Gene Symbol: Tlr1
Description: toll-like receptor 1
Alias: toll-like receptor 1, TIL, toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Tlr1

Top Publications

  1. Chang S, Dolganiuc A, Szabo G. Toll-like receptors 1 and 6 are involved in TLR2-mediated macrophage activation by hepatitis C virus core and NS3 proteins. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:479-87 pubmed
    ..TLR2 activation requires homo- or heterodimerization with TLR1 or TLR6...
  2. Netea M, van de Veerdonk F, Verschueren I, Van der Meer J, Kullberg B. Role of TLR1 and TLR6 in the host defense against disseminated candidiasis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008;52:118-23 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor-1 (TLR1) and TLR6 are receptors of the TLR family that form heterodimers with TLR2. The role of TLR1 and TLR6 for the recognition of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans was investigated...
  3. Hajjar A, O Mahony D, Ozinsky A, Underhill D, Aderem A, Klebanoff S, et al. Cutting edge: functional interactions between toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR1 or TLR6 in response to phenol-soluble modulin. J Immunol. 2001;166:15-9 pubmed
    ..The TLR2-mediated response to this modulin was enhanced by TLR6 but inhibited by TLR1, indicating a functional interaction between these receptors...
  4. Alexopoulou L, Thomas V, Schnare M, Lobet Y, Anguita J, Schoen R, et al. Hyporesponsiveness to vaccination with Borrelia burgdorferi OspA in humans and in TLR1- and TLR2-deficient mice. Nat Med. 2002;8:878-84 pubmed
    ..After OspA immunization, mice genetically deficient in either TLR2 (TLR2(-/-)) or TLR1 (TLR1(-/-)) produced low titers of antibodies against OspA...
  5. DePaolo R, Kamdar K, Khakpour S, Sugiura Y, Wang W, Jabri B. A specific role for TLR1 in protective T(H)17 immunity during mucosal infection. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, induction of T(H)17 immunity during oral infection is dependent on TLR1 and results from the combinatorial effect of TLR2/TLR1-induced IL-6 and IL-23 and the presence of TGF-? in the ..
  6. Fikrig E, Narasimhan S, Neelakanta G, Pal U, Chen M, Flavell R. Toll-like receptors 1 and 2 heterodimers alter Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression in mice and ticks. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1331-40 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi gene expression in murine skin showed that several genes were altered in TLR1/2-deficient animals compared with wild-type mice. For example, expression of bbe21 (a gene involved in B...
  7. Ozinsky A, Underhill D, Fontenot J, Hajjar A, Smith K, Wilson C, et al. The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13766-71 pubmed
    ..We show that the cytoplasmic domain of TLR2 can form functional pairs with TLR6 or TLR1, and this interaction leads to cytokine induction...
  8. Takeuchi O, Sato S, Horiuchi T, Hoshino K, Takeda K, Dong Z, et al. Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2002;169:10-4 pubmed
    ..TLR6 associates with TLR2 and recognizes diacylated mycoplasmal lipopeptide along with TLR2. We report here that TLR1 associates with TLR2 and recognizes the native mycobacterial 19-kDa lipoprotein along with TLR2...
  9. Katz J, Zhang P, Martin M, Vogel S, Michalek S. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for inflammatory responses to Francisella tularensis LVS. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2809-16 pubmed
    ..TLR6, not TLR1, was shown to be involved in mediating the inflammatory response to F...

More Information


  1. Buwitt Beckmann U, Heine H, Wiesmüller K, Jung G, Brock R, Akira S, et al. TLR1- and TLR6-independent recognition of bacterial lipopeptides. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9049-57 pubmed
    ..Triacylated lipopeptides are assumed to be recognized by TLR2/TLR1-, whereas diacylated lipopeptides use TLR2/TLR6 heteromers for signaling...
  2. Rubino I, Coste A, Le Roy D, Roger T, Jaton K, Boeckh M, et al. Species-specific recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus by Toll-like receptor 1 and Toll-like receptor 6. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:944-54 pubmed publisher
    ..fumigatus involves Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2, which forms a heterodimer with either TLR1 or TLR6. The role of those coreceptors in Aspergillus sensing is unknown...
  3. Doi T, Mizukawa Y, Shimoda Y, Yamazaki Y, Shiohara T. Importance of Water Content of the Stratum Corneum in Mouse Models for Contact Hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:151-158 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that increased levels of water in the stratum corneum serve to ameliorate the CHS beyond the genetic effects. ..
