Gene Symbol: Tlr3
Description: toll-like receptor 3
Alias: AI957183, toll-like receptor 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Tlr3

Top Publications

  1. Matsushima H, Yamada N, Matsue H, Shimada S. TLR3-, TLR7-, and TLR9-mediated production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from murine connective tissue type skin-derived mast cells but not from bone marrow-derived mast cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:531-41 pubmed
    ..Although TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA were detected in both cells at comparable levels, TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 mRNA were expressed by FSMC at higher levels than by BMMC, suggesting distinct TLR expression ..
  2. Schulz O, Diebold S, Chen M, Näslund T, Nolte M, Alexopoulou L, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 promotes cross-priming to virus-infected cells. Nature. 2005;433:887-92 pubmed
    ..phagocytosis of infected material, followed by signalling through the dsRNA receptor, toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)...
  3. Nishiya T, Kajita E, Miwa S, DeFranco A. TLR3 and TLR7 are targeted to the same intracellular compartments by distinct regulatory elements. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37107-17 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the intracellular localization of TLR3 is achieved by a 23-amino acid sequence (Glu(727) to Asp(749)) present in the linker region between the ..
  4. Rudd B, Smit J, Flavell R, Alexopoulou L, Schaller M, Gruber A, et al. Deletion of TLR3 alters the pulmonary immune environment and mucus production during respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2006;176:1937-42 pubmed
    ..In these studies we have investigated the role of TLR3, which recognizes dsRNA, in Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) infection using B6 background mice with a TLR3 ..
  5. Lee H, Jo E, Choi S, Oh S, Park K, Kim J, et al. Necrotic neuronal cells induce inflammatory Schwann cell activation via TLR2 and TLR3: implication in Wallerian degeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:742-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, NNC-induced proinflammatory gene expression was reduced in mouse Schwann cells derived from TLR2 or TLR3 knockout mice...
  6. Taura M, Eguma A, Suico M, Shuto T, Koga T, Komatsu K, et al. p53 regulates Toll-like receptor 3 expression and function in human epithelial cell lines. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6557-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the tumor suppressor p53 positively regulates the transcription of TLR3, a receptor for viral double-stranded RNA and poly(I-C), by binding to the p53 site in the TLR3 promoter...
  7. Brinkmann M, Spooner E, Hoebe K, Beutler B, Ploegh H, Kim Y. The interaction between the ER membrane protein UNC93B and TLR3, 7, and 9 is crucial for TLR signaling. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:265-75 pubmed
    ..H412R) in the polytopic endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident membrane protein UNC93B abolishes signaling via TLR3, 7, and 9...
  8. Matsumoto M, Kikkawa S, Kohase M, Miyake K, Seya T. Establishment of a monoclonal antibody against human Toll-like receptor 3 that blocks double-stranded RNA-mediated signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:1364-9 pubmed
    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 was established and its effect on TLR3-mediated responses was tested using human fibroblast cell lines expressing TLR3 on the cell surface...
  9. Oldenburg M, Krüger A, Ferstl R, Kaufmann A, Nees G, Sigmund A, et al. TLR13 recognizes bacterial 23S rRNA devoid of erythromycin resistance-forming modification. Science. 2012;337:1111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results reveal both a natural TLR13 ligand and specific mechanisms of antibiotic resistance as potent bacterial immune evasion strategy, avoiding recognition via TLR13. ..

More Information


  1. Edelmann K, Richardson Burns S, Alexopoulou L, Tyler K, Flavell R, Oldstone M. Does Toll-like receptor 3 play a biological role in virus infections?. Virology. 2004;322:231-8 pubmed
    ..For example, in vitro studies reveal that the TLR3 ligand is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a product of viral infections...
  2. Chatterjee P, Chiasson V, Kopriva S, Young K, Chatterjee V, Jones K, et al. Interleukin 10 deficiency exacerbates toll-like receptor 3-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in mice. Hypertension. 2011;58:489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Exogenous interleukin 10 treatment had beneficial effects on endothelial function and may be beneficial in women with preeclampsia. ..
  3. Orinska Z, Bulanova E, Budagian V, Metz M, Maurer M, Bulfone Paus S. TLR3-induced activation of mast cells modulates CD8+ T-cell recruitment. Blood. 2005;106:978-87 pubmed
    ..types of viruses and mimicked by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) is recognized by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)...
