Tlr4

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tlr4
Description: toll-like receptor 4
Alias: Lps, Ly87, Ran/M1, Rasl2-8, toll-like receptor 4, Toll like receptor 4, lipopolysaccharide response
Species: mouse
Products:     Tlr4

Top Publications

  1. Branger J, Knapp S, Weijer S, Leemans J, Pater J, Speelman P, et al. Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in gram-positive and gram-negative pneumonia in mice. Infect Immun. 2004;72:788-94 pubmed
    To determine the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the immune response to pneumonia, C3H/HeJ mice (which display a mutant nonfunctional TLR4) and C3H/HeN wild-type mice were intranasally infected with either Streptococcus pneumoniae (..
  2. Ito Y, Kawamura I, Kohda C, Tsuchiya K, Nomura T, Mitsuyama M. Seeligeriolysin O, a protein toxin of Listeria seeligeri, stimulates macrophage cytokine production via Toll-like receptors in a profile different from that induced by other bacterial ligands. Int Immunol. 2005;17:1597-606 pubmed
    ..Although LSO signaling appeared to be associated with both TLR2 and TLR4, the profile of cytokine production by LSO stimulation was distinct from those by stimulation with PGN or LPS...
  3. Cabanski M, Steinmüller M, Marsh L, Surdziel E, Seeger W, Lohmeyer J. PKR regulates TLR2/TLR4-dependent signaling in murine alveolar macrophages. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:26-31 pubmed
    ..In this report we investigated whether PKR is involved in TLR2/TLR4-mediated immune responses of primary alveolar macrophages (AM)...
  4. Tsan M, Gao B. Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:514-9 pubmed
    ..via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal-transduction pathways in a manner similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; via TLR4) and bacterial lipoproteins (via TLR2)...
  5. Vogel S, Wax J, Perera P, Padlan C, Potter M, Mock B. Construction of a BALB/c congenic mouse, C.C3H-Lpsd, that expresses the Lpsd allele: analysis of chromosome 4 markers surrounding the Lps gene. Infect Immun. 1994;62:4454-9 pubmed
    ..BALB/c mouse strain that contains a segment of chromosome 4 including the Lpsd allele of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ strain is presented...
  6. Gonzalez Navajas J, Fine S, Law J, Datta S, Nguyen K, Yu M, et al. TLR4 signaling in effector CD4+ T cells regulates TCR activation and experimental colitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR4 is also expressed on CD4+ T cells, but its physiological function on these cells remains unknown...
  7. Park J, Svetkauskaite D, He Q, Kim J, Strassheim D, Ishizaka A, et al. Involvement of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in cellular activation by high mobility group box 1 protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7370-7 pubmed
    ..Unlike lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which primarily increased the activity of IKKbeta, HMGB1 exposure resulted in activation of both IKKalpha and ..
  8. El Shikh M, El Sayed R, Wu Y, Szakal A, Tew J. TLR4 on follicular dendritic cells: an activation pathway that promotes accessory activity. J Immunol. 2007;179:4444-50 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, TLR4 expression on FDCs was studied in situ with immunohistochemistry, followed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR analysis...
  9. Liu B, Yang Y, Dai J, Medzhitov R, Freudenberg M, Zhang P, et al. TLR4 up-regulation at protein or gene level is pathogenic for lupus-like autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 2006;177:6880-8 pubmed
    b>TLR4 is the receptor for the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component LPS. TLR4 signaling is controlled by both positive and negative regulators to balance optimal immune response and potential sepsis...
  10. Jung D, Lee H, Jung B, Ock J, Lee M, Lee W, et al. TLR4, but not TLR2, signals autoregulatory apoptosis of cultured microglia: a critical role of IFN-beta as a decision maker. J Immunol. 2005;174:6467-76 pubmed
    ..Both TLR2 and TLR4 are known to trigger a protective immune response as well as cellular apoptosis...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Branger J, Knapp S, Weijer S, Leemans J, Pater J, Speelman P, et al. Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in gram-positive and gram-negative pneumonia in mice. Infect Immun. 2004;72:788-94 pubmed
    To determine the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the immune response to pneumonia, C3H/HeJ mice (which display a mutant nonfunctional TLR4) and C3H/HeN wild-type mice were intranasally infected with either Streptococcus pneumoniae (..