  4. Izadi H, Motameni A, Bates T, Olivera E, Villar Suarez V, Joshi I, et al. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 is required for Toll-like receptor 1 gene expression in macrophages. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5027-34 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate a mechanism of control of murine macrophage responses mediated by TLR1/2 heterodimers through c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) activity...
  5. Kaul D, Habbel P, Derkow K, Krüger C, Franzoni E, Wulczyn F, et al. Expression of Toll-like receptors in the developing brain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37767 pubmed publisher
    ..use of real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry we systematically examined the expression of TLR1-9 and the intracellular adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF during development of the mouse brain...
  6. Tötemeyer S, Kaiser P, Maskell D, Bryant C. Sublethal infection of C57BL/6 mice with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium leads to an increase in levels of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR2, and TLR9 mRNA as well as a decrease in levels of TLR6 mRNA in infected organs. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1873-8 pubmed
    ..enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. During infection, the Toll-lie receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR2, and TLR9 mRNA levels increased, while TLR6 mRNA expression decreased.
  7. Hanihara Tatsuzawa F, Miura H, Kobayashi S, Isagawa T, Okuma A, Manabe I, et al. Control of Toll-like receptor-mediated T cell-independent type 1 antibody responses by the inducible nuclear protein I?B-?. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:30925-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that I?B-? regulates TLR-mediated CSR by inducing AID. Moreover, I?B-? defines differences in the transcriptional regulation of different antibody responses. ..
  8. Drennan M, Stijlemans B, Van den Abbeele J, Quesniaux V, Barkhuizen M, Brombacher F, et al. The induction of a type 1 immune response following a Trypanosoma brucei infection is MyD88 dependent. J Immunol. 2005;175:2501-9 pubmed
    ..brucei infections. These results implicate the mammalian TLR family and MyD88 signaling in the innate immune recognition of T. brucei. ..
  9. Zhou H, Zhao K, Li W, Yang N, Liu Y, Chen C, et al. The interactions between pristine graphene and macrophages and the production of cytokines/chemokines via TLR- and NF-?B-related signaling pathways. Biomaterials. 2012;33:6933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to systematically assess the biological responses of graphene, both to improve its safety and to contribute to the design of new biological applications. ..
  10. Zhang Y, Luo F, Cai Y, Liu N, Wang L, Xu D, et al. TLR1/TLR2 agonist induces tumor regression by reciprocal modulation of effector and regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:1963-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report a general immunotherapeutic activity of a synthetic bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), a TLR1/TLR2 agonist, on established lung carcinoma, leukemia, and melanoma in mice...
  11. Ribes S, Ebert S, Czesnik D, Regen T, Zeug A, Bukowski S, et al. Toll-like receptor prestimulation increases phagocytosis of Escherichia coli DH5alpha and Escherichia coli K1 strains by murine microglial cells. Infect Immun. 2009;77:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. Here, murine microglial cultures were stimulated with the TLR agonists Pam(3)CSK(4) (TLR1/TLR2), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9) for 24 h...
  12. Wang Y, Tang Y, Teng L, Wu Y, Zhao X, Pei G. Association of beta-arrestin and TRAF6 negatively regulates Toll-like receptor-interleukin 1 receptor signaling. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:139-47 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-arrestins are essential negative regulators of innate immune activation via TLR-IL-1R signaling. ..
  13. Loof T, Goldmann O, Medina E. Immune recognition of Streptococcus pyogenes by dendritic cells. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2785-92 pubmed publisher signaling through each of the TLRs reported as potential receptors for gram-positive cell components, such as TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and TLR2/6, were not impaired in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and the up-..
  14. Joseph A, Srivastava R, Zabaleta J, Davila E. Cross-talk between 4-1BB and TLR1-TLR2 Signaling in CD8+ T Cells Regulates TLR2's Costimulatory Effects. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016;4:708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared microarray gene analysis data between TLR1-TLR2-stimulated and unstimulated T-cell receptor transgenic "pmel" and MyD88(-/-) pmel CD8(+) T cells and ..
  15. Takahashi K, Shibata T, Akashi Takamura S, Kiyokawa T, Wakabayashi Y, Tanimura N, et al. A protein associated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (PRAT4A) is required for TLR-dependent immune responses. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2963-76 pubmed
    ..PRAT4A resides in the endoplasmic reticulum, and PRAT4A knockdown inhibited trafficking of TLR1 and TLR4 to the cell surface and ligand-induced trafficking of TLR9 to lysosomes...
