Tlr9

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tlr9
Description: toll-like receptor 9
Alias: toll-like receptor 9
Species: mouse
Products:     Tlr9

Top Publications

  1. Franklin B, Parroche P, Ataíde M, Lauw F, Ropert C, de Oliveira R, et al. Malaria primes the innate immune response due to interferon-gamma induced enhancement of toll-like receptor expression and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Malaria-induced priming of TLR responses correlated with increased expression of TLR mRNA in a TLR9-, MyD88-, and IFNgamma-dependent manner...
  2. Gonzalez Navajas J, Fine S, Law J, Datta S, Nguyen K, Yu M, et al. TLR4 signaling in effector CD4+ T cells regulates TCR activation and experimental colitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..of disease, with signs of overt colitis as early as 8 weeks of age, when compared with Il10-/- and Il10-/-Tlr9-/- mice, which did not develop colitis by 8 months...
  3. Rigby R, Webb L, Mackenzie K, Li Y, Leitch A, Reijns M, et al. RNA:DNA hybrids are a novel molecular pattern sensed by TLR9. EMBO J. 2014;33:542-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signalling is essential for this cytokine response and identify TLR9 as a specific sensor of RNA:DNA hybrids...
  4. Kubo T, Uchida Y, Watanabe Y, Abe M, Nakamura A, Ono M, et al. Augmented TLR9-induced Btk activation in PIR-B-deficient B-1 cells provokes excessive autoantibody production and autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1971-82 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor for major histocompatibility class I molecules, on relatively primitive B cells, B-1 cells, suppresses TLR9 signaling via Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) dephosphorylation, which leads to attenuated activation of nuclear ..
  5. Nickerson K, Christensen S, Shupe J, Kashgarian M, Kim D, Elkon K, et al. TLR9 regulates TLR7- and MyD88-dependent autoantibody production and disease in a murine model of lupus. J Immunol. 2010;184:1840-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that Tlr7 was required for anti-Sm and Tlr9 for anti-chromatin autoantibodies...
  6. Kasperkovitz P, Cardenas M, Vyas J. TLR9 is actively recruited to Aspergillus fumigatus phagosomes and requires the N-terminal proteolytic cleavage domain for proper intracellular trafficking. J Immunol. 2010;185:7614-22 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR9 recognizes unmethylated CpG DNA and induces innate immune responses. TLR9 activation is a multistep process requiring proteolytic cleavage and trafficking to endolysosomal compartments for ligand-induced signaling...
  7. van de Veerdonk F, Netea M, Jansen T, Jacobs L, Verschueren I, Van der Meer J, et al. Redundant role of TLR9 for anti-Candida host defense. Immunobiology. 2008;213:613-20 pubmed publisher
    The role of Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) in the recognition of Candida albicans and anti-Candida host defense was investigated in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
  8. Baumann C, Aspalter I, Sharif O, Pichlmair A, Blüml S, Grebien F, et al. CD14 is a coreceptor of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2689-701 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we show that CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14) constitutively interacts with the MyD88-dependent TLR7 and TLR9. CD14 was necessary for TLR7- and TLR9-dependent induction of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and for TLR9-..
  9. Jiang W, Sun R, Zhou R, Wei H, Tian Z. TLR-9 activation aggravates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis via promoting accumulation and activation of liver CD4+ NKT cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:3768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..liver injury and promoted the production of inflammatory cytokines in a Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis model via TLR9 activation...
  10. Hyakkoku K, Hamanaka J, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Tanaka H, Uematsu S, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but not TLR3 or TLR9, knock-out mice have neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience. 2010;171:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h differed in mice that lack a functional TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 signaling pathway...

Detail Information

Publications68

  1. Franklin B, Parroche P, Ataíde M, Lauw F, Ropert C, de Oliveira R, et al. Malaria primes the innate immune response due to interferon-gamma induced enhancement of toll-like receptor expression and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Malaria-induced priming of TLR responses correlated with increased expression of TLR mRNA in a TLR9-, MyD88-, and IFNgamma-dependent manner...
  2. Gonzalez Navajas J, Fine S, Law J, Datta S, Nguyen K, Yu M, et al. TLR4 signaling in effector CD4+ T cells regulates TCR activation and experimental colitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..of disease, with signs of overt colitis as early as 8 weeks of age, when compared with Il10-/- and Il10-/-Tlr9-/- mice, which did not develop colitis by 8 months...