  4. Le Goffic R, Balloy V, Lagranderie M, Alexopoulou L, Escriou N, Flavell R, et al. Detrimental contribution of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 to influenza A virus-induced acute pneumonia. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e53 pubmed
    ..In view of these data and the fact that the functional role of TLR3 in vivo is still debated, we designed an investigation to better understand the role of TLR3 in the mechanisms of ..
  5. Alexopoulou L, Holt A, Medzhitov R, Flavell R. Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3. Nature. 2001;413:732-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mammalian TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, and that activation of the receptor induces the activation of NF-kappaB and the production of ..
  6. Reinert L, Harder L, Holm C, Iversen M, Horan K, Dagnæs Hansen F, et al. TLR3 deficiency renders astrocytes permissive to herpes simplex virus infection and facilitates establishment of CNS infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1368-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunological control of HSV involves activation of innate immune pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR3, which detects double-stranded RNA and induces type I IFN expression...
  7. Shim J, Xiao C, Paschal A, Bailey S, Rao P, Hayden M, et al. TAK1, but not TAB1 or TAB2, plays an essential role in multiple signaling pathways in vivo. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2668-81 pubmed
    ..Using embryonic fibroblasts lacking TAK1, TAB1, or TAB2, we have found that TNFR1, IL-1R, TLR3, and TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation are severely impaired in Tak1(m/m) cells, but they are normal in ..
  8. Negishi H, Osawa T, Ogami K, Ouyang X, Sakaguchi S, Koshiba R, et al. A critical link between Toll-like receptor 3 and type II interferon signaling pathways in antiviral innate immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence for a critical role of a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-dependent type II IFN signaling pathway in antiviral innate immune response against Coxsackievirus group B ..
  9. Dogusan Z, Garcia M, Flamez D, Alexopoulou L, Goldman M, Gysemans C, et al. Double-stranded RNA induces pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis by activation of the toll-like receptor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 3 pathways. Diabetes. 2008;57:1236-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR3 signaling mediated PICex-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and IRF-3 activation and beta-cell apoptosis...
  10. Olson J, Miller S. Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs. J Immunol. 2004;173:3916-24 pubmed
    ..microglia with various TLR agonists, including LPS (TLR4), peptidoglycan (TLR2), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (TLR3), CpG DNA (TLR9), and infection with viable Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, activated the cells to up-..
  11. Jiang D, Liang J, Fan J, Yu S, Chen S, Luo Y, et al. Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan. Nat Med. 2005;11:1173-9 pubmed
    ..Hyaluronan-TLR2 and hyaluronan-TLR4 interactions provide signals that initiate inflammatory responses, maintain epithelial cell integrity and promote recovery from acute lung injury. ..
  12. Cavassani K, Ishii M, Wen H, Schaller M, Lincoln P, Lukacs N, et al. TLR3 is an endogenous sensor of tissue necrosis during acute inflammatory events. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2609-21 pubmed publisher
    Ligands from dying cells are a source of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activating agents. Although TLR3 is known to respond to RNA from necrotic cells, the relative importance of this response in vivo during acute inflammatory processes has ..
  13. Cho W, Albuquerque R, Kleinman M, Tarallo V, Greco A, Nozaki M, et al. Small interfering RNA-induced TLR3 activation inhibits blood and lymphatic vessel growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..and dermal wound healing independently of RNA interference by directly activating Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a double-stranded RNA immune receptor, on the cell surface of blood endothelial cells...
  14. Gasse P, Mary C, Guenon I, Noulin N, Charron S, Schnyder Candrian S, et al. IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling and the inflammasome are essential in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3786-99 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, bleomycin-induced lung pathology required the inflammasome and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling, and IL-1 represented a critical effector of pathology and therapeutic target of chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis. ..
  15. Fujimoto K, Karuppuchamy T, Takemura N, Shimohigoshi M, Machida T, Haseda Y, et al. A new subset of CD103+CD8alpha+ dendritic cells in the small intestine expresses TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and induces Th1 response and CTL activity. J Immunol. 2011;186:6287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..CD103(+)CD8?(+) LPDCs expressed TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and produced IL-6 and IL-12p40, but not TNF-?, IL-10, or IL-23, following TLR ligand stimulation...
  16. Patole P, Grone H, Segerer S, Ciubar R, Belemezova E, Henger A, et al. Viral double-stranded RNA aggravates lupus nephritis through Toll-like receptor 3 on glomerular mesangial cells and antigen-presenting cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:1326-38 pubmed
    How viral infections trigger autoimmunity is poorly understood. A role for Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was hypothesized in this context as viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) activates dendritic cells to secrete type I interferons and ..