  16. Aplin A, Ligresti G, Fogel E, Zorzi P, Smith K, Nicosia R. Regulation of angiogenesis, mural cell recruitment and adventitial macrophage behavior by Toll-like receptors. Angiogenesis. 2014;17:147-61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR1, 3, and 6 are transiently upregulated at 24 h whereas TLR2, 4, and 8 expression peaks at 24 h but remains ..
  17. Saeed A, Duffort S, Ivanov D, Wang H, Laird J, Salomon R, et al. The oxidative stress product carboxyethylpyrrole potentiates TLR2/TLR1 inflammatory signaling in macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e106421 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, CEP selectively augments TLR2/TLR1-signaling instead of TLR2/TLR6-signaling...
  18. Okun E, Griffioen K, Son T, Lee J, Roberts N, Mughal M, et al. TLR2 activation inhibits embryonic neural progenitor cell proliferation. J Neurochem. 2010;114:462-74 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR2-mediated inhibition of NPC proliferation may therefore be a mechanism by which infection, ischemia, and inflammation adversely affect brain development. ..
  19. Bogunovic M, DAVE S, Tilstra J, Chang D, Harpaz N, Xiong H, et al. Enteroendocrine cells express functional Toll-like receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1770-83 pubmed
    ..b>TLR1, TLR2, and TLR4 are coexpressed on a subpopulation of human and murine IECs that reside predominantly in the ..
  20. Speer T, Rohrer L, Blyszczuk P, Shroff R, Kuschnerus K, Krankel N, et al. Abnormal high-density lipoprotein induces endothelial dysfunction via activation of Toll-like receptor-2. Immunity. 2013;38:754-68 pubmed publisher
  21. Leng C, Chen H, Chang L, Liu H, Liu H, Sher Y, et al. A recombinant lipoprotein containing an unsaturated fatty acid activates NF-kappaB through the TLR2 signaling pathway and induces a differential gene profile from a synthetic lipopeptide. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2015-21 pubmed publisher
    ..After analyzing the co-receptor usage of TLR2 using TLR1(-/-) or TLR6(-/-) mice, the TLR2 signaling triggered by rlipo-D1E3 and Pam3 could use either TLR1 or TLR6 as a co-..
  22. Kim S, Takahashi H, Lin W, Descargues P, Grivennikov S, Kim Y, et al. Carcinoma-produced factors activate myeloid cells through TLR2 to stimulate metastasis. Nature. 2009;457:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results explain how advanced cancer cells usurp components of the host innate immune system, including bone-marrow-derived myeloid progenitors, to generate an inflammatory microenvironment hospitable for metastatic growth...
  23. Shen K, Song Y, Chen I, Leng C, Chen H, Li H, et al. Molecular mechanisms of TLR2-mediated antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2014;192:4233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that TLR2-mediated cross-presentation occurs through the upregulation of Rab7 and a TAP-independent pathway that prime CTL responses. ..
  24. Vallois D, Grimm C, Avner P, Boitard C, Rogner U. The type 1 diabetes locus Idd6 controls TLR1 expression. J Immunol. 2007;179:3896-903 pubmed
    ..C3H-congenic mouse strains exhibit a constitutive and specific down-regulation of Toll-like receptor 1 (Tlr1) gene expression compared with diabetes prone NOD mice...
  25. Seimon T, Nadolski M, Liao X, Magallon J, Nguyen M, Feric N, et al. Atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins trigger CD36-TLR2-dependent apoptosis in macrophages undergoing endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell Metab. 2010;12:467-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into how atherogenic lipoproteins trigger macrophage apoptosis in the setting of ER stress and how TLR activation might promote macrophage apoptosis and plaque necrosis in advanced atherosclerosis. ..
  26. Chen C, Kono H, Golenbock D, Reed G, Akira S, Rock K. Identification of a key pathway required for the sterile inflammatory response triggered by dying cells. Nat Med. 2007;13:851-6 pubmed
    ..reduction in mice doubly deficient in Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4 and normal responses in mice lacking Tlr1, Tlr3, Tlr6, Tlr7, Tlr9, Tlr11 or the interleukin-18 receptor (IL-18R)...
  27. Miranda Hernandez S, Gerlach N, Fletcher J, Biros E, Mack M, Korner H, et al. Role for MyD88, TLR2 and TLR9 but not TLR1, TLR4 or TLR6 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2011;187:791-804 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the effects of targeted deletions of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, TLR9, and MyD88 on the induction of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG(35-55)) ..