  2. Ito Y, Kawamura I, Kohda C, Tsuchiya K, Nomura T, Mitsuyama M. Seeligeriolysin O, a protein toxin of Listeria seeligeri, stimulates macrophage cytokine production via Toll-like receptors in a profile different from that induced by other bacterial ligands. Int Immunol. 2005;17:1597-606 pubmed
    ..Although LSO signaling appeared to be associated with both TLR2 and TLR4, the profile of cytokine production by LSO stimulation was distinct from those by stimulation with PGN or LPS...
  3. Cabanski M, Steinmüller M, Marsh L, Surdziel E, Seeger W, Lohmeyer J. PKR regulates TLR2/TLR4-dependent signaling in murine alveolar macrophages. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:26-31 pubmed
    ..In this report we investigated whether PKR is involved in TLR2/TLR4-mediated immune responses of primary alveolar macrophages (AM)...
  4. Tsan M, Gao B. Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:514-9 pubmed
    ..via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal-transduction pathways in a manner similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; via TLR4) and bacterial lipoproteins (via TLR2)...
  5. Vogel S, Wax J, Perera P, Padlan C, Potter M, Mock B. Construction of a BALB/c congenic mouse, C.C3H-Lpsd, that expresses the Lpsd allele: analysis of chromosome 4 markers surrounding the Lps gene. Infect Immun. 1994;62:4454-9 pubmed
    ..BALB/c mouse strain that contains a segment of chromosome 4 including the Lpsd allele of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ strain is presented...
  6. Gonzalez Navajas J, Fine S, Law J, Datta S, Nguyen K, Yu M, et al. TLR4 signaling in effector CD4+ T cells regulates TCR activation and experimental colitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR4 is also expressed on CD4+ T cells, but its physiological function on these cells remains unknown...
  7. Park J, Svetkauskaite D, He Q, Kim J, Strassheim D, Ishizaka A, et al. Involvement of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in cellular activation by high mobility group box 1 protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7370-7 pubmed
    ..Unlike lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which primarily increased the activity of IKKbeta, HMGB1 exposure resulted in activation of both IKKalpha and ..
  8. El Shikh M, El Sayed R, Wu Y, Szakal A, Tew J. TLR4 on follicular dendritic cells: an activation pathway that promotes accessory activity. J Immunol. 2007;179:4444-50 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, TLR4 expression on FDCs was studied in situ with immunohistochemistry, followed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR analysis...
  9. Liu B, Yang Y, Dai J, Medzhitov R, Freudenberg M, Zhang P, et al. TLR4 up-regulation at protein or gene level is pathogenic for lupus-like autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 2006;177:6880-8 pubmed
    b>TLR4 is the receptor for the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component LPS. TLR4 signaling is controlled by both positive and negative regulators to balance optimal immune response and potential sepsis...
  10. Jung D, Lee H, Jung B, Ock J, Lee M, Lee W, et al. TLR4, but not TLR2, signals autoregulatory apoptosis of cultured microglia: a critical role of IFN-beta as a decision maker. J Immunol. 2005;174:6467-76 pubmed
    ..Both TLR2 and TLR4 are known to trigger a protective immune response as well as cellular apoptosis...
  11. Gersuk G, Underhill D, Zhu L, Marr K. Dectin-1 and TLRs permit macrophages to distinguish between different Aspergillus fumigatus cellular states. J Immunol. 2006;176:3717-24 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate one mechanism by which the pulmonary inflammatory response is tailored toward metabolically active cells, thereby avoiding unnecessary tissue damage with frequent inhalation of ubiquitous spores. ..
  12. Schilling J, Martin S, Hung C, Lorenz R, Hultgren S. Toll-like receptor 4 on stromal and hematopoietic cells mediates innate resistance to uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4203-8 pubmed
    ..the LPS-nonresponsive mouse strain C3HHeJ, which has a mutation in the primary LPS receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), is extremely susceptible to infection with uropathogenic strains of E. coli...
  13. Núñez N, Andreani V, Crespo M, Nocera D, Breser M, Moron G, et al. IFN? produced by TLR4-activated tumor cells is involved in improving the antitumoral immune response. Cancer Res. 2012;72:592-603 pubmed publisher
    ..B16 murine melanoma cells were stimulated in vitro with a TLR4 ligand (LPS-B16) prior to inoculation into TLR4-deficient mice (Tlr4 (lps-del))...
