Gene Symbol: Ticam1
Description: toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1
Alias: AW046014, AW547018, TICAM-1, TRIF, TIR domain-containing adapter molecule 1, TIR domain-containing adapter protein inducing IFN-beta, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-beta, toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein inducing interferon beta
Species: mouse
Products:     Ticam1

Top Publications

  1. Weighardt H, Jusek G, Mages J, Lang R, Hoebe K, Beutler B, et al. Identification of a TLR4- and TRIF-dependent activation program of dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:558-64 pubmed
    ..pathway, TLR4 engages the adaptor protein Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), leading to interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) activation and type I interferon production...
  2. Mayer Barber K, Barber D, Shenderov K, White S, Wilson M, Cheever A, et al. Caspase-1 independent IL-1beta production is critical for host resistance to mycobacterium tuberculosis and does not require TLR signaling in vivo. J Immunol. 2010;184:3326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis infection in MyD88, TRIF/MyD88, IL-1R1, and IL-1beta-deficient mice...
  3. Li Y, Si R, Feng Y, Chen H, Zou L, Wang E, et al. Myocardial ischemia activates an injurious innate immune signaling via cardiac heat shock protein 60 and Toll-like receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:31308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..artery occlusion induced a rapid myocardial IRAK-1 activation within 30 min in wild-type (WT), TLR2(-/-), or Trif(-/-) mice, but not in TLR4(def) or MyD88(-/-) mice...
  4. Hoebe K, Du X, Georgel P, Janssen E, Tabeta K, Kim S, et al. Identification of Lps2 as a key transducer of MyD88-independent TIR signalling. Nature. 2003;424:743-8 pubmed
    ..Lps2 mutation: a distal frameshift error in a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TIR) adaptor protein known as Trif or Ticam-1...
  5. Fitzgerald K, Rowe D, Barnes B, Caffrey D, Visintin A, Latz E, et al. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1043-55 pubmed
    Toll-IL-1-resistance (TIR) domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) is the fourth TIR domain-containing adaptor protein to be described that participates in Toll receptor signaling...
  6. Feng Y, Zou L, Si R, Nagasaka Y, Chao W. Bone marrow MyD88 signaling modulates neutrophil function and ischemic myocardial injury. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C760-9 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon-?-mediated transcription factor (Trif), another innate immune adaptor, had no effect on the KC-mediated CXCR2 downregulation or on myocardial neutrophil ..
  7. Johnson A, Li X, Pearlman E. MyD88 functions as a negative regulator of TLR3/TRIF-induced corneal inflammation by inhibiting activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3988-96 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptors except TLR3 and a subset of TLR4 signaling events, which are mediated by the adaptor molecule TRIF. To determine the role of TRIF in host inflammatory responses, corneal epithelium of C57BL/6, TLR3(-/-), TRIF(-/-), ..
  8. Meylan E, Burns K, Hofmann K, Blancheteau V, Martinon F, Kelliher M, et al. RIP1 is an essential mediator of Toll-like receptor 3-induced NF-kappa B activation. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:503-7 pubmed
    ..innate immune responses through Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptors such as MyD88 and Trif. Analysis of Trif-deficient mice has shown that TLR3-dependent activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B by ..
  9. Famakin B, Mou Y, Ruetzler C, Bembry J, Maric D, Hallenbeck J. Disruption of downstream MyD88 or TRIF Toll-like receptor signaling does not protect against cerebral ischemia. Brain Res. 2011;1388:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We thereby investigated involvement of the MyD88-dependent (MyD88) and MyD88-independent (TRIF) TLR signaling pathways in 2 in vitro and 2 in vivo models of cerebral ischemia...

More Information


  1. Copin R, De Baetselier P, Carlier Y, Letesson J, Muraille E. MyD88-dependent activation of B220-CD11b+LY-6C+ dendritic cells during Brucella melitensis infection. J Immunol. 2007;178:5182-91 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide new insight into how immune responses fight Brucella infection. ..
  2. Shen H, Tesar B, Walker W, Goldstein D. Dual signaling of MyD88 and TRIF is critical for maximal TLR4-induced dendritic cell maturation. J Immunol. 2008;181:1849-58 pubmed
    ..two separate pathways, as follows: MyD88 and Toll IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)...