  3. Rigby R, Webb L, Mackenzie K, Li Y, Leitch A, Reijns M, et al. RNA:DNA hybrids are a novel molecular pattern sensed by TLR9. EMBO J. 2014;33:542-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signalling is essential for this cytokine response and identify TLR9 as a specific sensor of RNA:DNA hybrids...
  4. Kubo T, Uchida Y, Watanabe Y, Abe M, Nakamura A, Ono M, et al. Augmented TLR9-induced Btk activation in PIR-B-deficient B-1 cells provokes excessive autoantibody production and autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1971-82 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor for major histocompatibility class I molecules, on relatively primitive B cells, B-1 cells, suppresses TLR9 signaling via Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) dephosphorylation, which leads to attenuated activation of nuclear ..
  5. Nickerson K, Christensen S, Shupe J, Kashgarian M, Kim D, Elkon K, et al. TLR9 regulates TLR7- and MyD88-dependent autoantibody production and disease in a murine model of lupus. J Immunol. 2010;184:1840-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that Tlr7 was required for anti-Sm and Tlr9 for anti-chromatin autoantibodies...
  6. Kasperkovitz P, Cardenas M, Vyas J. TLR9 is actively recruited to Aspergillus fumigatus phagosomes and requires the N-terminal proteolytic cleavage domain for proper intracellular trafficking. J Immunol. 2010;185:7614-22 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR9 recognizes unmethylated CpG DNA and induces innate immune responses. TLR9 activation is a multistep process requiring proteolytic cleavage and trafficking to endolysosomal compartments for ligand-induced signaling...
  7. van de Veerdonk F, Netea M, Jansen T, Jacobs L, Verschueren I, Van der Meer J, et al. Redundant role of TLR9 for anti-Candida host defense. Immunobiology. 2008;213:613-20 pubmed publisher
    The role of Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) in the recognition of Candida albicans and anti-Candida host defense was investigated in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
  8. Baumann C, Aspalter I, Sharif O, Pichlmair A, Blüml S, Grebien F, et al. CD14 is a coreceptor of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2689-701 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we show that CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14) constitutively interacts with the MyD88-dependent TLR7 and TLR9. CD14 was necessary for TLR7- and TLR9-dependent induction of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and for TLR9-..
  9. Jiang W, Sun R, Zhou R, Wei H, Tian Z. TLR-9 activation aggravates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis via promoting accumulation and activation of liver CD4+ NKT cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:3768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..liver injury and promoted the production of inflammatory cytokines in a Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis model via TLR9 activation...
  10. Hyakkoku K, Hamanaka J, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Tanaka H, Uematsu S, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but not TLR3 or TLR9, knock-out mice have neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience. 2010;171:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h differed in mice that lack a functional TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 signaling pathway...
  11. Yu P, Lübben W, Slomka H, Gebler J, Konert M, Cai C, et al. Nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors are essential for the control of endogenous retrovirus viremia and ERV-induced tumors. Immunity. 2012;37:867-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that nucleic acid-recognizing Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9 (TLR 3, TLR7, and TLR9) are essential for the control of ERVs...
  12. Guiducci C, Tripodo C, Gong M, Sangaletti S, Colombo M, Coffman R, et al. Autoimmune skin inflammation is dependent on plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation by nucleic acids via TLR7 and TLR9. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2931-42 pubmed publisher
    Recognition of endogenous DNA and RNA by cells expressing TLR7 and TLR9 is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and has been suggested to contribute to cutaneous lupus and to a group of related ..
  13. Bhan U, Ballinger M, Zeng X, Newstead M, Cornicelli M, Standiford T. Cooperative interactions between TLR4 and TLR9 regulate interleukin 23 and 17 production in a murine model of gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9896 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated independent and cooperative functions of TLR4 and TLR9 in microbial clearance and systemic dissemination during Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia...
  14. Carvalho N, Oliveira F, Durães F, de Almeida L, Flórido M, Prata L, et al. Toll-like receptor 9 is required for full host resistance to Mycobacterium avium infection but plays no role in induction of Th1 responses. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1638-46 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in innate immunity to Mycobacterium avium, TLR9, TLR2, and MyD88 knockout (KO) mice were infected with this bacterium...
  15. Sjölinder H, Mogensen T, Kilian M, Jonsson A, Paludan S. Important role for Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against meningococcal sepsis. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While TLR4 has been suggested to play an important role in early containment of infection, the roles of TLR2 and TLR9 in meningococcal disease are not well described...