  14. Roberts B, Moussawi M, Huber S. Sex differences in TLR2 and TLR4 expression and their effect on coxsackievirus-induced autoimmune myocarditis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2013;94:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of wild type mice with either Pam3CSK4 (TLR2) or LPS (TLR4) specific TLR agonists resulted in increased Th1 expression in male and female mice and a decrease in FoxP3+ ..
  15. Vogel S, Hansen C, Rosenstreich D. Characterization of a congenitally LPS-resistant, athymic mouse strain. J Immunol. 1979;122:619-22 pubmed
    ..mice have B cells and macrophages unresponsive to a phenol-water extracted preparation of Escherichia coli K 235 LPS. This unresponsiveness was demonstrated in vitro by the inability of spleen cells to incorporate 3H-thymidine after ..
  16. Wang X, Loram L, RAMOS K, de Jesus A, Thomas J, Cheng K, et al. Morphine activates neuroinflammation in a manner parallel to endotoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6325-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that morphine binds to an accessory protein of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), thereby inducing TLR4 oligomerization and triggering proinflammation...
  17. Fernandez Lizarbe S, Pascual M, Gascon M, Blanco A, Guerri C. Lipid rafts regulate ethanol-induced activation of TLR4 signaling in murine macrophages. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:2007-16 pubmed
    ..Alcohol consumption has been shown to suppress the inflammatory response mediated through TLR4, down regulating the production of inflammatory cytokines...
  18. Musie E, MOORE C, Martin E, Scheld W. Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation before or after Streptococcus pneumoniae induced sepsis improves survival and is dependent on T-cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86015 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed the necessity of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for endotoxin tolerance using C3H/HeN (TLR4 replete) and C3H/HeJ (TLR4 deficient) mice...
  19. Kim H, Park B, Kim J, Kim S, Lee J, Oh S, et al. Crystal structure of the TLR4-MD-2 complex with bound endotoxin antagonist Eritoran. Cell. 2007;130:906-17 pubmed
    b>TLR4 and MD-2 form a heterodimer that recognizes LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Gram-negative bacteria. Eritoran is an analog of LPS that antagonizes its activity by binding to the TLR4-MD-2 complex...
  20. Rowe D, McGettrick A, Latz E, Monks B, Gay N, Yamamoto M, et al. The myristoylation of TRIF-related adaptor molecule is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6299-304 pubmed
    ..TRAM functions exclusively in the TLR4 pathway...
  21. van Rossum A, Lysenko E, Weiser J. Host and bacterial factors contributing to the clearance of colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a murine model. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7718-26 pubmed
    ..In addition, the microbial pattern recognition receptor toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), but not TLR4, was necessary for efficient clearance of colonization...
  22. Nadatani Y, Watanabe T, Tanigawa T, Machida H, Okazaki H, Yamagami H, et al. High mobility group box 1 promotes small intestinal damage induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through Toll-like receptor 4. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:98-110 pubmed publisher
    ..injuries, activates inflammatory pathways by stimulating multiple receptors, including Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE)...
  23. Eguchi K, Manabe I, Oishi Tanaka Y, Ohsugi M, Kono N, Ogata F, et al. Saturated fatty acid and TLR signaling link ? cell dysfunction and islet inflammation. Cell Metab. 2012;15:518-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Through a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies, we show ? cells respond to palmitate via the TLR4/MyD88 pathway and produce chemokines that recruit CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) M1-type proinflammatory monocytes/macrophages to ..
  24. Seimon T, Obstfeld A, Moore K, Golenbock D, Tabas I. Combinatorial pattern recognition receptor signaling alters the balance of life and death in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19794-9 pubmed
    ..SRA ligands trigger apoptosis in ER-stressed macrophages by cooperating with another PRR, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), to redirect TLR4 signaling from prosurvival to proapoptotic...
  25. Holland W, Bikman B, Wang L, Yuguang G, Sargent K, Bulchand S, et al. Lipid-induced insulin resistance mediated by the proinflammatory receptor TLR4 requires saturated fatty acid-induced ceramide biosynthesis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1858-70 pubmed publisher
    ..increased inflammation associated with obesity is activation of the innate immune signaling pathway triggered by TLR4 recognition of saturated fatty acids, an event that is essential for lipid-induced insulin resistance...
