Gene Symbol: Tlr5
Description: toll-like receptor 5
Alias: toll-like receptor 5
Species: mouse
Products:     Tlr5

Top Publications

  1. Vijay Kumar M, Aitken J, Carvalho F, Cullender T, Mwangi S, Srinivasan S, et al. Metabolic syndrome and altered gut microbiota in mice lacking Toll-like receptor 5. Science. 2010;328:228-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mice genetically deficient in Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a component of the innate immune system that is expressed in the gut mucosa and that helps defend against ..
  2. Lai M, Quarles E, Lopez Yglesias A, Zhao X, Hajjar A, Smith K. Innate immune detection of flagellin positively and negatively regulates salmonella infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72047 pubmed publisher
    ..Innate immune recognition of flagellin is mediated by at least two independent pathways, TLR5 and Naip5-Naip6/NlrC4/Caspase-1...
  3. Kinnebrew M, Buffie C, Diehl G, Zenewicz L, Leiner I, Hohl T, et al. Interleukin 23 production by intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells in response to bacterial flagellin enhances mucosal innate immune defense. Immunity. 2012;36:276-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic administration of flagellin, a bacterial protein that stimulates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), induces epithelial expression of RegIII? and protects mice from intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant ..
  4. Bates J, Uematsu S, Akira S, Mizel S. Direct stimulation of tlr5+/+ CD11c+ cells is necessary for the adjuvant activity of flagellin. J Immunol. 2009;182:7539-47 pubmed publisher
    ..of CD4(+) T cell adoptive transfers and bone marrow chimera mice in which the presence or absence of potential tlr5(+/+) CD11c(+) cells was controlled by injection of diphtheria toxin...
  5. Sebastiani G, Leveque G, Lariviere L, Laroche L, Skamene E, Gros P, et al. Cloning and characterization of the murine toll-like receptor 5 (Tlr5) gene: sequence and mRNA expression studies in Salmonella-susceptible MOLF/Ei mice. Genomics. 2000;64:230-40 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we describe the cloning and characterization of the mouse homologue of human TLR5. Mouse Tlr5 encodes a 859-amino-acid protein that contains an N-terminal signal sequence, a leucine-rich repeat ..
  6. Ivison S, Himmel M, Hardenberg G, Wark P, Kifayet A, Levings M, et al. TLR5 is not required for flagellin-mediated exacerbation of DSS colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Flagellin is also the only known ligand for Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a key protein in innate immunity...
  7. Sanders C, Franchi L, Yarovinsky F, Uematsu S, Akira S, Nunez G, et al. Induction of adaptive immunity by flagellin does not require robust activation of innate immunity. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:359-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the role of TLR5 and MyD88 in promoting innate and humoral immunity to flagellin using a prime/boost immunization regimen...
  8. Naik S, Bouladoux N, Wilhelm C, Molloy M, Salcedo R, Kastenmuller W, et al. Compartmentalized control of skin immunity by resident commensals. Science. 2012;337:1115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the importance of the microbiota as a distinctive feature of tissue compartmentalization, and provide insight into mechanisms of immune system regulation by resident commensal niches in health and disease. ..
  9. Vijay Kumar M, Aitken J, Sanders C, Frias A, SLOANE V, Xu J, et al. Flagellin treatment protects against chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and radiation. J Immunol. 2008;180:8280-5 pubmed
    ..We reasoned that, because it preferentially activates epithelial cells, the TLR5 agonist flagellin might not induce severe inflammatory pathology and yet be an ideal agent to provide such non-..

More Information


  1. Vijay Kumar M, Aitken J, Kumar A, Neish A, Uematsu S, Akira S, et al. Toll-like receptor 5-deficient mice have dysregulated intestinal gene expression and nonspecific resistance to Salmonella-induced typhoid-like disease. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1276-81 pubmed publisher
    The recognition of flagellin by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is the dominant means by which model intestinal epithelia activate proinflammatory gene expression in response to Salmonella enterica...