  3. Kleinman M, Yamada K, Takeda A, Chandrasekaran V, Nozaki M, Baffi J, et al. Sequence- and target-independent angiogenesis suppression by siRNA via TLR3. Nature. 2008;452:591-7 pubmed publisher
    ..targeted (against Vegfa or Vegfr1) siRNA suppressed CNV via cell-surface toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), its adaptor TRIF, and induction of interferon-gamma and interleukin-12...
  4. Henry T, Brotcke A, Weiss D, Thompson L, Monack D. Type I interferon signaling is required for activation of the inflammasome during Francisella infection. J Exp Med. 2007;204:987-94 pubmed
    ..This connection underscores the importance of the cytosolic recognition of pathogens and highlights how multiple innate immunity pathways interact before commitment to critical host responses...
  5. Scumpia P, Kelly Scumpia K, Delano M, Weinstein J, Cuenca A, Al Quran S, et al. Cutting edge: bacterial infection induces hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion in the absence of TLR signaling. J Immunol. 2010;184:2247-51 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment in vivo induces TLR4, MyD88, and Toll/IL-1 resistance domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent expansion of BM HSPCs...
  6. Hosmane S, Tegenge M, Rajbhandari L, Uapinyoying P, Ganesh Kumar N, Thakor N, et al. Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-β mediates microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..and genetic disruption of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-β (TRIF), a Toll-like receptor adapter protein, blocks induction of the interferon response and inhibits microglial ..
  7. De Trez C, Pajak B, Brait M, Glaichenhaus N, Urbain J, Moser M, et al. TLR4 and Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta, but not MyD88, regulate Escherichia coli-induced dendritic cell maturation and apoptosis in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;175:839-46 pubmed
    ..this model, DC maturation is impaired in TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-) and TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)(-/-) mice. In contrast, DC apoptosis is reduced only in TLR4(-/-) and TRIF(-/-) mice...
  8. Gandhapudi S, Chilton P, Mitchell T. TRIF is required for TLR4 mediated adjuvant effects on T cell clonal expansion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56855 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR4 by its ligands is mediated by engagement of the adapter proteins MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88) and TRIF (Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-beta)...
  9. De Filippo K, Henderson R, Laschinger M, Hogg N. Neutrophil chemokines KC and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 are newly synthesized by tissue macrophages using distinct TLR signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2008;180:4308-15 pubmed
    ..The major and alternative TLR signaling pathways are characterized by the adaptor proteins MyD88 or TRIF, respectively. KC and MIP-2 are both produced by signaling through MyD88...
  10. Miyake T, Kumagai Y, Kato H, Guo Z, Matsushita K, Satoh T, et al. Poly I:C-induced activation of NK cells by CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells via the IPS-1 and TRIF-dependent pathways. J Immunol. 2009;183:2522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..adaptor molecules, IFN-promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1) and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), respectively. However, it remains unclear how NK cells are activated by poly I:C in vivo...
  11. Pulskens W, Teske G, Butter L, Roelofs J, van der Poll T, Florquin S, et al. Toll-like receptor-4 coordinates the innate immune response of the kidney to renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3596 pubmed publisher
    ..role of TLR4 and the relative contribution of its two downstream signaling cascades, the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent cascades in renal damage by using TLR4-/-, MyD88-/- and TRIF-mutant mice that were subjected to renal ..
  12. Kagan J, Su T, Horng T, Chow A, Akira S, Medzhitov R. TRAM couples endocytosis of Toll-like receptor 4 to the induction of interferon-beta. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:361-8 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces two distinct signaling pathways controlled by the TIRAP-MyD88 and TRAM-TRIF pairs of adaptor proteins, which elicit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons, respectively...
  13. Georgel P, Jiang Z, Kunz S, Janssen E, Mols J, Hoebe K, et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G activates a specific antiviral Toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway. Virology. 2007;362:304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..adapter TRAM has predominant importance, absent any need for MyD88 or Mal, and with only a partial requirement for TRIF. Downstream of TRAM, IRF7 activation leads to a type I IFN response...
  14. Belyaev N, Brown D, Diaz A, Rae A, Jarra W, Thompson J, et al. Induction of an IL7-R(+)c-Kit(hi) myelolymphoid progenitor critically dependent on IFN-gamma signaling during acute malaria. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IFN-gamma is a key modulator of hematopoiesis and innate and adaptive immunity during acute malaria infection...