  17. Richer M, Lavallée D, Shanina I, Horwitz M. Toll-like receptor 3 signaling on macrophages is required for survival following coxsackievirus B4 infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4127 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) has been proposed to play a central role in the early recognition of viruses by sensing double stranded RNA, a common intermediate of viral replication...
  18. Bernard J, Cowing Zitron C, Nakatsuji T, Muehleisen B, Muto J, Borkowski A, et al. Ultraviolet radiation damages self noncoding RNA and is detected by TLR3. Nat Med. 2012;18:1286-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The responses to both UVB-damaged self-RNAs and UVB-damaged keratinocytes were dependent on Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (TRIF)...
  19. Kleinman M, Yamada K, Takeda A, Chandrasekaran V, Nozaki M, Baffi J, et al. Sequence- and target-independent angiogenesis suppression by siRNA via TLR3. Nature. 2008;452:591-7 pubmed publisher
    ..genes) and targeted (against Vegfa or Vegfr1) siRNA suppressed CNV via cell-surface toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), its adaptor TRIF, and induction of interferon-gamma and interleukin-12...
  20. Suzuki N, Suzuki S, Duncan G, Millar D, Wada T, Mirtsos C, et al. Severe impairment of interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signalling in mice lacking IRAK-4. Nature. 2002;416:750-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, animals lacking IRAK-4 are severely impaired in their responses to viral and bacterial challenges. Our results indicate that IRAK-4 has an essential role in innate immunity. ..
  21. Sotolongo J, España C, Echeverry A, Siefker D, Altman N, Zaias J, et al. Host innate recognition of an intestinal bacterial pathogen induces TRIF-dependent protective immunity. J Exp Med. 2011;208:2705-16 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIF is known to be important in TLR3-mediated antiviral signaling, but the role of TRIF signaling against Gram-negative enteropathogens is currently ..
  22. Yang X, Murthy V, Schultz K, Tatro J, Fitzgerald K, Beasley D. Toll-like receptor 3 signaling evokes a proinflammatory and proliferative phenotype in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H2334-43 pubmed
    ..Here we tested the role in VSMC of TLR3, which is activated by double-stranded (dsRNA), a molecular signature of viruses...
  23. Heinz S, Haehnel V, Karaghiosoff M, Schwarzfischer L, Muller M, Krause S, et al. Species-specific regulation of Toll-like receptor 3 genes in men and mice. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21502-9 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) belongs to a family of evolutionary conserved innate immune recognition molecules and recognizes double-stranded RNA, a molecular pattern associated with viral infections...
  24. Andoniou C, van Dommelen S, Voigt V, Andrews D, Brizard G, Asselin Paturel C, et al. Interaction between conventional dendritic cells and natural killer cells is integral to the activation of effective antiviral immunity. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1011-9 pubmed
    ..Notably, adoptive transfer of MCMV-activated CD11b(+) DCs resulted in improved control of MCMV infection, indicating that these cells participate in controlling viral replication in vivo...
  25. Gelman A, Zhang J, Choi Y, Turka L. Toll-like receptor ligands directly promote activated CD4+ T cell survival. J Immunol. 2004;172:6065-73 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that PAMPs can directly promote activated CD4(+) T cell survival, suggesting that TLRs on T cells can directly modulate adaptive immune responses. ..
  26. Murray L, Knight D, McAlonan L, Argentieri R, Joshi A, Shaheen F, et al. Deleterious role of TLR3 during hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:1227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the role of TLR3 in ARDS. TLR3 expression and signaling was determined in airway epithelial cells after in vitro hyperoxia challenge...
  27. Flandin J, Chano F, Descoteaux A. RNA interference reveals a role for TLR2 and TLR3 in the recognition of Leishmania donovani promastigotes by interferon-gamma-primed macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:411-20 pubmed
    ..Silencing of TLR3, TLR2, IRAK-1 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) expression by RNA interference revealed that both TLR ..
  28. Hutchens M, Luker K, Sottile P, Sonstein J, Lukacs N, Nunez G, et al. TLR3 increases disease morbidity and mortality from vaccinia infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:483-91 pubmed
    ..and the fact that functions of TLRs in immunity to DNA viruses remain controversial, we investigated effects of TLR3 on pathogenesis of vaccinia virus, a prototype poxvirus...