  2. Ramphal R, Balloy V, Jyot J, Verma A, Si Tahar M, Chignard M. Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung requires the recognition of either lipopolysaccharide or flagellin. J Immunol. 2008;181:586-92 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the interactions of either TLR4 with LPS or TLR5 with flagellin can effectively defend the lung from P...
  3. Vijay Kumar M, Sanders C, Taylor R, Kumar A, Aitken J, Sitaraman S, et al. Deletion of TLR5 results in spontaneous colitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3909-21 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the flagellin receptor TLR5 has an essential and nonredundant role in protecting the gut from enteric microbes...
  4. Andersen Nissen E, Hawn T, Smith K, Nachman A, Lampano A, Uematsu S, et al. Cutting edge: Tlr5-/- mice are more susceptible to Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. J Immunol. 2007;178:4717-20 pubmed
    Although TLR5 regulates the innate immune response to bacterial flagellin, it is unclear whether its function is essential during in vivo murine infections...
  5. Morris A, Liggitt H, Hawn T, Skerrett S. Role of Toll-like receptor 5 in the innate immune response to acute P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L1112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The contribution of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) to the innate immune response to this organism is incompletely understood...
  6. Hawn T, Berrington W, Smith I, Uematsu S, Akira S, Aderem A, et al. Altered inflammatory responses in TLR5-deficient mice infected with Legionella pneumophila. J Immunol. 2007;179:6981-7 pubmed
    ..We examined the role of TLR5 during the murine response to aerosolized Lp infection...
  7. Letran S, Lee S, Atif S, Uematsu S, Akira S, McSorley S. TLR5 functions as an endocytic receptor to enhance flagellin-specific adaptive immunity. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:29-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown function for TLR5, namely that it enhances MHC class-II presentation of flagellin epitopes to CD4(+) T cells and is required for ..
  8. Sun Y, Karmakar M, Roy S, Ramadan R, Williams S, Howell S, et al. TLR4 and TLR5 on corneal macrophages regulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis by signaling through MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. J Immunol. 2010;185:4272-83 pubmed publisher
    ..PAO1, we found that F4/80(+) macrophages were the predominant cell type in the cornea expressing TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5. Depletion of macrophages and dendritic cells using transgenic Mafia mice, in which Fas ligand is selectively ..
  9. Miao E, Alpuche Aranda C, Dors M, Clark A, Bader M, Miller S, et al. Cytoplasmic flagellin activates caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1beta via Ipaf. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:569-75 pubmed
  10. Jarchum I, Liu M, Lipuma L, Pamer E. Toll-like receptor 5 stimulation protects mice from acute Clostridium difficile colitis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that administration of purified Salmonella-derived flagellin, a Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist, protects mice from C. difficile colitis by delaying C...
  11. Uematsu S, Jang M, Chevrier N, Guo Z, Kumagai Y, Yamamoto M, et al. Detection of pathogenic intestinal bacteria by Toll-like receptor 5 on intestinal CD11c+ lamina propria cells. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:868-74 pubmed
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 is triggered by bacterial flagellin. Here we generated Tlr5-/- mice and assessed TLR5 function in vivo...
  12. Van Maele L, Carnoy C, Cayet D, Songhet P, Dumoutier L, Ferrero I, et al. TLR5 signaling stimulates the innate production of IL-17 and IL-22 by CD3(neg)CD127+ immune cells in spleen and mucosa. J Immunol. 2010;185:1177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we observed that the TLR5 agonist flagellin induced swift and transient transcription of genes encoding IL-17 and IL-22 in lymphoid, gut, and ..
  13. West T, Hawn T, Skerrett S. Toll-like receptor signaling in airborne Burkholderia thailandensis infection. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5612-22 pubmed publisher
    ..thailandensis pneumonia. TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 mediate NF-kappaB activation by B. thailandensis in transfected HEK293 or CHO cells...
  14. Himmel M, Hardenberg G, Piccirillo C, Steiner T, Levings M. The role of T-regulatory cells and Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease. Immunology. 2008;125:145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we discuss evidence that direct signaling via TLRs to T cells can affect IBD and that T-cell-dependent responses to bacterial proteins, such as flagellin, are central to the aetiology of this disease. ..