  28. Curtiss L, Black A, Bonnet D, Tobias P. Atherosclerosis induced by endogenous and exogenous toll-like receptor (TLR)1 or TLR6 agonists. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 to enable inflammatory responses in the presence of distinct ligands...
  29. Murawski M, Bowen G, Cerny A, Anderson L, Haynes L, Tripp R, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus activates innate immunity through Toll-like receptor 2. J Virol. 2009;83:1492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, TLR2 interactions with RSV promoted neutrophil migration and dendritic cell activation within the lung. Collectively, these studies indicate that TLR2 is involved in RSV recognition and subsequent innate immune activation. ..
  30. Drage M, Pecora N, Hise A, Febbraio M, Silverstein R, Golenbock D, et al. TLR2 and its co-receptors determine responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to lipoproteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cell Immunol. 2009;258:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied Mtb lipoprotein-induced responses in TLR2(-/-), TLR1(-/-), TLR6(-/-), CD14(-/-) and CD36(-/-) macrophages...
  31. Beutler B. The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:385-92 pubmed
    ..These include the development of fever, shock, and tissue injury, but also the activation of innate and adaptive effector mechanisms that lead to the elimination of microbes. ..
  32. Sugiura Y, Kamdar K, Khakpour S, Young G, Karpus W, DePaolo R. TLR1-induced chemokine production is critical for mucosal immunity against Yersinia enterocolitica. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:1101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that activation of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) in the epithelium leads to the upregulation of the chemokine CCL20 during oral infection with Yersinia ..
  33. Enoksson M, Lyberg K, Möller Westerberg C, Fallon P, Nilsson G, Lunderius Andersson C. Mast cells as sensors of cell injury through IL-33 recognition. J Immunol. 2011;186:2523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify IL-33 as a key danger signal released by necrotic structural cells capable of activating mast cells, thus providing novel insights concerning the role of mast cells as sensors of cell injury. ..
  34. Daniele S, Béraud D, Davenport C, Cheng K, Yin H, Maguire Zeiss K. Activation of MyD88-dependent TLR1/2 signaling by misfolded α-synuclein, a protein linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra45 pubmed publisher
    ..oligomeric α-synuclein induced a proinflammatory microglial phenotype by directly engaging the heterodimer TLR1/2 (Toll-like receptor 1 and 2) at the cell membrane, leading to the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (nuclear ..
  35. Henneke P, Takeuchi O, van Strijp J, Guttormsen H, Smith J, Schromm A, et al. Novel engagement of CD14 and multiple toll-like receptors by group B streptococci. J Immunol. 2001;167:7069-76 pubmed
    ..In addition to TLR2, TLR6 and CD14 expression were essential for GBS-F responses, whereas TLR1 and TLR4 or MD-2 did not appear to be involved...
  36. Jiang D, Liang J, Fan J, Yu S, Chen S, Luo Y, et al. Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan. Nat Med. 2005;11:1173-9 pubmed
    ..Hyaluronan-TLR2 and hyaluronan-TLR4 interactions provide signals that initiate inflammatory responses, maintain epithelial cell integrity and promote recovery from acute lung injury. ..
  37. Martino M, Maruyama K, Kuhn G, Satoh T, Takeuchi O, Müller R, et al. Inhibition of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling promotes mesenchymal stem cell-driven tissue regeneration. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11051 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this strategy, we considerably improve MSC-based bone regeneration in the mouse, demonstrating that this approach may be useful in regenerative medicine applications. ..
  38. Albiger B, Dahlberg S, Sandgren A, Wartha F, Beiter K, Katsuragi H, et al. Toll-like receptor 9 acts at an early stage in host defence against pneumococcal infection. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:633-44 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that mice deficient in TLR9 but not in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 or IL-1R/IL-18R are more susceptible to a respiratory tract bacterial infection caused by ..
  39. Xu Y, Tao X, Shen B, Horng T, Medzhitov R, Manley J, et al. Structural basis for signal transduction by the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains. Nature. 2000;408:111-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report the crystal structures of the TIR domains of human TLR1 and TLR2 and of the Pro681His mutant of TLR2...
  40. Alugupalli K, Akira S, Lien E, Leong J. MyD88- and Bruton's tyrosine kinase-mediated signals are essential for T cell-independent pathogen-specific IgM responses. J Immunol. 2007;178:3740-9 pubmed
    ..B. hermsii contains putative ligands for TLRs, and we found that mice deficient in TLR1, TLR2, or the TLR adaptor MyD88 generated anti-B...