  29. Gitlin L, Barchet W, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Beutler B, Flavell R, et al. Essential role of mda-5 in type I IFN responses to polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid and encephalomyocarditis picornavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8459-64 pubmed
    The innate immune system recognizes viral dsRNA through two distinct pathways; the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway detects dsRNA phagocytosed in endosomes; the helicases retinoic acid-induced protein I (RIG-I) and melanoma ..
  30. Gowen B, Hoopes J, Wong M, Jung K, Isakson K, Alexopoulou L, et al. TLR3 deletion limits mortality and disease severity due to Phlebovirus infection. J Immunol. 2006;177:6301-7 pubmed
    b>TLR3 was the first member of the TLR family of pattern recognition receptors found to detect a conserved viral molecular pattern, dsRNA, yet supporting evidence for a major role in host defense against viral pathogens is limited...
  31. Gowen B, Wong M, Jung K, Sanders A, Mitchell W, Alexopoulou L, et al. TLR3 is essential for the induction of protective immunity against Punta Toro Virus infection by the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), poly(I:C12U), but not Poly(I:C): differential recognition of synthetic dsRNA molecules. J Immunol. 2007;178:5200-8 pubmed
    ..viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns can be sensed by a growing number of host cell cytosolic proteins and TLR3, which contribute to the induction of antiviral defenses...
  32. Kulka M, Alexopoulou L, Flavell R, Metcalfe D. Activation of mast cells by double-stranded RNA: evidence for activation through Toll-like receptor 3. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114:174-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MCs contribute to innate immune responses to viral infection via the production of type I IFNs. ..
  33. Lathia J, Okun E, Tang S, Griffioen K, Cheng A, Mughal M, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 is a negative regulator of embryonic neural progenitor cell proliferation. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13978-84 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR3 protein is present in brain cells in early embryonic stages of development, and in cultured neural stem/progenitor ..
  34. McCartney S, Vermi W, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Murphy T, Schreiber R, et al. Distinct and complementary functions of MDA5 and TLR3 in poly(I:C)-mediated activation of mouse NK cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2967-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Poly(I:C) acts through two dsRNA sensors, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA5)...
  35. Pulko V, Liu X, Krco C, Harris K, Frigola X, Kwon E, et al. TLR3-stimulated dendritic cells up-regulate B7-H1 expression and influence the magnitude of CD8 T cell responses to tumor vaccination. J Immunol. 2009;183:3634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the expression and function of B7 family costimulatory molecules on DCs after activation with the TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid...
  36. Kumar H, Kawai T, Akira S. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response. Biochem J. 2009;420:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways. ..
  37. McCartney S, Thackray L, Gitlin L, Gilfillan S, Virgin H, Virgin Iv H, et al. MDA-5 recognition of a murine norovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000108 pubmed publisher
    ..Because noroviruses are RNA viruses, we investigated whether MDA5 and TLR3, cellular sensors that recognize dsRNA, are important for the host response to MNV-1...
  38. Takahashi K, Shibata T, Akashi Takamura S, Kiyokawa T, Wakabayashi Y, Tanimura N, et al. A protein associated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (PRAT4A) is required for TLR-dependent immune responses. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2963-76 pubmed
    ..There was impaired cytokine production to TLR ligands, except to the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), and to whole bacteria...
  39. Lin Q, Wang L, Lin Y, Liu X, Ren X, Wen S, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid promotes wound healing in human and murine skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2085-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study showed that wound healing was impaired in TLR3-deficient mice...
  40. Conrad M, Ferstl R, Teich R, Brand S, Blümer N, Yildirim A, et al. Maternal TLR signaling is required for prenatal asthma protection by the nonpathogenic microbe Acinetobacter lwoffii F78. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2869-77 pubmed publisher
    ..lwoffii F78-exposed mothers. These data establish a direct relationship between maternal bacterial exposures, functional maternal TLR signaling, and asthma protection in the progeny. ..
  41. Hardarson H, Baker J, Yang Z, Purevjav E, Huang C, Alexopoulou L, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 is an essential component of the innate stress response in virus-induced cardiac injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H251-8 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is important in the initiation of the innate antiviral response...
  42. Lang K, Georgiev P, Recher M, Navarini A, Bergthaler A, Heikenwalder M, et al. Immunoprivileged status of the liver is controlled by Toll-like receptor 3 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2456-63 pubmed
    ..Only additional innate immune signals orchestrated by TLR3 provoked liver damage...