  15. Miao E, Leaf I, Treuting P, Mao D, Dors M, Sarkar A, et al. Caspase-1-induced pyroptosis is an innate immune effector mechanism against intracellular bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:1136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that activation of caspase-1 clears intracellular bacteria in vivo independently of IL-1? and IL-18 and establishes pyroptosis as an efficient mechanism of bacterial clearance by the innate immune system...
  16. Feuillet V, Medjane S, Mondor I, Demaria O, Pagni P, Galan J, et al. Involvement of Toll-like receptor 5 in the recognition of flagellated bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12487-92 pubmed
    ..b>TLR5 is a sensor for monomeric flagellin, which is a component of bacterial flagella known to be a virulence factor...
  17. Uematsu S, Fujimoto K, Jang M, Yang B, Jung Y, Nishiyama M, et al. Regulation of humoral and cellular gut immunity by lamina propria dendritic cells expressing Toll-like receptor 5. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:769-76 pubmed publisher
    ..identify a subset of CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) that expressed Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the small intestine...
  18. Fournier B, Williams I, Gewirtz A, Neish A. Toll-like receptor 5-dependent regulation of inflammation in systemic Salmonella enterica Serovar typhimurium infection. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..differences between WT and aflagellate Salmonella were highly attenuated in Toll-like receptor 5-deficient (TLR5(-/-)) mice, indicating involvement of TLR5-dependent signaling...
  19. Franchi L, Amer A, Body Malapel M, Kanneganti T, Ozören N, Jagirdar R, et al. Cytosolic flagellin requires Ipaf for activation of caspase-1 and interleukin 1beta in salmonella-infected macrophages. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:576-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, detection of flagellin through Ipaf induces caspase-1 activation independently of Toll-like receptor 5 in salmonella-infected and lipopolysaccharide-tolerized macrophages. ..
  20. Franchi L, Stoolman J, Kanneganti T, Verma A, Ramphal R, Nunez G. Critical role for Ipaf in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced caspase-1 activation. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:3030-9 pubmed
    ..flagellin was essential for caspase-1 and IL-1beta and this activity depended on Ipaf and the adaptor ASC but not TLR5. Notably, P. aeruginosa induced macrophage cell death and this event relied on flagellin and Ipaf but not on ASC...
  21. Descamps D, Le Gars M, Balloy V, Barbier D, Maschalidi S, Tohme M, et al. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), IL-1? secretion, and asparagine endopeptidase are critical factors for alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and bacterial killing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1619-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that TLR5 engagement is crucial for bacterial clearance by AMs in vitro and in vivo because unflagellated P...
  22. Wu S, Rau C, Lu T, Tzeng S, Wu Y, Wu C, et al. Effect of Weight-Reduction in Obese Mice Lacking Toll-Like Receptor 5 and C57BL/6 Mice Fed a Low-Fat Diet. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:852126 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to investigate the effect of feeding low-fat diet (LFD) to diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice lacking TLR5 (TLR5(-/-)), which have a tendency to develop glucose intolerance with increased adiposity, compared to that in C57BL/..
  23. Kim S, Chen Z, Chamberlain N, Essani A, Volin M, Amin M, et al. Ligation of TLR5 promotes myeloid cell infiltration and differentiation into mature osteoclasts in rheumatoid arthritis and experimental arthritis. J Immunol. 2014;193:3902-13 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to examine the impact of TLR5 ligation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and experimental arthritis pathology...
  24. Wu H, Wang H, Xiong W, Chen S, Tang H, Han D. Expression patterns and functions of toll-like receptors in mouse sertoli cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4402-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR5 are highly expressed; TLR6, TLR7, and TLR13 are expressed at relatively low level; and TLR1, TLR8, TLR9, TLR11, and ..