  16. Fujimoto K, Karuppuchamy T, Takemura N, Shimohigoshi M, Machida T, Haseda Y, et al. A new subset of CD103+CD8alpha+ dendritic cells in the small intestine expresses TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and induces Th1 response and CTL activity. J Immunol. 2011;186:6287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..CD103(+)CD8?(+) LPDCs expressed TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and produced IL-6 and IL-12p40, but not TNF-?, IL-10, or IL-23, following TLR ligand stimulation...
  17. Carvalho L, Petritus P, Trochtenberg A, Zaph C, Hill D, Artis D, et al. Lymph node hypertrophy following Leishmania major infection is dependent on TLR9. J Immunol. 2012;188:1394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that increased CCR7 expression was TLR9-dependent, that TLR9(-/-) dendritic cells migrated less efficiently to the draining lymph node, and that TLR9(-/-) ..
  18. Bhan U, Newstead M, Zeng X, Podsaid A, Goswami M, Ballinger M, et al. TLR9-dependent IL-23/IL-17 is required for the generation of Stachybotrys chartarum-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J Immunol. 2013;190:349-56 pubmed publisher
    ..chartarum-induced HP that reproduces pathology observed in human HP, and we have hypothesized that TLR9-mediated IL-23 and IL-17 responses are required for the generation of granulomatous inflammation induced by inhaled ..
  19. Wu X, Gowda N, Kumar S, Gowda D. Protein-DNA complex is the exclusive malaria parasite component that activates dendritic cells and triggers innate immune responses. J Immunol. 2010;184:4338-48 pubmed publisher
    ..to homogeneity and tested for the activation of bone marrow-derived DCs from wild-type and TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), TLR9(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) C57BL/6J mice...
  20. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Lee J, Pak K, WEBSTER N, Wollenberg B, et al. The role of DNA sensing and innate immune receptor TLR9 in otitis media. Innate Immun. 2012;18:3-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mediators of innate immune responses, and TLR9 specifically recognizes the unmethylated cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) motifs in bacterial DNA...
  21. Saitoh T, Satoh T, Yamamoto N, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, et al. Antiviral protein Viperin promotes Toll-like receptor 7- and Toll-like receptor 9-mediated type I interferon production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunity. 2011;34:352-63 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9 sense viral nucleic acids and induce production of type I interferon (IFN) by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to protect the host from virus infection...
  22. Bamboat Z, Ocuin L, Balachandran V, Obaid H, Plitas G, Dematteo R. Conventional DCs reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via IL-10 secretion. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:559-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, we identified hepatocyte DNA as an endogenous ligand to TLR9 that promoted cDCs to secrete IL-10. In vivo, cDC production of IL-10 required TLR9 and reduced liver injury...
  23. Zinkernagel A, Hruz P, Uchiyama S, von Köckritz Blickwede M, Schuepbach R, Hayashi T, et al. Importance of Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against M1T1 group A Streptococcus infections. J Innate Immun. 2012;4:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The intracellular pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) promotes macrophage hypoxia-inducible factor-1? levels, oxidative burst and nitric oxide production in response to ..
  24. Prantner D, Darville T, Nagarajan U. Stimulator of IFN gene is critical for induction of IFN-beta during Chlamydia muridarum infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:2551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that mouse macrophages lacking TLR3, TRIF, TLR7, or TLR9 individually or both TLR4 and MyD88, still induce IFN-beta equivalent to wild type controls, leading to the ..
  25. Oldenburg M, Krüger A, Ferstl R, Kaufmann A, Nees G, Sigmund A, et al. TLR13 recognizes bacterial 23S rRNA devoid of erythromycin resistance-forming modification. Science. 2012;337:1111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results reveal both a natural TLR13 ligand and specific mechanisms of antibiotic resistance as potent bacterial immune evasion strategy, avoiding recognition via TLR13. ..
  26. Onji M, Kanno A, Saitoh S, Fukui R, Motoi Y, Shibata T, et al. An essential role for the N-terminal fragment of Toll-like receptor 9 in DNA sensing. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1949 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune sensor for microbial DNA that erroneously responds to self DNA in autoimmune disease...
  27. Park J, Kim Y, Yi A. Protein kinase D1 is essential for MyD88-dependent TLR signaling pathway. J Immunol. 2009;182:6316-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that PKD1 is essential for MyD88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses. ..
  28. Abou Fakher F, Rachinel N, Klimczak M, Louis J, Doyen N. TLR9-dependent activation of dendritic cells by DNA from Leishmania major favors Th1 cell development and the resolution of lesions. J Immunol. 2009;182:1386-96 pubmed
    ..Using genetically resistant C57BL/6 mice deficient in either TLR2, 4, or 9, we show in this study that only TLR9-deficient mice are more susceptible to infection with Leishmania major...
