Gene Symbol: Tlr6
Description: toll-like receptor 6
Alias: toll-like receptor 6
Species: mouse
Products:     Tlr6

Top Publications

  1. Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. TLR6: A novel member of an expanding toll-like receptor family. Gene. 1999;231:59-65 pubmed the molecular cloning and characterization of a new member of Toll-like receptor family, Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6)...
  2. Nicolle D, Fremond C, Pichon X, Bouchot A, Maillet I, Ryffel B, et al. Long-term control of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in the absence of Toll-like receptors (TLRs): investigation of TLR2-, TLR6-, or TLR2-TLR4-deficient mice. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6994-7004 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the TLR2 coreceptor, TLR6, is also not required since TLR6-deficient mice were able to control chronic BCG infection...
  3. Buwitt Beckmann U, Heine H, Wiesmüller K, Jung G, Brock R, Akira S, et al. Toll-like receptor 6-independent signaling by diacylated lipopeptides. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:282-9 pubmed
    ..These lipopeptides induce signaling in cells of the immune system through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-TLR1 or TLR2-TLR6 heteromers...
  4. Buwitt Beckmann U, Heine H, Wiesmüller K, Jung G, Brock R, Akira S, et al. TLR1- and TLR6-independent recognition of bacterial lipopeptides. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9049-57 pubmed
    ..Triacylated lipopeptides are assumed to be recognized by TLR2/TLR1-, whereas diacylated lipopeptides use TLR2/TLR6 heteromers for signaling...
  5. Chen C, Kono H, Golenbock D, Reed G, Akira S, Rock K. Identification of a key pathway required for the sterile inflammatory response triggered by dying cells. Nat Med. 2007;13:851-6 pubmed mice doubly deficient in Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4 and normal responses in mice lacking Tlr1, Tlr3, Tlr6, Tlr7, Tlr9, Tlr11 or the interleukin-18 receptor (IL-18R)...
  6. Netea M, van de Veerdonk F, Verschueren I, Van der Meer J, Kullberg B. Role of TLR1 and TLR6 in the host defense against disseminated candidiasis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008;52:118-23 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor-1 (TLR1) and TLR6 are receptors of the TLR family that form heterodimers with TLR2. The role of TLR1 and TLR6 for the recognition of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans was investigated...
  7. Kang J, Nan X, Jin M, Youn S, Ryu Y, Mah S, et al. Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer. Immunity. 2009;31:873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Its ligand specificity is controlled by whether it heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6. We have determined the crystal structures of TLR2-TLR6-diacylated lipopeptide, TLR2-lipoteichoic acid, and TLR2-PE-..
  8. Takeuchi O, Sato S, Horiuchi T, Hoshino K, Takeda K, Dong Z, et al. Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2002;169:10-4 pubmed
    ..b>TLR6 associates with TLR2 and recognizes diacylated mycoplasmal lipopeptide along with TLR2...
  9. Ozinsky A, Underhill D, Fontenot J, Hajjar A, Smith K, Wilson C, et al. The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13766-71 pubmed
    ..We report here that two members of the TLR family, TLR2 and TLR6, together coordinate macrophage activation by Gram-positive bacteria and the yeast cell-wall particle, zymosan...

More Information


  1. Ip W, Takahashi K, Moore K, Stuart L, Ezekowitz R. Mannose-binding lectin enhances Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 signaling from the phagosome. J Exp Med. 2008;205:169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that this cooperation occurs within the phagosome, emphasizing the importance of engulfment in providing the appropriate cellular environment to facilitate the synergy between these defense pathways. ..
  2. Katz J, Zhang P, Martin M, Vogel S, Michalek S. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for inflammatory responses to Francisella tularensis LVS. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2809-16 pubmed
    ..b>TLR6, not TLR1, was shown to be involved in mediating the inflammatory response to F...
  3. Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Muhlradt P, Morr M, Radolf J, Zychlinsky A, et al. Discrimination of bacterial lipoproteins by Toll-like receptor 6. Int Immunol. 2001;13:933-40 pubmed
    ..Here we show that TLR6-deficient (TLR6(-/-)) cells are unresponsive to MALP-2 but retain their normal responses to lipopeptides of other ..
  4. DePaolo R, Tang F, Kim I, Han M, Levin N, Ciletti N, et al. Toll-like receptor 6 drives differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells and contributes to LcrV-mediated plague pathogenesis. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:350-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Using complementary in vitro and in vivo approaches and LcrV as a model, we show that TLR6 associates with TLR2 to induce tolerogenic DC and regulatory type-1 T cells selectively secreting IL-10...