  26. Higgins S, Lavelle E, McCann C, Keogh B, McNeela E, Byrne P, et al. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate IL-10 activates antigen-specific regulatory T cells and confers resistance to Bordetella pertussis by inhibiting inflammatory pathology. J Immunol. 2003;171:3119-27 pubmed
    ..production of IL-10, in addition to inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, was significantly reduced in DCs from TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice in response to Bordetella pertussis. TLR4 was also required for B...
  27. Martin S, Dudda J, Bachtanian E, Lembo A, Liller S, Dürr C, et al. Toll-like receptor and IL-12 signaling control susceptibility to contact hypersensitivity. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mice deficient in TLR4, the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-12 receptor (R) beta2, or both, we show that the ..
  28. Ortega Cava C, Ishihara S, Rumi M, Kawashima K, Ishimura N, Kazumori H, et al. Strategic compartmentalization of Toll-like receptor 4 in the mouse gut. J Immunol. 2003;170:3977-85 pubmed
    ..b>TLR4 is a model for the TLR family and is the main LPS receptor...
  29. Wu H, Ma J, Wang P, Corpuz T, Panchapakesan U, Wyburn K, et al. HMGB1 contributes to kidney ischemia reperfusion injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1878-90 pubmed publisher
    ..factor released extracellularly as an inflammatory cytokine, is an endogenous ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
  30. Park J, Kim Y, Yi A. Protein kinase D1 is essential for MyD88-dependent TLR signaling pathway. J Immunol. 2009;182:6316-27 pubmed publisher
    ..but is not involved in expression of type I IFNs induced by TLR ligands and TRIF-dependent genes induced by TLR3 and TLR4 ligands. These results demonstrate that PKD1 is essential for MyD88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses.
  31. Akashi S, Saitoh S, Wakabayashi Y, Kikuchi T, Takamura N, Nagai Y, et al. Lipopolysaccharide interaction with cell surface Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2: higher affinity than that with MD-2 or CD14. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1035-42 pubmed
    ..LPS, a membrane constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is the best-studied TLR ligand and is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2, a molecule associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4...
  32. Kim H, Han M, Chung K, Kim S, Kim E, Kim M, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 senses beta-cell death and contributes to the initiation of autoimmune diabetes. Immunity. 2007;27:321-33 pubmed
    ..The development of autoimmune diabetes was markedly inhibited in Tlr2(-/-) mice but not in Tlr4(-/-) mice, showing that TLR2 plays an important role in the initiation of the disease...
  33. Tang X, Metzger D, Leeman S, Amar S. LPS-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF)-deficient mice express reduced LPS-induced cytokine: Evidence for LITAF-dependent LPS signaling pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13777-82 pubmed
    Previously we identified a transcription factor, LPS-Induced TNF-alpha Factor (LITAF), mediating inflammatory cytokine expression in LPS-induced processes...
  34. Weiss D, Takeda K, Akira S, Zychlinsky A, Moreno E. MyD88, but not toll-like receptors 4 and 2, is required for efficient clearance of Brucella abortus. Infect Immun. 2005;73:5137-43 pubmed
    ..2004) that the early macrophage response against gram-negative bacteria is mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which signals in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
  35. Weiss D, Raupach B, Takeda K, Akira S, Zychlinsky A. Toll-like receptors are temporally involved in host defense. J Immunol. 2004;172:4463-9 pubmed
    ..We show that TLR4 is critical for early cytokine production and killing of bacteria by murine macrophages...
  36. Burgdorf S, Scholz C, Kautz A, Tampe R, Kurts C. Spatial and mechanistic separation of cross-presentation and endogenous antigen presentation. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:558-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cross-presentation is spatially and mechanistically separated from endogenous MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation and is biased toward antigens containing microbial molecular patterns...
  37. Andonegui G, Zhou H, Bullard D, Kelly M, Mullaly S, McDonald B, et al. Mice that exclusively express TLR4 on endothelial cells can efficiently clear a lethal systemic Gram-negative bacterial infection. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1921-30 pubmed
    Recognition of LPS by TLR4 on immune sentinel cells such as macrophages is thought to be key to the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of infection with Gram-negative bacteria...
  38. Konno K, Wakabayashi Y, Akashi Takamura S, Ishii T, Kobayashi M, Takahashi K, et al. A molecule that is associated with Toll-like receptor 4 and regulates its cell surface expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;339:1076-82 pubmed
    ..component of the Gram-negative bacteria, is recognized by the receptor complex consisting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2...