  29. Wang J, Lee C, Akalin A, Finberg R, Levitz S. Contributions of the MyD88-dependent receptors IL-18R, IL-1R, and TLR9 to host defenses following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26232 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to compare these findings with those related to TLR-deficiency, we studied the effects of TLR9-deficiency and found that deficiency of TLR9 also affects the survival curve of mice following challenge with C...
  30. Coban C, Igari Y, Yagi M, Reimer T, Koyama S, Aoshi T, et al. Immunogenicity of whole-parasite vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum involves malarial hemozoin and host TLR9. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:50-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Malarial and synthetic (s)HZ bound TLR9 directly to induce conformational changes in the receptor...
  31. Kasperkovitz P, Khan N, Tam J, Mansour M, Davids P, Vyas J. Toll-like receptor 9 modulates macrophage antifungal effector function during innate recognition of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4858-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophages sample the phagosomal content and orchestrate the innate immune response. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes unmethylated CpG DNA and is activated by fungal DNA...
  32. Gowda N, Wu X, Gowda D. The nucleosome (histone-DNA complex) is the TLR9-specific immunostimulatory component of Plasmodium falciparum that activates DCs. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20398 pubmed publisher
    ..the schizont-released products, merozoites are the predominant components that activate dendritic cells (DCs) by TLR9-specific recognition to induce the maturation of cells and to produce proinflammatory cytokines...
  33. Pan X, Yue J, Ding G, Li B, Liu X, Zheng X, et al. Leucine-rich repeat 11 of Toll-like receptor 9 can tightly bind to CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides, and the positively charged residues are critical for the high affinity. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:30596-609 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR9 is a receptor for sensing bacterial DNA/CpG-containing oligonucleotides (CpG ODN). The extracellular domain (ECD) of human TLR9 (hTLR9) is composed of 25 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) contributing to the binding of CpG ODN...
  34. Miyazato A, Nakamura K, Yamamoto N, Mora Montes H, Tanaka M, Abe Y, et al. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation of myeloid dendritic cells by Deoxynucleic acids from Candida albicans. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3056-64 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar reduction in cytokine production was observed when BM-DCs from TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice were used...
  35. Kumagai Y, Kumar H, Koyama S, Kawai T, Takeuchi O, Akira S. Cutting Edge: TLR-Dependent viral recognition along with type I IFN positive feedback signaling masks the requirement of viral replication for IFN-{alpha} production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:3960-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that detection of viruses via TLRs together with a type I IFN feedback system circumvents the requirement for viral replication-dependent recognition in pDCs. ..
  36. Sasai M, Linehan M, Iwasaki A. Bifurcation of Toll-like receptor 9 signaling by adaptor protein 3. Science. 2010;329:1530-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognition of viral nucleic acids by TLR9 requires its cleavage in the endolysosomal compartment...
  37. Miura K, Kodama Y, Inokuchi S, Schnabl B, Aoyama T, Ohnishi H, et al. Toll-like receptor 9 promotes steatohepatitis by induction of interleukin-1beta in mice. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:323-34.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes bacteria-derived cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG)-containing DNA ..
  38. Zhang X, Majlessi L, Deriaud E, Leclerc C, Lo Man R. Coactivation of Syk kinase and MyD88 adaptor protein pathways by bacteria promotes regulatory properties of neutrophils. Immunity. 2009;31:761-71 pubmed publisher
    ..During a chronic infection, neutrophil depletion promoted inflammation and decreased the mycobacterial burden. Therefore, neutrophils can have a previously unsuspected regulatory role during acute and chronic microbial infections. ..
  39. Hoshino K, Sasaki I, Sugiyama T, Yano T, Yamazaki C, Yasui T, et al. Critical role of IkappaB Kinase alpha in TLR7/9-induced type I IFN production by conventional dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:3341-5 pubmed publisher
    ..dendritic cell (DC) can produce large amounts of type I IFNs after sensing nucleic acids through TLR7 and TLR9. IkappaB kinase alpha (IKKalpha) is critically involved in this type I IFN production through its interaction with ..
  40. Park J, Kim Y, Yi A. Protein kinase D1: a new component in TLR9 signaling. J Immunol. 2008;181:2044-55 pubmed
    ..In this study, we provide evidence that PKD1 is involved in TLR9 signaling in macrophages...