  5. Morr M, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Simon M, Muhlradt P. Differential recognition of structural details of bacterial lipopeptides by toll-like receptors. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:3337-47 pubmed
    ..TLR2, whereas those with two long-chain fatty acids and lipoteichoic acid required the additional cooperation with TLR6; (ii) substitution of the free N terminus of mycoplasmal lipopeptides with an acetyl or palmitoyl group decreased ..
  6. Chang S, Dolganiuc A, Szabo G. Toll-like receptors 1 and 6 are involved in TLR2-mediated macrophage activation by hepatitis C virus core and NS3 proteins. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:479-87 pubmed
    ..TLR2 activation requires homo- or heterodimerization with TLR1 or TLR6. Here, we aimed to determine whether TLR2 coreceptors participated in cellular activation by HCV core or NS3 ..
  7. Jiang Z, Georgel P, Li C, Choe J, Crozat K, Rutschmann S, et al. Details of Toll-like receptor:adapter interaction revealed by germ-line mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10961-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, MyD88 engages individual TLRs differently, suggesting the feasibility of selective pharmacologic TIR domain receptor blockade. ..
  8. Stewart C, Stuart L, Wilkinson K, van Gils J, Deng J, Halle A, et al. CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify CD36-TLR4-TLR6 activation as a common molecular mechanism by which atherogenic lipids and amyloid-beta stimulate sterile ..
  9. Abplanalp A, Morris I, Parida B, Teale J, Berton M. TLR-dependent control of Francisella tularensis infection and host inflammatory responses. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7920 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis PAMPs are predominantly recognized by TLR2/TLR1 or TLR2/TLR6. To address these questions, we have explored the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the host response to ..
  10. Kumar H, Kawai T, Akira S. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response. Biochem J. 2009;420:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways. ..
  11. Mattos K, D Avila H, Rodrigues L, Oliveira V, Sarno E, Atella G, et al. Lipid droplet formation in leprosy: Toll-like receptor-regulated organelles involved in eicosanoid formation and Mycobacterium leprae pathogenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:371-84 pubmed publisher propagate LD induction to uninfected, neighboring cells by generating a paracrine signal, for which TLR2 and TLR6 were demonstrated to be essential...
  12. Hoebe K, Du X, Goode J, Mann N, Beutler B. Lps2: a new locus required for responses to lipopolysaccharide, revealed by germline mutagenesis and phenotypic screening. J Endotoxin Res. 2003;9:250-5 pubmed
    ..The Lps2 mutation does not preclude signaling initiated by peptidoglycan or unmethylated DNA. Hence, genetic data suggest that there is at least one 'missing' component of the LPS receptor complex that has yet to be found. ..
  13. Motoi Y, Shibata T, Takahashi K, Kanno A, Murakami Y, Li X, et al. Lipopeptides are signaled by Toll-like receptor 1, 2 and 6 in endolysosomes. Int Immunol. 2014;26:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR heterodimers TLR1/TLR2 and TLR2/TLR6 recognize tri- or diacylated microbial lipopeptides, respectively...
  14. Borgel J, Guibert S, Li Y, Chiba H, Schübeler D, Sasaki H, et al. Targets and dynamics of promoter DNA methylation during early mouse development. Nat Genet. 2010;42:1093-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identify nonimprinted genes that inherit promoter DNA methylation from parental gametes, suggesting that escape of post-fertilization DNA methylation reprogramming is prevalent in the mouse genome. ..
  15. Alugupalli K, Akira S, Lien E, Leong J. MyD88- and Bruton's tyrosine kinase-mediated signals are essential for T cell-independent pathogen-specific IgM responses. J Immunol. 2007;178:3740-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MyD88 specifically promotes T cell-independent BCR signaling and that, in the absence of Btk, this TLR-mediated stimulation is a required component of this signal. ..
  16. Togbe D, Schofield L, Grau G, Schnyder B, Boissay V, Charron S, et al. Murine cerebral malaria development is independent of toll-like receptor signaling. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1640-8 pubmed
    ..However, TLR-dependent activation of innate immunity is unlikely to contribute significantly to the proinflammatory response to PbA infection and the development of fatal CM. ..