  15. Torchinsky M, Garaude J, Martin A, Blander J. Innate immune recognition of infected apoptotic cells directs T(H)17 cell differentiation. Nature. 2009;458:78-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Because T(H)17 cells have been correlated with autoimmune diseases, investigation of the pathways of innate recognition of infected apoptotic cells might lead to improved understanding of the causative defects in autoimmunity. ..
  16. Delano M, Scumpia P, Weinstein J, Coco D, Nagaraj S, Kelly Scumpia K, et al. MyD88-dependent expansion of an immature GR-1(+)CD11b(+) population induces T cell suppression and Th2 polarization in sepsis. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1463-74 pubmed
    ..GR-1(+)CD11b(+) cells contribute to sepsis-induced T cell suppression and preferential Th2 polarization...
  17. Kato H, Takeuchi O, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Matsui K, et al. Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses. Nature. 2006;441:101-5 pubmed
    ..Together, our data show that RIG-I and MDA5 distinguish different RNA viruses and are critical for host antiviral responses. ..
  18. Miyahira A, Shahangian A, Hwang S, Sun R, Cheng G. TANK-binding kinase-1 plays an important role during in vitro and in vivo type I IFN responses to DNA virus infections. J Immunol. 2009;182:2248-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate the requirement for the TBK1-IFN regulatory factor-3 pathway in host defense against a DNA virus infection in vivo...
  19. McAleer J, Rossi R, Vella A. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates effector T cell accumulation into nonlymphoid tissues through TRIF. J Immunol. 2009;182:5322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..survival and Th1 differentiation by stimulating MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) signaling pathways...
  20. Akazawa T, Ebihara T, Okuno M, Okuda Y, Shingai M, Tsujimura K, et al. Antitumor NK activation induced by the Toll-like receptor 3-TICAM-1 (TRIF) pathway in myeloid dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:252-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the TLR adaptor TICAM-1 (TRIF) participates in mDC-derived antitumor NK activation. In a syngeneic mouse tumor implant model (C57BL/6 vs...
  21. Kinjo Y, Tupin E, Wu D, Fujio M, Garcia Navarro R, Benhnia M, et al. Natural killer T cells recognize diacylglycerol antigens from pathogenic bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:978-86 pubmed
  22. Unterholzner L, Keating S, Baran M, Horan K, Jensen S, Sharma S, et al. IFI16 is an innate immune sensor for intracellular DNA. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..IFI16 (p204) is the first PYHIN protein to our knowledge shown to be involved in IFN-? induction. Thus, the PYHIN proteins IFI16 and AIM2 form a new family of innate DNA sensors we call 'AIM2-like receptors' (ALRs). ..
  23. Stewart C, Stuart L, Wilkinson K, van Gils J, Deng J, Halle A, et al. CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:155-61 pubmed publisher
  24. Ishii K, Coban C, Kato H, Takahashi K, Torii Y, Takeshita F, et al. A Toll-like receptor-independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:40-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that both TBK1 and IKKi are required for innate immune activation by B-DNA, which might be important in antiviral innate immunity and other DNA-associated immune disorders. ..
  25. Koga R, Hamano S, Kuwata H, Atarashi K, Ogawa M, Hisaeda H, et al. TLR-dependent induction of IFN-beta mediates host defense against Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2006;177:7059-66 pubmed
    ..cruzi by focusing on innate immunity. Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) from MyD88(-/-)TRIF(-/-) mice, in which TLR-dependent activation of innate immunity was abolished, were defective in the clearance of T...
  26. Stridh L, Mottahedin A, Johansson M, Valdez R, Northington F, Wang X, et al. Toll-like receptor-3 activation increases the vulnerability of the neonatal brain to hypoxia-ischemia. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12041-51 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR-3 pathway because mice deficient in the TLR-3 adaptor protein Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TRIF) did not develop larger brain damage...
  27. Slack E, Hapfelmeier S, Stecher B, Velykoredko Y, Stoel M, Lawson M, et al. Innate and adaptive immunity cooperate flexibly to maintain host-microbiota mutualism. Science. 2009;325:617-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous hyper-activation of adaptive immunity against the intestinal microbiota, secondary to innate immune deficiency, may clarify the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory diseases where immune dysfunction is implicated. ..
  28. Oganesyan G, Saha S, Guo B, He J, Shahangian A, Zarnegar B, et al. Critical role of TRAF3 in the Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent antiviral response. Nature. 2006;439:208-11 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that TRAF3 associates with the TLR adaptors TRIF and IRAK1, as well as downstream IRF3/7 kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon, suggesting that TRAF3 serves as a critical ..