  41. Seixas E, Moura Nunes J, Matos I, Coutinho A. The interaction between DC and Plasmodium berghei/chabaudi-infected erythrocytes in mice involves direct cell-to-cell contact, internalization and TLR. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1850-63 pubmed publisher
    ..not only requires direct cell-to-cell contact and internalization of infected RBC by DC but also involves TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 and signaling via NF-kappaB; however, TLR involvement in survival to Plasmodium infection was found to be ..
  42. Town T, Bai F, Wang T, Kaplan A, Qian F, Montgomery R, et al. Toll-like receptor 7 mitigates lethal West Nile encephalitis via interleukin 23-dependent immune cell infiltration and homing. Immunity. 2009;30:242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that TLR7 and IL-23-dependent WNV responses represent a vital host defense mechanism that operates by affecting immune cell homing to infected target cells. ..
  43. Ramaprakash H, Ito T, Standiford T, Kunkel S, Hogaboam C. Toll-like receptor 9 modulates immune responses to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in immunodeficient and allergic mice. Infect Immun. 2009;77:108-19 pubmed publisher
    The role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in antifungal responses in the immunodeficient and allergic host is unclear. We investigated the role of TLR9 in murine models of invasive aspergillosis and fungal asthma...
  44. O Neill S, Veselits M, Zhang M, Labno C, Cao Y, Finnegan A, et al. Endocytic sequestration of the B cell antigen receptor and toll-like receptor 9 in anergic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6262-7 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrate that in anergic 3H9/Vkappa8 and Ars/A1 B cells the normal endocytic transit of both the ligated BCR and TLR9 into late endosomes is abrogated...
  45. Li Y, Berke I, Modis Y. DNA binding to proteolytically activated TLR9 is sequence-independent and enhanced by DNA curvature. EMBO J. 2012;31:919-31 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes microbial DNA in endolysosomal compartments. The ectodomain of TLR9 must be proteolytically cleaved by endosomal proteases to produce the active receptor capable of inducing an innate immune signal...
  46. Park B, Brinkmann M, Spooner E, Lee C, Kim Y, Ploegh H. Proteolytic cleavage in an endolysosomal compartment is required for activation of Toll-like receptor 9. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1407-14 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate the innate immune system in response to pathogens. Here we show that TLR9 proteolytic cleavage is a prerequisite for TLR9 signaling. Inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis rendered TLR9 inactive...
  47. Wagener J, Malireddi R, Lenardon M, Köberle M, Vautier S, MacCallum D, et al. Fungal chitin dampens inflammation through IL-10 induction mediated by NOD2 and TLR9 activation. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004050 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified NOD2, TLR9 and the mannose receptor as essential fungal chitin-recognition receptors for the induction of this response...
  48. Butchi N, Woods T, Du M, Morgan T, Peterson K. TLR7 and TLR9 trigger distinct neuroinflammatory responses in the CNS. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:783-94 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR7 and TLR9 are similar regarding localization and signal transduction mechanisms...
  49. Blasius A, Arnold C, Georgel P, Rutschmann S, Xia Y, Lin P, et al. Slc15a4, AP-3, and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome proteins are required for Toll-like receptor signaling in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19973-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR7 and TLR9 are required for pDCs, as well as other cell types, to sense viral nucleic acids, but the mechanism by which ..
  50. Foureau D, Mielcarz D, Menard L, Schulthess J, Werts C, Vasseur V, et al. TLR9-dependent induction of intestinal alpha-defensins by Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 2010;184:7022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo ligation of TLR9 by synthetic agonists leads to PC degranulation, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains uncertain...
  51. Weinkopff T, Mariotto A, Simon G, Hauyon La Torre Y, Auderset F, Schuster S, et al. Role of Toll-like receptor 9 signaling in experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. Infect Immun. 2013;81:1575-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) expression has been found in granulomas of lesions in L. braziliensis-infected individuals. L...
  52. Xiao G, Miyazato A, Abe Y, Zhang T, Nakamura K, Inden K, et al. Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway. Cell Immunol. 2010;263:241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..sinensis DNA activated NF-kappaB in HEK293T cells transfected with the TLR9 gene. Finally, a confocal microscopic analysis showed that C...
  53. Chen L, Shi W, Sun X, Fan X, Lesage G, Li H, et al. Critical role of toll-like receptor 9 in morphine and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced apoptosis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9205 pubmed publisher
    ..Morphine and M. tuberculosis significantly induced the expression of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a key mediator of innate immunity and inflammation...