  25. Carvalho F, Aitken J, Gewirtz A, Vijay Kumar M. TLR5 activation induces secretory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra) and reduces inflammasome-associated tissue damage. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;4:102-11 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5)-mediated detection of flagellin induces nuclear factor (NF)-?B-mediated transcription of host defense gene expression, whereas recognition of intracellular flagellin by interleukin (IL)-1-converting enzyme ..
  26. Letran S, Lee S, Atif S, Flores Langarica A, Uematsu S, Akira S, et al. TLR5-deficient mice lack basal inflammatory and metabolic defects but exhibit impaired CD4 T cell responses to a flagellated pathogen. J Immunol. 2011;186:5406-12 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR5-deficient mice have been reported to develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation and metabolic abnormalities...
  27. Hoste E, Arwert E, Lal R, South A, Salas Alanis J, Murrell D, et al. Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer. Nat Commun. 2015;6:5932 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer. ..
  28. Shibata T, Takemura N, Motoi Y, Goto Y, Karuppuchamy T, Izawa K, et al. PRAT4A-dependent expression of cell surface TLR5 on neutrophils, classical monocytes and dendritic cells. Int Immunol. 2012;24:613-23 pubmed
    AbstractToll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a sensor for bacterial flagellin, mounts innate and adaptive immune responses, and has been implicated in infectious diseases, colitis and metabolic syndromes...
  29. Choi Y, Im E, Pothoulakis C, Rhee S. TRIF modulates TLR5-dependent responses by inducing proteolytic degradation of TLR5. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21382-90 pubmed publisher adaptor molecule mediating TLR3 signaling and MyD88-independent signaling of TLR4, plays an inhibitory role in TLR5-elicited responses by inducing proteolytic degradation of TLR5...
  30. Palazzo M, Balsari A, Rossini A, Selleri S, Calcaterra C, Gariboldi S, et al. Activation of enteroendocrine cells via TLRs induces hormone, chemokine, and defensin secretion. J Immunol. 2007;178:4296-303 pubmed
  31. Henao Mejia J, Elinav E, Jin C, Hao L, Mehal W, Strowig T, et al. Inflammasome-mediated dysbiosis regulates progression of NAFLD and obesity. Nature. 2012;482:179-85 pubmed publisher
  32. Ivison S, Khan M, Graham N, Shobab L, Yao Y, Kifayet A, et al. The p110? and p110? isoforms of class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are involved in toll-like receptor 5 signaling in epithelial cells. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010: pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the p110? and ? isoforms of class IA PI3K are both required for the proinflammatory response to flagellin. ..
  33. Rumio C, Sommariva M, Sfondrini L, Palazzo M, Morelli D, Viganò L, et al. Induction of Paneth cell degranulation by orally administered Toll-like receptor ligands. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The TLR3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid also induced rapid degranulation, whereas the TLR4 and TLR5 agonists LPS and flagellin, respectively, induced late degranulation mediated by TNF-?...
  34. Yu F, Cornicelli M, Kovach M, Newstead M, Zeng X, Kumar A, et al. Flagellin stimulates protective lung mucosal immunity: role of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide. J Immunol. 2010;185:1142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the effect of the TLR5 ligand flagellin on stimulation of antibacterial mucosal immunity in a lethal murine Pseudomonas aeruginosa ..
  35. Lovewell R, Hayes S, O Toole G, Berwin B. Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellar motility activates the phagocyte PI3K/Akt pathway to induce phagocytic engulfment. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L698-707 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa populations in vivo, which contributes to changes in pathogenesis during infections. ..
  36. Uematsu S, Akira S. Immune responses of TLR5(+) lamina propria dendritic cells in enterobacterial infection. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:803-11 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 has been shown to recognize bacterial flagellin...
  37. Anas A, van Lieshout M, Claushuis T, de Vos A, Florquin S, de Boer O, et al. Lung epithelial MyD88 drives early pulmonary clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a flagellin dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;311:L219-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice) or myeloid cells (LysMcre-MyD88-lox mice) and bone marrow chimeric mice deficient for TLR5 (the receptor recognizing Pseudomonas flagellin) in either parenchymal or hematopoietic cells were infected with P...