  17. Oosting M, Ter Hofstede H, Sturm P, Adema G, Kullberg B, Van der Meer J, et al. TLR1/TLR2 heterodimers play an important role in the recognition of Borrelia spirochetes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25998 pubmed publisher
    ..While TLR2 is the main recognition receptor for Borrelia spp., little is known about the role of TLR1 and TLR6, which both can form functionally active heterodimers with TLR2...
  18. Owens A, Passam F, Antoniak S, Marshall S, McDaniel A, Rudel L, et al. Monocyte tissue factor-dependent activation of coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys is inhibited by simvastatin. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:558-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, a deficiency of either TLR4 or TLR6 reduced levels of MP TF activity...
  19. Fong D, Hogaboam C, Matsuno Y, Akira S, Uematsu S, Joshi A. Toll-like receptor 6 drives interleukin-17A expression during experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Immunology. 2010;130:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..contributes to the development of experimental HP, and that the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) might be a factor in the initiation of this response...
  20. Roy R, Singh S, Das M, Tripathi A, Dwivedi P. Toll-like receptor 6 mediated inflammatory and functional responses of zinc oxide nanoparticles primed macrophages. Immunology. 2014;142:453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in this study we explored the role played by TLR6 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) pathways in the inflammatory responses of macrophages during ZNPs ..
  21. Medina E, Morris I, Berton M. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation attenuates the TLR2-mediated macrophage proinflammatory cytokine response to Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain. J Immunol. 2010;185:7562-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This TLR2-independent inhibitory pathway may be an important mechanism by which Francisella suppresses the host's innate immune response...
  22. Marta M, Andersson A, Isaksson M, Kämpe O, Lobell A. Unexpected regulatory roles of TLR4 and TLR9 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:565-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we demonstrate that TLR4 and TLR9 regulate disease severity in MOG-induced EAE. ..
  23. Yang D, Chen Q, Su S, Zhang P, Kurosaka K, Caspi R, et al. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin acts as an alarmin to activate the TLR2-MyD88 signal pathway in dendritic cells and enhances Th2 immune responses. J Exp Med. 2008;205:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..EDN activates TLR2 independently of TLR1 or TLR6. When mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) together with EDN or with EDN-treated OVA-loaded DCs, EDN enhanced ..
  24. Gomes M, Campos P, Pereira G, Bartholomeu D, Splitter G, Oliveira S. TLR9 is required for MAPK/NF-?B activation but does not cooperate with TLR2 or TLR6 to induce host resistance to Brucella abortus. J Leukoc Biol. 2016;99:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, here, we determined the cooperative role of TLR9 with TLR2 or TLR6 receptors in sensing Brucella Furthermore, we deciphered the host innate immune response against B...
  25. Xu Y, Zhang Y, Cardell L. Nicotine exaggerates LPS-induced airway hyperreactivity via JNK-mediated up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;51:370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This might offer a mechanistic explanation to the increased AHR seen in tobacco smokers confronted with bacterial infections. ..
  26. Lee J, Zhao L, Youn H, Weatherill A, Tapping R, Feng L, et al. Saturated fatty acid activates but polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibits Toll-like receptor 2 dimerized with Toll-like receptor 6 or 1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16971-9 pubmed
    ..A saturated fatty acid, lauric acid, induced NFkappaB activation when TLR2 was co-transfected with TLR1 or TLR6 in 293T cells, but not when TLR1, 2, 3, 5, 6, or 9 was transfected individually...
  27. Chen C, Shi Y, Hearn A, Fitzgerald K, Golenbock D, Reed G, et al. MyD88-dependent IL-1 receptor signaling is essential for gouty inflammation stimulated by monosodium urate crystals. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2262-71 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that IL-1 is essential for the MSU-induced inflammatory response and that the requirement of MyD88 in this process is primarily through its function as an adaptor molecule in the IL-1R signaling pathway. ..
  28. Albiger B, Dahlberg S, Sandgren A, Wartha F, Beiter K, Katsuragi H, et al. Toll-like receptor 9 acts at an early stage in host defence against pneumococcal infection. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:633-44 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that mice deficient in TLR9 but not in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 or IL-1R/IL-18R are more susceptible to a respiratory tract bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  29. Quesniaux V, Nicolle D, Torres D, Kremer L, Guerardel Y, Nigou J, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent-positive and TLR2-independent-negative regulation of proinflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannans. J Immunol. 2004;172:4425-34 pubmed
    ..mediated through the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), but independent of either TLR4 or TLR6 recognition...