  41. Chen C, Shi Y, Hearn A, Fitzgerald K, Golenbock D, Reed G, et al. MyD88-dependent IL-1 receptor signaling is essential for gouty inflammation stimulated by monosodium urate crystals. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2262-71 pubmed
    ..The MyD88-dependent TLR1, -2, -4, -6, -7, -9, and -11 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) are not essential for MSU-induced inflammation...
  42. Togbe D, Schofield L, Grau G, Schnyder B, Boissay V, Charron S, et al. Murine cerebral malaria development is independent of toll-like receptor signaling. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1640-8 pubmed
    ..To exclude the role of other members of the TLR family in PbA recognition, we infected mice deficient for single TLR1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, or -9 and their adapter proteins MyD88, TIRAP, and TRIF...
  43. Oosting M, Ter Hofstede H, Sturm P, Adema G, Kullberg B, Van der Meer J, et al. TLR1/TLR2 heterodimers play an important role in the recognition of Borrelia spirochetes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25998 pubmed publisher
    ..While TLR2 is the main recognition receptor for Borrelia spp., little is known about the role of TLR1 and TLR6, which both can form functionally active heterodimers with TLR2...
  44. Medina E, Morris I, Berton M. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation attenuates the TLR2-mediated macrophage proinflammatory cytokine response to Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain. J Immunol. 2010;185:7562-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This TLR2-independent inhibitory pathway may be an important mechanism by which Francisella suppresses the host's innate immune response...
  45. Yang D, Chen Q, Su S, Zhang P, Kurosaka K, Caspi R, et al. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin acts as an alarmin to activate the TLR2-MyD88 signal pathway in dendritic cells and enhances Th2 immune responses. J Exp Med. 2008;205:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..EDN activates TLR2 independently of TLR1 or TLR6...
  46. Motoi Y, Shibata T, Takahashi K, Kanno A, Murakami Y, Li X, et al. Lipopeptides are signaled by Toll-like receptor 1, 2 and 6 in endolysosomes. Int Immunol. 2014;26:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR-dependent responses are greatly influenced by the site of pathogen sensing. TLR heterodimers TLR1/TLR2 and TLR2/TLR6 recognize tri- or diacylated microbial lipopeptides, respectively...
  47. Lee J, Zhao L, Youn H, Weatherill A, Tapping R, Feng L, et al. Saturated fatty acid activates but polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibits Toll-like receptor 2 dimerized with Toll-like receptor 6 or 1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16971-9 pubmed
    ..A saturated fatty acid, lauric acid, induced NFkappaB activation when TLR2 was co-transfected with TLR1 or TLR6 in 293T cells, but not when TLR1, 2, 3, 5, 6, or 9 was transfected individually...
  48. Ryu Y, Lee M, Lee J, Lee J, Jang S, Kang J, et al. γ-Irradiated cancer cells promote tumor growth by activation of Toll-like receptor 1-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2015;97:711-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Although iNOS activity was reduced by inhibiting TLR1 expression with TLR1-siRNA, it was enhanced by TLR1 overexpression...
  49. Pandey S, Doyen N, Mishra G, Saha B, Chandel H. TLR9-deficiency reduces TLR1, TLR2 and TLR3 expressions in Leishmania major-infected macrophages. Exp Parasitol. 2015;154:82-6 pubmed publisher
    The parasite Leishmania major counteractively modulates TLR2 and TLR9 expression and their functions. Although TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 are also implicated in Leishmania infection, whether their expression was altered in TLR2 or TLR9 ..
  50. Qureshi S, Gros P, Malo D. Host resistance to infection: genetic control of lipopolysaccharide responsiveness by TOLL-like receptor genes. Trends Genet. 1999;15:291-4 pubmed
    ..Tlr4 is a member of an ancient gene family that regulates antimicrobial host defense in plants, invertebrates and mammals. ..
  51. Abplanalp A, Morris I, Parida B, Teale J, Berton M. TLR-dependent control of Francisella tularensis infection and host inflammatory responses. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7920 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis PAMPs are predominantly recognized by TLR2/TLR1 or TLR2/TLR6...
  52. Kumar H, Kawai T, Akira S. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response. Biochem J. 2009;420:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways. ..
  53. Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. TLR6: A novel member of an expanding toll-like receptor family. Gene. 1999;231:59-65 pubmed
    ..The TLR6 gene, as well as the TLR1 gene, mapped to the proximal region of murine chromosome 5 within 1.7cM of each other...