  38. Tukhvatulin A, Gitlin I, Shcheblyakov D, Artemicheva N, Burdelya L, Shmarov M, et al. Combined stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 and NOD1 strongly potentiates activity of NF-κB, resulting in enhanced innate immune reactions and resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that combined stimulation of NOD1 and TLR5 (as well as other NOD and TLR family members) strongly potentiates activity of NF-κB and induces enhanced levels ..
  39. Herrera J, Gonzalez Rey E, Fernandez Montesinos R, Quintana F, Najmanovich R, Pozo D. Toll-like receptor stimulation differentially regulates vasoactive intestinal peptide type 2 receptor in macrophages. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:3209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, imiquimod--a synthetic TLR7 ligand--led to a potent up-regulation of VPAC(2) gene expression. TLR5 stimulation by flagellin present in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria did not affect VPAC(2) mRNA...
  40. Saha S, Takeshita F, Matsuda T, Jounai N, Kobiyama K, Matsumoto T, et al. Blocking of the TLR5 activation domain hampers protective potential of flagellin DNA vaccine. J Immunol. 2007;179:1147-54 pubmed readily produced and manipulated as a recombinant protein and has intrinsic adjuvant activity mediated through TLR5. Although DNA vaccines encoding native Pseudomonas B-type (FliC) or A-type (FlaA) flagellin are strongly ..
  41. Choi Y, Im E, Chung H, Pothoulakis C, Rhee S. TRIF mediates Toll-like receptor 5-induced signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37570-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, TLR5, the specific receptor for flagellin, is known to utilize only MyD88 to elicit inflammatory responses, and an ..
  42. Rutitzky L, Hernandez H, Yim Y, Ricklan D, Finger E, Mohan C, et al. Enhanced egg-induced immunopathology correlates with high IFN-gamma in murine schistosomiasis: identification of two epistatic genetic intervals. J Immunol. 2005;174:435-40 pubmed
  43. van Aubel R, Keestra A, Krooshoop D, van Eden W, van Putten J. Ligand-induced differential cross-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 5 in intestinal epithelial cells. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:3702-14 pubmed
    Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR5 are primary mucosal sensors of microbial patterns...
  44. Forstnerič V, Ivičak Kocjan K, Ljubetic A, Jerala R, Bencina M. Distinctive Recognition of Flagellin by Human and Mouse Toll-Like Receptor 5. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158894 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a receptor of the innate immune system that recognizes flagellin from certain bacterial species and triggers an inflammatory response...
  45. Van T Veer C, van den Pangaart P, Kruijswijk D, Florquin S, de Vos A, van der Poll T. Delineation of the role of Toll-like receptor signaling during peritonitis by a gradually growing pathogenic Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36603-18 pubmed publisher
    ..coli peritonitis models. The present study displays how the kinetics of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are regulated by TLRs during peritonitis by a gradually growing E. coli load and how these kinetics may affect outcome. ..
  46. Oshima N, Ishihara S, Rumi M, Aziz M, Mishima Y, Kadota C, et al. A20 is an early responding negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 5 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells during inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;159:185-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the negative feedback regulation of TLR-5 signalling that maintains the innate immune system in the gut. ..
  47. Floyd M, Winn M, Cullen C, Sil P, Chassaing B, Yoo D, et al. Swimming Motility Mediates the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Induced by Flagellated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005987 pubmed publisher
    ..P. aeruginosa-induced NET formation is independent of the flagellum-sensing receptors TLR5 and NLRC4 in both human and mouse neutrophils...
  48. Chudnovskiy A, Mortha A, Kana V, Kennard A, Ramírez J, Rahman A, et al. Host-Protozoan Interactions Protect from Mucosal Infections through Activation of the Inflammasome. Cell. 2016;167:444-456.e14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a novel mutualistic host-protozoan interaction that increases mucosal host defenses at the cost of an increased risk of inflammatory disease. ..