  39. Chase M, Wheeler D, Lierl K, Hughes V, Wong H, Page K. Hsp72 induces inflammation and regulates cytokine production in airway epithelium through a TLR4- and NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2007;179:6318-24 pubmed
    ..A similar challenge with Hsp72 in TLR4 mutant mice did not stimulate the inflammatory response, stressing the importance of TLR4 in Hsp72-mediated lung ..
  40. Schilling D, Thomas K, Nixdorff K, Vogel S, Fenton M. Toll-like receptor 4 and Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein (TIRAP)/myeloid differentiation protein 88 adapter-like (Mal) contribute to maximal IL-6 expression in macrophages. J Immunol. 2002;169:5874-80 pubmed
    ..We have recently demonstrated that TLR2 agonists poorly induce a subset of TLR4-inducible proinflammatory genes (e.g...
  41. Rodriguez S, Chora A, Goumnerov B, Mumaw C, Goebel W, Fernandez L, et al. Dysfunctional expansion of hematopoietic stem cells and block of myeloid differentiation in lethal sepsis. Blood. 2009;114:4064-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Pseudomonas's lipopolysaccharide was necessary and sufficient to induce myelosuppresion and required intact TLR4 signaling...
  42. Lettinga K, Florquin S, Speelman P, van Ketel R, van der Poll T, Verbon A. Toll-like receptor 4 is not involved in host defense against pulmonary Legionella pneumophila infection in a mouse model. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:570-3 pubmed
    ..quot; Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) transduces the lipopolysaccharide signal and is therefore considered to play a role in host defense against gram-..
  43. Hayashi E, Akira S, Nobrega A. Role of TLR in B cell development: signaling through TLR4 promotes B cell maturation and is inhibited by TLR2. J Immunol. 2005;174:6639-47 pubmed
    The role of TLR4 in mature B cell activation is well characterized. However, little is known about TLR4 role in B cell development...
  44. Yang Y, Liu B, Dai J, Srivastava P, Zammit D, Lefrancois L, et al. Heat shock protein gp96 is a master chaperone for toll-like receptors and is important in the innate function of macrophages. Immunity. 2007;26:215-26 pubmed
    ..the mutant macrophages failed to respond to ligands of both cell-surface and intracellular TLRs including TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9...
  45. Zerfaoui M, Errami Y, Naura A, Suzuki Y, Kim H, Ju J, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a determining factor in Crm1-mediated nuclear export and retention of p65 NF-kappa B upon TLR4 stimulation. J Immunol. 2010;185:1894-902 pubmed publisher
    ..knockdown, or pharmacologic blockade prevented p65 NF-kappaB nuclear translocation in smooth muscle cells upon TLR4 stimulation, NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity, and subsequent inducible NO synthase and ICAM-1 expression...
  46. Jimenez R, Belcher E, Sriskandan S, Lucas R, McMaster S, Vojnovic I, et al. Role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in vascular smooth muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4637-42 pubmed
    ..To address this question, we have cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from mice deficient in TLR4 (TLR4(-/-) mice), mice deficient in TLR2 (TLR2(-/-) mice), or control mice...
  47. Weinlich R, Bortoluci K, Chehab C, Serezani C, Ulbrich A, Peters Golden M, et al. TLR4/MYD88-dependent, LPS-induced synthesis of PGE2 by macrophages or dendritic cells prevents anti-CD3-mediated CD95L upregulation in T cells. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1901-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using different KO mice, we found that the LPS-induced protective factor is dependent on TLR4/MyD88...
  48. Haag L, Fischer A, Otto B, Plickert R, Kuhl A, Göbel U, et al. Campylobacter jejuni induces acute enterocolitis in gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mice via Toll-like-receptor-2 and -4 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40761 pubmed publisher
    ..jejuni infection mimicking severe episodes of human campylobacteriosis and are thus well suited to further dissect mechanisms underlying Campylobacter infections in vivo. ..
  49. Seki E, De Minicis S, Osterreicher C, Kluwe J, Osawa Y, Brenner D, et al. TLR4 enhances TGF-beta signaling and hepatic fibrosis. Nat Med. 2007;13:1324-32 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the intestinal bacterial microflora and a functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but not TLR2, are required for hepatic fibrogenesis...
  50. Rakoff Nahoum S, Paglino J, Eslami Varzaneh F, Edberg S, Medzhitov R. Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis. Cell. 2004;118:229-41 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a novel function of TLRs-control of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury-and provide a new perspective on the evolution of host-microbial interactions. ..