  43. Cameron J, Alexopoulou L, Sloane J, DiBernardo A, Ma Y, Kosaras B, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 is a potent negative regulator of axonal growth in mammals. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13033-41 pubmed
    ..One member in this family of pattern recognition receptors, toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and host mRNA...
  44. Lin Q, Fang D, Fang J, Ren X, Yang X, Wen F, et al. Impaired wound healing with defective expression of chemokines and recruitment of myeloid cells in TLR3-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2011;186:3710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies demonstrated that RNAs released from damaged tissues served as endogenous ligands for TLR3. In this study, we investigated the involvement of TLR3 in skin restoration after injury...
  45. Heil F, Hemmi H, Hochrein H, Ampenberger F, Kirschning C, Akira S, et al. Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8. Science. 2004;303:1526-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that ssRNA represents a physiological ligand for TLR7 and TLR8. ..
  46. Johnson A, Li X, Pearlman E. MyD88 functions as a negative regulator of TLR3/TRIF-induced corneal inflammation by inhibiting activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3988-96 pubmed
    The adaptor molecule MyD88 is necessary for responses to all Toll-like receptors except TLR3 and a subset of TLR4 signaling events, which are mediated by the adaptor molecule TRIF...
  47. So E, Kang M, Kim B. Induction of chemokine and cytokine genes in astrocytes following infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is mediated by the Toll-like receptor 3. Glia. 2006;53:858-67 pubmed
    ..we investigated whether the NF-kappaB-dependent inflammatory responses after TMEV infection is triggered through TLR3 and/or TLR7...
  48. Akazawa T, Ebihara T, Okuno M, Okuda Y, Shingai M, Tsujimura K, et al. Antitumor NK activation induced by the Toll-like receptor 3-TICAM-1 (TRIF) pathway in myeloid dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:252-7 pubmed
    ..IFNAR was a prerequisite for the induction of IFN-alpha/beta and TLR3. The lack of TICAM-1 did not affect IFN production but resulted in unresponsiveness to IL-12 production, mDC ..
  49. Doyle S, Vaidya S, O Connell R, Dadgostar H, Dempsey P, Wu T, et al. IRF3 mediates a TLR3/TLR4-specific antiviral gene program. Immunity. 2002;17:251-63 pubmed
    We have identified a subset of genes that is specifically induced by stimulation of TLR3 or TLR4 but not by TLR2 or TLR9...
  50. Broering R, Wu J, Meng Z, Hilgard P, Lu M, Trippler M, et al. Toll-like receptor-stimulated non-parenchymal liver cells can regulate hepatitis C virus replication. J Hepatol. 2008;48:914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..IFNs (-alpha, -beta, -gamma) and TLR3 ligands only (despite the expression of TLR1-7 and TLR9 mRNA) achieved direct suppression of HCV replication by ..
  51. Couillin I, Vasseur V, Charron S, Gasse P, Tavernier M, Guillet J, et al. IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling is critical for elastase-induced lung inflammation and emphysema. J Immunol. 2009;183:8195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, elastase-mediated lung pathology depends on inflammasome activation with IL-1beta production. IL-1beta therefore represents a critical mediator and a possible therapeutic target of lung inflammation leading to emphysema. ..
  52. Meylan E, Burns K, Hofmann K, Blancheteau V, Martinon F, Kelliher M, et al. RIP1 is an essential mediator of Toll-like receptor 3-induced NF-kappa B activation. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:503-7 pubmed
    ..Analysis of Trif-deficient mice has shown that TLR3-dependent activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B by the TLR3 ligand double-stranded RNA is Trif ..
  53. Zhang S, Herman M, Ciancanelli M, Pérez de Diego R, Sancho Shimizu V, Abel L, et al. TLR3 immunity to infection in mice and humans. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013;25:19-33 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR3 is a receptor for dsRNA, which is generated during most viral infections. However, other cellular processes may also produce dsRNA and there are other receptors for dsRNA...
  54. Hyakkoku K, Hamanaka J, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Tanaka H, Uematsu S, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but not TLR3 or TLR9, knock-out mice have neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience. 2010;171:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..ischemia induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h differed in mice that lack a functional TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 signaling pathway...