  49. Ubeda C, Lipuma L, Gobourne A, Viale A, Leiner I, Equinda M, et al. Familial transmission rather than defective innate immunity shapes the distinct intestinal microbiota of TLR-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1445-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of MyD88-, TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR5-, and TLR9-deficient mice and their respective wild-type (WT) littermates demonstrated that the impact of TLR ..
  50. Joo J, Ryu J, Kim C, Kim H, Suh M, Kim J, et al. Dual oxidase 2 is essential for the toll-like receptor 5-mediated inflammatory response in airway mucosa. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;16:57-70 pubmed publisher
    ..observation in this study reveals that flagellin-induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation is critical for TLR5-dependent innate immune responses, including IL-8 production and MUC5AC expression in the nasal epithelium...
  51. Xu Z, Kim Y, Bang S, Zhang Y, Berta T, Wang F, et al. Inhibition of mechanical allodynia in neuropathic pain by TLR5-mediated A-fiber blockade. Nat Med. 2015;21:1326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is co-expressed with neurofilament-200 in large-diameter A-fiber neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG)...
  52. Kassem A, Henning P, Kindlund B, Lindholm C, Lerner U. TLR5, a novel mediator of innate immunity-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. FASEB J. 2015;29:4449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings indicate that also endogenous ligands in inflammatory processes are important, one being a TLR5 agonist present in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  53. Nempont C, Cayet D, Rumbo M, Bompard C, Villeret V, Sirard J. Deletion of flagellin's hypervariable region abrogates antibody-mediated neutralization and systemic activation of TLR5-dependent immunity. J Immunol. 2008;181:2036-43 pubmed a unique MAMP because it harbors 1) an antigenic hypervariable region and 2) a conserved domain involved in TLR5-dependent systemic and mucosal proinflammatory and adjuvant activities...
  54. Feng T, Cong Y, Alexander K, Elson C. Regulation of Toll-like receptor 5 gene expression and function on mucosal dendritic cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35918 pubmed publisher
    ..However, how TLR5 expression is regulated and its function in the intestine have not been fully elucidated...
  55. Zhang W, Hartmann R, Tun H, Elson C, Khafipour E, Garvey W. Deletion of the Toll-Like Receptor 5 Gene Per Se Does Not Determine the Gut Microbiome Profile That Induces Metabolic Syndrome: Environment Trumps Genotype. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150943 pubmed publisher
    ..A previous study found that TLR5 deficient mice (TLR5KO1) had altered gut microbial composition which led to the development of metabolic syndrome ..
  56. Lin X, Huang H, You Y, Tang C, Gu X, Huang M, et al. Activation of TLR5 induces podocyte apoptosis. Cell Biochem Funct. 2016;34:63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to investigate the mechanism by which activation of TLR5 induces podocyte apoptosis. In this study, a podocyte cell line was cultured in RPMI1640 medium...
  57. Zhou R, Zhang R, Sun Y, Platt S, Szczotka Flynn L, Pearlman E. Innate immune regulation of Serratia marcescens-induced corneal inflammation and infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..S. marcescens induces corneal inflammation by activation of TLR4/MD-2/MyD88 and the IL-1R1/MyD88 pathways, which are potential therapeutic targets for inhibition of S. marcescens-induced corneal inflammation. ..
  58. Hossain M, Ramachandiran S, Gewirtz A, Waller E. Recombinant TLR5 agonist CBLB502 promotes NK cell-mediated anti-CMV immunity in mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96165 pubmed publisher
    ..transplantation (allo-BMT) models showed that peritransplant administration of flagellin, a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist protected murine allo-BMT recipients from CMV infection while limiting graft-vs-host disease (GvHD)...
  59. Aplin A, Ligresti G, Fogel E, Zorzi P, Smith K, Nicosia R. Regulation of angiogenesis, mural cell recruitment and adventitial macrophage behavior by Toll-like receptors. Angiogenesis. 2014;17:147-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of TLR5, 7 and 9 steadily increases over time and is highest during vascular regression...
