed
    ..These findings establish selective roles for roof plate-dependent Bmp signaling in dorsal telencephalic patterning and HPE and define novel candidate genes for the human disorder. ..
  52. Vourekas A, Zheng K, Fu Q, Maragkakis M, Alexiou P, Ma J, et al. The RNA helicase MOV10L1 binds piRNA precursors to initiate piRNA processing. Genes Dev. 2015;29:617-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model in which MOV10L1 RNA helicase activity promotes unwinding and funneling of the single-stranded piRNA precursor transcripts to the endonuclease that catalyzes the first cleavage step of piRNA processing. ..
  53. Fuller D, Zhu M, Song X, Ou Yang C, Sullivan S, Stone J, et al. Regulation of RasGRP1 function in T cell development and activation by its unique tail domain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38796 pubmed publisher
    ..While the DAG-binding C1 domain of RasGRP1 has long been recognized as an important factor mediating Erk activation, we have revealed the physiological relevance of the tail domain in RasGRP1 function and control of Erk signaling. ..
  54. Chen M, Hsu I, Wolfe A, Radovick S, Huang K, Yu S, et al. Defects of prostate development and reproductive system in the estrogen receptor-alpha null male mice. Endocrinology. 2009;150:251-9 pubmed publisher
  55. Jones K, Sarić N, Russell J, Andoniadou C, Scambler P, Basson M. CHD7 maintains neural stem cell quiescence and prevents premature stem cell depletion in the adult hippocampus. Stem Cells. 2015;33:196-210 pubmed publisher
    ..As CHD7 haplo-insufficiency is associated with a range of cognitive disabilities in CHARGE syndrome, our observations may have implications for understanding the basis of these deficits. ..
  56. Chuang K, Altuwaijri S, Li G, Lai J, Chu C, Lai K, et al. Neutropenia with impaired host defense against microbial infection in mice lacking androgen receptor. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1181-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings demonstrate an essential role for AR in granulopoiesis and host defense against microbial infection. ..
  57. Genovesi L, Ng C, Davis M, Remke M, Taylor M, Adams D, et al. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis in a mouse medulloblastoma model defines networks that discriminate between human molecular subgroups. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These networks provide functional insights into the complex biology of human MB and identify potential avenues for intervention common to all clinical subgroups. ..
  58. Giorgini F, Huang S, Sathyasaikumar K, Notarangelo F, Thomas M, Tararina M, et al. Targeted deletion of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase in mice: a new tool for studying kynurenine pathway metabolism in periphery and brain. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:36554-66 pubmed publisher
  59. Gopinathan L, Tan S, Padmakumar V, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P. Loss of Cdk2 and cyclin A2 impairs cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2014;74:3870-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work offers a rationale to explore combinations of Cdk1 and Cdk2 inhibitors as a general approach in cancer therapy. ..
  60. Buckley D, Burroughs Garcia J, Lewandoski M, Waters S. Characterization of the Gbx1-/- mouse mutant: a requirement for Gbx1 in normal locomotion and sensorimotor circuit development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56214 pubmed publisher
    ..The generation of this null allele has enabled us to functionally characterize a novel role for Gbx1 in development of the spinal cord. ..
  61. Zhou X, Huang P, Shi R, Lee T, Lu G, Zhang Z, et al. The telomerase inhibitor PinX1 is a major haploinsufficient tumor suppressor essential for chromosome stability in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1266-82 pubmed publisher
  62. Coppola V, Barrick C, Bobisse S, Rodriguez Galan M, Pivetta M, Reynolds D, et al. The scaffold protein Cybr is required for cytokine-modulated trafficking of leukocytes in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5249-58 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data support a role for Cybr in leukocyte trafficking, especially in response to proinflammatory cytokines in stress conditions. ..
  63. Buffelli M, Burgess R, Feng G, Lobe C, Lichtman J, Sanes J. Genetic evidence that relative synaptic efficacy biases the outcome of synaptic competition. Nature. 2003;424:430-4 pubmed
    ..Here we use a genetic method to selectively inhibit neurotransmission from one of two inputs to a single target cell. We show that more powerful inputs are strongly favoured competitors during synapse elimination. ..
  64. Ferguson C, Hardy S, Werner D, Hileman S, DeLorey T, Homanics G. New insight into the role of the beta3 subunit of the GABAA-R in development, behavior, body weight regulation, and anesthesia revealed by conditional gene knockout. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:85 pubmed
    ..e., floxed). Crossing the floxed beta3 mice to a cre general deleter mouse line reproduced the phenotype of the previously described global knockout...
  65. Dowdle W, Robinson J, Kneist A, Sirerol Piquer M, Frints S, Corbit K, et al. Disruption of a ciliary B9 protein complex causes Meckel syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;89:94-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that B9d1 is required for normal Hh signaling, ciliogenesis, and ciliary protein localization and that B9d1 and B9d2 are essential components of a B9 protein complex, disruption of which causes MKS...
  66. Campbell S, Burkly L, Gao H, Berman J, Su L, Browning B, et al. Proinflammatory effects of TWEAK/Fn14 interactions in glomerular mesangial cells. J Immunol. 2006;176:1889-98 pubmed
    ..Our results support Ab inhibition of TWEAK as a potential new approach for the treatment of chemokine-dependent inflammatory kidney diseases. ..