  55. Torres D, Dieudonné A, Ryffel B, Vilain E, Si Tahar M, Pichavant M, et al. Double-stranded RNA exacerbates pulmonary allergic reaction through TLR3: implication of airway epithelium and dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Their activation is, at least in part, mediated by the TLR3-dependent recognition of virus-derived dsRNA...
  56. Zhou R, Wei H, Sun R, Tian Z. Recognition of double-stranded RNA by TLR3 induces severe small intestinal injury in mice. J Immunol. 2007;178:4548-56 pubmed
    ..Upon engaging TLR3 on IECs, dsRNA triggers IECs to secrete IL-15, which functions to increase the percentage of CD3+NK1...
  57. Hoebe K, Janssen E, Kim S, Alexopoulou L, Flavell R, Han J, et al. Upregulation of costimulatory molecules induced by lipopolysaccharide and double-stranded RNA occurs by Trif-dependent and Trif-independent pathways. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1223-9 pubmed
    ..Trif, an adapter protein that transduces signals from Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR3, permits the induction of many cytokines, including interferon-beta, which signals through the type I interferon ..
  58. Wang T, Town T, Alexopoulou L, Anderson J, Fikrig E, Flavell R. Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis. Nat Med. 2004;10:1366-73 pubmed
    ..b>Tlr3-deficient (Tlr3(-/-)) mice were more resistant to lethal WNV infection and had impaired cytokine production and ..
  59. Koga K, Cardenas I, Aldo P, Abrahams V, Peng B, Fill S, et al. Activation of TLR3 in the trophoblast is associated with preterm delivery. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;61:196-212 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we described the expression of TLR3 by human trophoblast and their ability to respond to (Poly[I:C])...
  60. So E, Kim B. Theiler's virus infection induces TLR3-dependent upregulation of TLR2 critical for proinflammatory cytokine production. Glia. 2009;57:1216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously reported that the major activation signal for the cytokine genes is mediated via TLR3. In this study, we describe that TLR2 is upregulated via TLR3 signal and cooperatively participates in the ..
  61. Tabeta K, Georgel P, Janssen E, Du X, Hoebe K, Crozat K, et al. Toll-like receptors 9 and 3 as essential components of innate immune defense against mouse cytomegalovirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3516-21 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that both the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 --> MyD88 and TLR3 --> Trif signaling pathways are activated in vivo on viral inoculation, and that each pathway contributes to ..
  62. De Filippo K, Henderson R, Laschinger M, Hogg N. Neutrophil chemokines KC and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 are newly synthesized by tissue macrophages using distinct TLR signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2008;180:4308-15 pubmed
    ..Synthesis of these chemokines is rapidly regulated at the transcriptional level by signaling through TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 that have diverse specificities for pathogens...
  63. Carpentier P, Williams B, Miller S. Distinct roles of protein kinase R and toll-like receptor 3 in the activation of astrocytes by viral stimuli. Glia. 2007;55:239-52 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that astrocytes respond to treatment with a TLR3 ligand, poly I:C, with the upregulation of innate immune functions...
  64. Kajita E, Nishiya T, Miwa S. The transmembrane domain directs TLR9 to intracellular compartments that contain TLR3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;343:578-84 pubmed
    ..Despite their conserved primary structures, some TLRs that detect pathogen-derived nucleic acids (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9) are retained in the cytoplasm...
  65. Kanneganti T, Body Malapel M, Amer A, Park J, Whitfield J, Franchi L, et al. Critical role for Cryopyrin/Nalp3 in activation of caspase-1 in response to viral infection and double-stranded RNA. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36560-8 pubmed
    ..These results identify a mechanism mediated by cryopyrin and ASC that links dsRNA and viral infection to caspase-1 activation resulting in IL-1beta and IL-18 production. ..
  66. Ank N, Iversen M, Bartholdy C, Staeheli P, Hartmann R, Jensen U, et al. An important role for type III interferon (IFN-lambda/IL-28) in TLR-induced antiviral activity. J Immunol. 2008;180:2474-85 pubmed
    ..However, the strong antiviral activity evoked by treatment of mice with TLR3 or TLR9 agonists was significantly reduced in both IL-28RA(-/-) and IFNAR(-/-) mice...
  67. Tatematsu M, Nishikawa F, Seya T, Matsumoto M. Toll-like receptor 3 recognizes incomplete stem structures in single-stranded viral RNA. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1833 pubmed publisher
    Endosomal Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) serves as a sensor of viral infection and sterile tissue necrosis...
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