  29. Geuking M, Cahenzli J, Lawson M, Ng D, Slack E, Hapfelmeier S, et al. Intestinal bacterial colonization induces mutualistic regulatory T cell responses. Immunity. 2011;34:794-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, microbiota colonization-induced Treg cell responses are a fundamental intrinsic mechanism to induce and maintain host-intestinal microbial T cell mutualism. ..
  30. Rathinam V, Appledorn D, Hoag K, Amalfitano A, Mansfield L. Campylobacter jejuni-induced activation of dendritic cells involves cooperative signaling through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MyD88 and TLR4-TRIF axes. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..88 (MyD88) and/or Toll-interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing beta interferon (IFN-beta) (TRIF) is critical in inducing immunity against pathogens...
  31. Guo B, Chang E, Cheng G. The type I IFN induction pathway constrains Th17-mediated autoimmune inflammation in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1680-90 pubmed publisher
    ..of autoimmune disease is constrained by Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta-dependent (TRIF-dependent) type I IFN production and its downstream signaling pathway...
  32. Imai Y, Kuba K, Neely G, Yaghubian Malhami R, Perkmann T, Van Loo G, et al. Identification of oxidative stress and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling as a key pathway of acute lung injury. Cell. 2008;133:235-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that TLR4-TRIF-TRAF6 signaling is a key disease pathway that controls the severity of ALI...
  33. Sato S, Sugiyama M, Yamamoto M, Watanabe Y, Kawai T, Takeda K, et al. Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) associates with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 and TANK-binding kinase 1, and activates two distinct transcription factors, NF-kappa B and IFN-regulatory factor-3, in the Toll-li. J Immunol. 2003;171:4304-10 pubmed
    ..reported a new Toll/IL-1R (TIR)-containing molecule, named TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)...
  34. Kumar H, Koyama S, Ishii K, Kawai T, Akira S. Cutting edge: cooperation of IPS-1- and TRIF-dependent pathways in poly IC-enhanced antibody production and cytotoxic T cell responses. J Immunol. 2008;180:683-7 pubmed
    ..gene 5 (Mda5), which signal through the adaptors Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) and IFN-beta promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1), respectively...
  35. Gais P, Tiedje C, Altmayr F, Gaestel M, Weighardt H, Holzmann B. TRIF signaling stimulates translation of TNF-alpha mRNA via prolonged activation of MK2. J Immunol. 2010;184:5842-8 pubmed publisher
    The adapter protein TRIF mediates signal transduction through TLR3 and TLR4, inducing production of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines...
  36. Cervantes Barragan L, Gil Cruz C, Pastelin Palacios R, Lang K, Isibasi A, Ludewig B, et al. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling shapes specific antibody responses to Salmonella typhi antigens. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, S. typhi porins represent not only a suitable B-cell antigen for vaccination, but exhibit potent TLR-dependent stimulatory functions on B cells and DC, which help to further enhance and shape the antibody response. ..
  37. Serbina N, Hohl T, Cherny M, Pamer E. Selective expansion of the monocytic lineage directed by bacterial infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:1900-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Although MyD88/Trif-mediated signaling is not required for early emigration of the mature monocyte population from the bone marrow, ..
  38. Kato H, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Uematsu S, Matsui K, et al. Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response. Immunity. 2005;23:19-28 pubmed
    ..In contrast, plasmacytoid DCs, which produce large amounts of IFN-alpha, use the TLR system rather than RIG-I for viral detection. Taken together, RIG-I and the TLR system exert antiviral responses in a cell type-specific manner...
  39. Kovalenko A, Kim J, Kang T, Rajput A, Bogdanov K, Dittrich Breiholz O, et al. Caspase-8 deficiency in epidermal keratinocytes triggers an inflammatory skin disease. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2161-77 pubmed publisher
    ..depend on TNF, IL-1, dermal macrophage function, or expression of the toll-like receptor adapter proteins MyD88 or TRIF. Both interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and TANK-binding kinase were constitutively phosphorylated in the ..
  40. Gitlin L, Barchet W, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Beutler B, Flavell R, et al. Essential role of mda-5 in type I IFN responses to polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid and encephalomyocarditis picornavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8459-64 pubmed
    ..Moreover, mda-5-/- mice exhibited a selectively impaired antiviral response to encephalomyocarditis picornavirus, indicating functional specialization of mda-5 in vivo...