  67. Sun J, Ray R. Generation of Two Noradrenergic-Specific Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase-FLPo Knock-In Mice Using CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeting in Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159474 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, this study supports simplified, high-efficiency Cas9/CRISPR-mediated targeting in embryonic stem cells for production of knock-in mouse lines in a wider variety of contexts than zygote injection alone. ..
  68. Altuwaijri S, Chuang K, Lai K, Lai J, Lin H, Young F, et al. Susceptibility to autoimmunity and B cell resistance to apoptosis in mice lacking androgen receptor in B cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:444-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that androgen/AR play a crucial role in B cell homeostasis and tolerance. Therapies targeting AR might provide an alternative strategy with which to battle autoimmune diseases. ..
  69. Thaxton C, KLOTH A, Clark E, Moy S, Chitwood R, Philpot B. Common Pathophysiology in Multiple Mouse Models of Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome. J Neurosci. 2018;38:918-936 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal convergent neurobiological characteristics of PTHS mouse models and support the further investigation of NMDA receptor antagonists as a possible PTHS treatment. ..
  70. Liang L, Li L, Tian J, Lee S, Dang Q, Huang C, et al. Androgen receptor enhances kidney stone-CaOx crystal formation via modulation of oxalate biosynthesis & oxidative stress. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:1291-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results established the roles of AR in CaOx crystal formation. ..
  71. Mangale V, Hirokawa K, Satyaki P, Gokulchandran N, Chikbire S, Subramanian L, et al. Lhx2 selector activity specifies cortical identity and suppresses hippocampal organizer fate. Science. 2008;319:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to providing functional evidence for Lhx2 selector activity, these findings show that the cortical hem is a hippocampal organizer. ..
  72. Garcia M, Leonardi R, Zhang Y, Rehg J, Jackowski S. Germline deletion of pantothenate kinases 1 and 2 reveals the key roles for CoA in postnatal metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40871 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that PanK1 and PanK2 can compensate for each other to supply tissue CoA, but PanK1 is more important to CoA levels in liver whereas PanK2 contributes more to CoA synthesis in the brain. ..
  73. Hoshi M, Batourina E, Mendelsohn C, Jain S. Novel mechanisms of early upper and lower urinary tract patterning regulated by RetY1015 docking tyrosine in mice. Development. 2012;139:2405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates novel inhibitory roles of RetY1015 and provides a possible mechanistic explanation for some of the confounding broad range phenotypes in individuals with CAKUT...
  74. Diril M, Ratnacaram C, Padmakumar V, Du T, Wasser M, Coppola V, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is essential for cell division and suppression of DNA re-replication but not for liver regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3826-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike other Cdks, loss of Cdk1 in the liver confers complete resistance against tumorigenesis induced by activated Ras and silencing of p53. ..
  75. Yu K, Xu J, Liu Z, Sosic D, Shao J, Olson E, et al. Conditional inactivation of FGF receptor 2 reveals an essential role for FGF signaling in the regulation of osteoblast function and bone growth. Development. 2003;130:3063-74 pubmed
    ..Although differentiation of the osteoblast lineage was not disturbed, the proliferation of osteoprogenitors and the anabolic function of mature osteoblasts were severely affected. ..
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    ..Together, these findings indicate that inhibitors of mutant IDH2 may be beneficial in the treatment of D2HGA and suggest that 2HG produced by IDH mutant tumors has the potential to provoke a paraneoplastic condition. ..
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    ..Thus, besides functions in guiding MGE-derived interneurons to the cortex through forward signaling, here we describe a novel role of the ephrins in driving these neurons to their target via reverse signaling. ..
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    ..Taken together, these results provide strong evidence for an important role of endothelium rather than platelet BAMBI as a positive regulator of both thrombus formation and stability. ..
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    ..Furthermore, many Axin(DeltaC6/DeltaC6) embryos that were heterozygous for a beta-catenin null mutation survived to term, demonstrating that early lethality was due to failure to negatively regulate beta-catenin. ..
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    ..These results show that normal electrical activity of the postsynaptic cell is required for it to attain a mature innervation pattern. ..
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    ..These alleles offer the ability to non-invasively control activity of diverse cell types to uncover their function and dysfunction at any developmental stage. ..
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    ..1B plays a pivotal role in interactions between the paranodal AGSJs and axonal cytoskeleton, and that 4.1B is critically required for long-term maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons. ..
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    ..Together, these results demonstrate an essential role for MetAP-2 in angiogenesis and indicate that MetAP-2 is responsible for the endothelial cell growth arrest induced by Fg and its derivatives. ..
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    ..Here, to help evaluate the biological actions of PP5, a Cre/loxP-conditional mouse line was generated...
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    ..Thus, our data do not support Klotho-mediated FGF23 effects in the vasculature although confirmative studies in humans are warranted. ..
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    ..2, Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kv7.1 than WT LAs. These observations indicate that ARKO alters atrial electrophysiology with increased atrial arrhythmogenesis. ..
  87. Ivins S, Chappell J, Vernay B, Suntharalingham J, Martineau A, Mohun T, et al. The CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis Plays a Critical Role in Coronary Artery Development. Dev Cell. 2015;33:455-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that CXCL12 is required for connection of peritruncal plexus ECs to the aortic endothelium and thus plays a vital role in CA formation. ..
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    ..Thus, our study for the first time links a centrosomal protein necessary for centriole duplication to cerebellar morphogenesis. ..
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