  30. Tang H, Cao W, Kasturi S, Ravindran R, Nakaya H, Kundu K, et al. The T helper type 2 response to cysteine proteases requires dendritic cell-basophil cooperation via ROS-mediated signaling. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:608-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the T(H)2 response to cysteine proteases requires DC-basophil cooperation via ROS-mediated signaling. ..
  31. Henneke P, Takeuchi O, van Strijp J, Guttormsen H, Smith J, Schromm A, et al. Novel engagement of CD14 and multiple toll-like receptors by group B streptococci. J Immunol. 2001;167:7069-76 pubmed
    ..Whole GBS activated macrophages independently of TLR2 and TLR6, whereas a response to the secreted GBS-F was not observed in macrophages from TLR2-deficient animals...
  32. Grote K, Sonnenschein K, Kapopara P, Hillmer A, Grothusen C, Salguero G, et al. Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 promotes reendothelialization and inhibits neointima formation after vascular injury. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2097-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MALP-2 represents a novel therapeutic option to accelerate reendothelialization after vascular injury. ..
  33. Riccioli A, Starace D, Galli R, Fuso A, Scarpa S, Palombi F, et al. Sertoli cells initiate testicular innate immune responses through TLR activation. J Immunol. 2006;177:7122-30 pubmed
    ..We measured the expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6 mRNAs and confirmed by FACS analysis the presence of proteins TLR2 and TLR5 on which we focused our study...
  34. Abrahams V, Aldo P, Murphy S, Visintin I, Koga K, Wilson G, et al. TLR6 modulates first trimester trophoblast responses to peptidoglycan. J Immunol. 2008;180:6035-43 pubmed
    ..induced by PDG was found to be mediated by both TLR1 and TLR2 and that this could be blocked by the presence of TLR6. Furthermore, in the presence of TLR6, exposure to PDG resulted in trophoblast NF-kappaB activation and triggered ..
  35. Al Quraishy S, Dkhil M, Abdel Baki A, Arauzo Bravo M, Delic D, Wunderlich F. Testosterone persistently dysregulates hepatic expression of Tlr6 and Tlr8 induced by Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:3609-20 pubmed publisher
    ..chabaudi for 8 days. Our data reveal that T induces a 9.1-fold downregulation of Tlr6 mRNA and 6.3-fold upregulation of Tlr8 mRNA...
  36. Cook M, Vinuesa C, Goodnow C. ENU-mutagenesis: insight into immune function and pathology. Curr Opin Immunol. 2006;18:627-33 pubmed
    ..More than 20 of the phenotypes that exhibit a simple (Mendelian) pattern of inheritance have been mapped. Novel alleles have revealed new pathways of host defense, allergy and autoimmunity. ..
  37. Enoksson M, Lyberg K, Möller Westerberg C, Fallon P, Nilsson G, Lunderius Andersson C. Mast cells as sensors of cell injury through IL-33 recognition. J Immunol. 2011;186:2523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify IL-33 as a key danger signal released by necrotic structural cells capable of activating mast cells, thus providing novel insights concerning the role of mast cells as sensors of cell injury. ..
  38. Adachi K, Tsutsui H, Kashiwamura S, Seki E, Nakano H, Takeuchi O, et al. Plasmodium berghei infection in mice induces liver injury by an IL-12- and toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2001;167:5928-34 pubmed
    ..berghei infection of mice induces activation of the TLR-MyD88 signaling pathway which results in IL-12 production and activation of the perforin-dependent cytotoxic activities of MHC-unrestricted hepatic lymphocytes. ..
  39. Delaloye J, Roger T, Steiner Tardivel Q, Le Roy D, Knaup Reymond M, Akira S, et al. Innate immune sensing of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is mediated by TLR2-TLR6, MDA-5 and the NALP3 inflammasome. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000480 pubmed publisher Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or in the adapter molecules MyD88 and TRIF revealed a critical role for TLR2, TLR6 and MyD88 in the production of IFNbeta-independent chemokines...
  40. Liu S, Liu Y, Hao W, Wolf L, Kiliaan A, Penke B, et al. TLR2 is a primary receptor for Alzheimer's amyloid ? peptide to trigger neuroinflammatory activation. J Immunol. 2012;188:1098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..By coexpressing TLR1 or TLR6 in TLR2-transgenic HEK293 cells or silencing tlrs genes in RAW264...