  54. Yanai H, Ban T, Wang Z, Choi M, Kawamura T, Negishi H, et al. HMGB proteins function as universal sentinels for nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses. Nature. 2009;462:99-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of HMGBs also severely impairs the activation of TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 by their cognate nucleic acids...
  55. Gratz N, Hartweger H, Matt U, Kratochvill F, Janos M, Sigel S, et al. Type I interferon production induced by Streptococcus pyogenes-derived nucleic acids is required for host protection. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001345 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the innate immune system employs several strategies to efficiently recognize S. pyogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that succeeded in avoiding recognition by the standard arsenal of TLRs. ..
  56. Aleyas A, Han Y, Patil A, Kim S, Kim K, Eo S. Impaired cross-presentation of CD8?+ CD11c+ dendritic cells by Japanese encephalitis virus in a TLR2/MyD88 signal pathway-dependent manner. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:2655-66 pubmed publisher
  57. Karayel E, Burckstummer T, Bilban M, Dürnberger G, Weitzer S, Martinez J, et al. The TLR-independent DNA recognition pathway in murine macrophages: Ligand features and molecular signature. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1929-36 pubmed publisher
    ..poly(dAdT) are qualitatively indistinguishable and differ from the CpG-containing oligonucleotides triggering the TLR9 pathway...
  58. Kawane K, Tanaka H, Kitahara Y, Shimaoka S, Nagata S. Cytokine-dependent but acquired immunity-independent arthritis caused by DNA escaped from degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19432-7 pubmed publisher
  59. Gabele E, Muhlbauer M, Dorn C, Weiss T, Froh M, Schnabl B, et al. Role of TLR9 in hepatic stellate cells and experimental liver fibrosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:271-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that HSC express toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a pattern recognition receptor that is activated by CpG motifs present specifically in bacterial DNA...
  60. Peter M, Kubarenko A, Weber A, Dalpke A. Identification of an N-terminal recognition site in TLR9 that contributes to CpG-DNA-mediated receptor activation. J Immunol. 2009;182:7690-7 pubmed publisher
    Although it is well established that TLR9 recognizes CpG-DNA, the structural details of ligand-receptor interaction are still mostly unknown...
  61. Shintani Y, Kapoor A, Kaneko M, Smolenski R, D Acquisto F, Coppen S, et al. TLR9 mediates cellular protection by modulating energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes and neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5109-14 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the central players in innate immunity. In particular, TLR9 initiates inflammatory response by recognizing DNA, imported by infection or released from tissue damage...
  62. Hall J, Bouladoux N, Sun C, Wohlfert E, Blank R, Zhu Q, et al. Commensal DNA limits regulatory T cell conversion and is a natural adjuvant of intestinal immune responses. Immunity. 2008;29:637-49 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that gut flora DNA (gfDNA) plays a major role in intestinal homeostasis through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) engagement...
  63. Guillerey C, Mouriès J, Polo G, Doyen N, Law H, Chan S, et al. Pivotal role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in inflammation and NK-cell responses after TLR9 triggering in mice. Blood. 2012;120:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that pDCs are essential for the in vivo induction of NK-cell activity in response to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) triggering...
  64. Ito T, Schaller M, Hogaboam C, Standiford T, Sandor M, Lukacs N, et al. TLR9 regulates the mycobacteria-elicited pulmonary granulomatous immune response in mice through DC-derived Notch ligand delta-like 4. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:33-46 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR9 activation is important for the maintenance of mycobacteria-elicited pulmonary granulomatous responses, hallmarks of protective immune responses following mycobacterial infection...
  65. Ewald S, Engel A, Lee J, Wang M, Bogyo M, Barton G. Nucleic acid recognition by Toll-like receptors is coupled to stepwise processing by cathepsins and asparagine endopeptidase. J Exp Med. 2011;208:643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recent studies conflict as to which proteases are required for receptor cleavage. We show that TLR9 proteolysis is a multistep process...
  66. Sepulveda F, Maschalidi S, Colisson R, Heslop L, Ghirelli C, Sakka E, et al. Critical role for asparagine endopeptidase in endocytic Toll-like receptor signaling in dendritic cells. Immunity. 2009;31:737-48 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR7, and TLR9 localize in endosomes and recognize single-stranded RNA and nucleotides from viruses and bacteria...
  67. Zhu J, Huang X, Yang Y. The TLR9-MyD88 pathway is critical for adaptive immune responses to adeno-associated virus gene therapy vectors in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2388-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that AAV activates mouse plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) via TLR9 to produce type I IFNs...