  60. Kaul D, Habbel P, Derkow K, Krüger C, Franzoni E, Wulczyn F, et al. Expression of Toll-like receptors in the developing brain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37767 pubmed publisher
  61. Parapanov R, Lugrin J, Rosenblatt Velin N, Feihl F, Waeber B, Milano G, et al. Toll-like receptor 5 deficiency exacerbates cardiac injury and inflammation induced by myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion in the mouse. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;129:187-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of other TLRs is unknown. We therefore evaluated the role of TLR5, expressed at high level in the heart, in the development of myocardial damage and inflammation acutely triggered ..
  62. Flores Langarica A, Marshall J, Hitchcock J, Cook C, Jobanputra J, Bobat S, et al. Systemic flagellin immunization stimulates mucosal CD103+ dendritic cells and drives Foxp3+ regulatory T cell and IgA responses in the mesenteric lymph node. J Immunol. 2012;189:5745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (FliC) can impact markedly on host immunity, in part via its recognition by TLR5. In this study, we show that systemic immunization with soluble FliC (sFliC) drives distinct immune responses ..
  63. Hu Z, Xing Y, Qian Y, Chen X, Tu J, Ren L, et al. Anti-radiation damage effect of polyethylenimine as a toll-like receptor 5 targeted agonist. J Radiat Res. 2013;54:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated whether a compound, polyethylenimine (PEI), which activates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-mediated NF-kB signaling pathways, could have an anti-radiation effect on a mouse model...
  64. Janot L, Sirard J, Secher T, Noulin N, Fick L, Akira S, et al. Radioresistant cells expressing TLR5 control the respiratory epithelium's innate immune responses to flagellin. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Flagellin-induced signalling involves TLR5 and MyD88 and, according to some reports, TLR4...
  65. Das N, Dewan V, Grace P, Gunn R, Tamura R, Tzarum N, et al. HMGB1 Activates Proinflammatory Signaling via TLR5 Leading to Allodynia. Cell Rep. 2016;17:1128-1140 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we find that TLR5 is also an HMGB1 receptor that was previously overlooked due to lack of functional expression in the cell lines ..
  66. Chassaing B, Ley R, Gewirtz A. Intestinal epithelial cell toll-like receptor 5 regulates the intestinal microbiota to prevent low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome in mice. Gastroenterology. 2014;147:1363-77.e17 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking the receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5-null mice), which recognizes flagellin, have an altered intestinal microbiota composition compared with wild-type mice; they develop low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome and ..
  67. Rutkowski M, Stephen T, Svoronos N, Allegrezza M, Tesone A, Perales Puchalt A, et al. Microbially driven TLR5-dependent signaling governs distal malignant progression through tumor-promoting inflammation. Cancer Cell. 2015;27:27-40 pubmed publisher
    The dominant TLR5(R392X) polymorphism abrogates flagellin responses in >7% of humans...
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    Flagellin is a potent immunogen that activates the innate immune system via TLR5 and Naip5/6, and generates strong T and B cell responses...
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    ..Activation of caspase-1 in response to Legionella infection also required host Ipaf, but not TLR5. In the absence of Ipaf or caspase-1 activation, the LCP acquired endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles, avoided ..
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    ..In this article, we report that immunization of wild-type, TLR5(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) adoptive transfer recipient mice revealed the ability of flagellin fusion proteins to promote ..
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    ..Typhi. Therefore, tlr11(-/-) mice represent a small-animal model for the study of the immune response to S. Typhi and for the development of vaccines against this important human pathogen...
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    ..interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) following exposure of cells to the TLR2 and TLR5 agonists, heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes and flagellin, respectively...
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    ..Because flagella is a ligand for Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), we hypothesized that TLR5 contributed to endophthalmitis pathogenesis...
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    ..A member of the Toll-like receptors family, Tlr5, located on distal Chromosome 1, was previously shown to be a candidate gene for Ity3 based on expression studies ..
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    ..interrogans. Collectively, these findings provide the first characterization, to our knowledge, of bacteria-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through the downregulation of a specific host potassium transporter. ..