  41. Klekotka P, Yang L, Yokoyama W. Contrasting roles of the IL-1 and IL-18 receptors in MyD88-dependent contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, mice deficient in Toll/IL-1R-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9 had no defect in their ability to respond to DNFB...
  42. Biswas S, Xin L, Panigrahi S, Zimman A, Wang H, Yakubenko V, et al. Novel phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives accumulate in circulation in hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice and activate platelets via TLR2. Blood. 2016;127:2618-29 pubmed publisher
  43. Sanchez Lopez J, Caballero I, Montazeri M, Maslehat N, Elliott S, Fernandez Gonzalez R, et al. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice. Biol Reprod. 2014;90:87 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success. ..
  44. Modhiran N, Watterson D, Blumenthal A, Baxter A, Young P, Stacey K. Dengue virus NS1 protein activates immune cells via TLR4 but not TLR2 or TLR6. Immunol Cell Biol. 2017;95:491-495 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus TLR4 remains a therapeutic target for DENV infections, with TLR4 antagonists holding promise for the treatment of dengue disease. ..
  45. Sheedy F, Grebe A, Rayner K, Kalantari P, Ramkhelawon B, Carpenter S, et al. CD36 coordinates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by facilitating intracellular nucleation of soluble ligands into particulate ligands in sterile inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:812-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of CD36 in the accrual and nucleation of NLRP3 ligands from within the macrophage and position CD36 as a central regulator of inflammasome activation in sterile inflammation. ..
  46. Marinho F, de Paula R, Mendes A, de Almeida L, Gomes M, Carvalho N, et al. Toll-like receptor 6 senses Mycobacterium avium and is required for efficient control of mycobacterial infection. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2373-85 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of TLR6 in innate immune responses to M. avium, TLR6, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR2/6 KO mice were infected with this pathogen...
  47. De Luca A, Iannitti R, Bozza S, Beau R, Casagrande A, D Angelo C, et al. CD4(+) T cell vaccination overcomes defective cross-presentation of fungal antigens in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1816-31 pubmed publisher
    ..fumigatus and suggests that CD4(+) T cell vaccination may be able to overcome defective antifungal CD8(+) T cell memory in individuals with CGD...
  48. Grote K, Schuett H, Salguero G, Grothusen C, Jagielska J, Drexler H, et al. Toll-like receptor 2/6 stimulation promotes angiogenesis via GM-CSF as a potential strategy for immune defense and tissue regeneration. Blood. 2010;115:2543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This might represent a general mechanism to enhance or restore blood flow and recruit immune cells for pathogen defense and tissue regeneration. ..
  49. Drage M, Pecora N, Hise A, Febbraio M, Silverstein R, Golenbock D, et al. TLR2 and its co-receptors determine responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to lipoproteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cell Immunol. 2009;258:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied Mtb lipoprotein-induced responses in TLR2(-/-), TLR1(-/-), TLR6(-/-), CD14(-/-) and CD36(-/-) macrophages...
  50. Zhang Y, Zhang Y. Toll-like receptor-6 (TLR6) deficient mice are protected from myocardial fibrosis induced by high fructose feeding through anti-oxidant and inflammatory signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;473:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, we evaluated the effects of toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) in cardiac remodeling. We established a mouse model of myocardial fibrosis with diabetes using 30% fructose...
  51. Murawski M, Bowen G, Cerny A, Anderson L, Haynes L, Tripp R, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus activates innate immunity through Toll-like receptor 2. J Virol. 2009;83:1492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Leukocytes express TLRs, including TLR2, TLR6, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7, that can interact with RSV and promote immune responses following infection...
  52. Hume D, Underhill D, Sweet M, Ozinsky A, Liew F, Aderem A. Macrophages exposed continuously to lipopolysaccharide and other agonists that act via toll-like receptors exhibit a sustained and additive activation state. BMC Immunol. 2001;2:11 pubmed
    ..of TLR4 mediates responses to LPS, TLR2 appears to require heterodimerization with another receptor such as TLR6. Transient expression of constitutively active forms of TLR4 or TLR2 plus TLR6 stimulated IL-12 promoter activity...
  53. Shen K, Song Y, Chen I, Leng C, Chen H, Li H, et al. Molecular mechanisms of TLR2-mediated antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2014;192:4233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that TLR2-mediated cross-presentation occurs through the upregulation of Rab7 and a TAP-independent pathway that prime CTL responses. ..