  51. Bae Y, Lee J, Choi S, Kim S, Almazan F, Witztum J, et al. Macrophages generate reactive oxygen species in response to minimally oxidized low-density lipoprotein: toll-like receptor 4- and spleen tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase 2. Circ Res. 2009;104:210-8, 21p following 218 pubmed publisher
    ..were dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, we analyzed ROS generation in peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, TLR4(-/-), or MyD88(-/-) mice and found that mmLDL-mediated ROS was generated in a TLR4-dependent, but MyD88-independent,..
  52. Shi H, Kokoeva M, Inouye K, Tzameli I, Yin H, Flier J. TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:3015-25 pubmed
    b>TLR4 is the receptor for LPS and plays a critical role in innate immunity. Stimulation of TLR4 activates proinflammatory pathways and induces cytokine expression in a variety of cell types...
  53. Sorge R, Lacroix Fralish M, Tuttle A, Sotocinal S, Austin J, Ritchie J, et al. Spinal cord Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory and neuropathic hypersensitivity in male but not female mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15450-4 pubmed publisher
    ..role in the mediation of chronic pain, and one molecule implicated in this process is the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
  54. Yao Y, Zhang F, Wang L, Zhang G, Wang Z, Chen J, et al. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning enhances the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. J Biomed Sci. 2009;16:74 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we tried to explore the underlying mechanisms and the role of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in the signal pathway of LPS-induced cardiac protection...
  55. Rumbaut R, Bellera R, Randhawa J, Shrimpton C, Dasgupta S, Dong J, et al. Endotoxin enhances microvascular thrombosis in mouse cremaster venules via a TLR4-dependent, neutrophil-independent mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H1671-9 pubmed
    ..LPS) modified platelet thrombus formation in mouse cremaster venules and whether Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and neutrophils were involved in the response...
  56. Paget C, Mallevaey T, Speak A, Torres D, Fontaine J, Sheehan K, et al. Activation of invariant NKT cells by toll-like receptor 9-stimulated dendritic cells requires type I interferon and charged glycosphingolipids. Immunity. 2007;27:597-609 pubmed
    ..Together with the lipopolysaccharide-detecting receptor TLR4, activation of the nucleic acid sensors TLR7 and TLR9 in DCs were particularly potent in stimulating iNKT cells to ..
  57. Cox K, Ofek I, Hasty D. Enhancement of macrophage stimulation by lipoteichoic acid and the costimulant hemoglobin is dependent on Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2638-41 pubmed
    ..results in a slight enhancement of IL-6 secretion in response to LTA plus Hb compared to that with LTA alone and is TLR4 independent. The second requires TLR4 and accounts for most of the additional stimulation seen with LTA plus Hb.
  58. Katz J, Zhang P, Martin M, Vogel S, Michalek S. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for inflammatory responses to Francisella tularensis LVS. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2809-16 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from C57BL/6 wild-type (wt) and TLR4-/- but not TLR2-/- mice, with live F...
  59. Matsuzawa A, Saegusa K, Noguchi T, Sadamitsu C, Nishitoh H, Nagai S, et al. ROS-dependent activation of the TRAF6-ASK1-p38 pathway is selectively required for TLR4-mediated innate immunity. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:587-92 pubmed
    ..ASK1 was required for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 or other TLRs...
  60. Phipps S, Lam C, Kaiko G, Foo S, Collison A, Mattes J, et al. Toll/IL-1 signaling is critical for house dust mite-specific helper T cell type 2 and type 17 [corrected] responses. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:883-93 pubmed publisher
  61. Liu X, Yao M, Li N, Wang C, Zheng Y, Cao X. CaMKII promotes TLR-triggered proinflammatory cytokine and type I interferon production by directly binding and activating TAK1 and IRF3 in macrophages. Blood. 2008;112:4961-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective inhibition or RNA interference of CaMKII significantly suppresses TLR4, 9, 3-triggered production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-alpha/beta (IFN-..
  62. Arbour N, Lorenz E, Schutte B, Zabner J, Kline J, Jones M, et al. TLR4 mutations are associated with endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans. Nat Genet. 2000;25:187-91 pubmed
    ..To address this, we investigated whether TLR4 (encoding the toll-like receptor-4), which has been shown to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness in mice,..