  41. Strutt T, McKinstry K, Dibble J, Winchell C, Kuang Y, Curtis J, et al. Memory CD4+ T cells induce innate responses independently of pathogen. Nat Med. 2010;16:558-64, 1p following 564 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents a previously undescribed mechanism by which memory CD4(+) T cells induce an early innate response that enhances immune protection against pathogens. ..
  42. Prantner D, Darville T, Nagarajan U. Stimulator of IFN gene is critical for induction of IFN-beta during Chlamydia muridarum infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:2551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that mouse macrophages lacking TLR3, TRIF, TLR7, or TLR9 individually or both TLR4 and MyD88, still induce IFN-beta equivalent to wild type controls, leading ..
  43. Gasse P, Mary C, Guenon I, Noulin N, Charron S, Schnyder Candrian S, et al. IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling and the inflammasome are essential in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3786-99 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, bleomycin-induced lung pathology required the inflammasome and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling, and IL-1 represented a critical effector of pathology and therapeutic target of chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis. ..
  44. Rivera A, Ro G, Van Epps H, Simpson T, Leiner I, Sant Angelo D, et al. Innate immune activation and CD4+ T cell priming during respiratory fungal infection. Immunity. 2006;25:665-75 pubmed
  45. Chen C, Feng Y, Zou L, Wang L, Chen H, Cai J, et al. Role of extracellular RNA and TLR3-Trif signaling in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3:e000683 pubmed publisher
    ..Wild-type (WT), TLR3(-/-), Trif(-/-), and interferon (IFN) ?/? receptor-1 deficient (IFNAR1(-/-)) mice were subjected to 45 minutes of coronary ..
  46. Saito T, Owen D, Jiang F, Marcotrigiano J, Gale M. Innate immunity induced by composition-dependent RIG-I recognition of hepatitis C virus RNA. Nature. 2008;454:523-7 pubmed publisher
  47. Hacker H, Redecke V, Blagoev B, Kratchmarova I, Hsu L, Wang G, et al. Specificity in Toll-like receptor signalling through distinct effector functions of TRAF3 and TRAF6. Nature. 2006;439:204-7 pubmed
    ..TRAF3 is also recruited to the adaptor TRIF (Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta) and is required for marshalling the protein kinase ..
  48. Shigeoka A, Holscher T, King A, Hall F, Kiosses W, Tobias P, et al. TLR2 is constitutively expressed within the kidney and participates in ischemic renal injury through both MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. J Immunol. 2007;178:6252-8 pubmed
    ..through one of two proximal adapter proteins, MyD88 or Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (Trif)...
  49. Negishi H, Osawa T, Ogami K, Ouyang X, Sakaguchi S, Koshiba R, et al. A critical link between Toll-like receptor 3 and type II interferon signaling pathways in antiviral innate immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate a critical cooperation of the RIG-I/MDA5-type I IFN and the TLR3-type II IFN signaling axes for efficient innate antiviral immune responses. ..
  50. Jeyaseelan S, Young S, Fessler M, Liu Y, Malcolm K, Yamamoto M, et al. Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-mediated signaling contributes to innate immune responses in the lung during Escherichia coli pneumonia. J Immunol. 2007;178:3153-60 pubmed
    ..Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) is an adaptor for TLR3 and TLR4, and is associated with the MyD88-independent cascade...
  51. Power M, Li B, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Lin T. A role of Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta in the host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice. J Immunol. 2007;178:3170-6 pubmed
    Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) is an adaptor molecule that mediates a distinct TLR signaling pathway...
  52. He S, Liang Y, Shao F, Wang X. Toll-like receptors activate programmed necrosis in macrophages through a receptor-interacting kinase-3-mediated pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20054-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An adaptor protein, Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-? (TRIF/TICAM-1), which is dispensable for TNF-?-induced necrosis, forms a complex with RIP3 upon TLR3/TLR4 activation and ..
  53. Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H, Uematsu S, Hoshino K, Kaisho T, et al. TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1144-50 pubmed
    ..pathways mediated by Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptors such as MyD88, TIRAP and TRIF. MyD88 is a common adaptor that is essential for proinflammatory cytokine production, whereas TRIF mediates the ..
  54. Pimentel Coelho P, Michaud J, Rivest S. Evidence for a gender-specific protective role of innate immune receptors in a model of perinatal brain injury. J Neurosci. 2013;33:11556-72 pubmed publisher
    ..in the TLR adaptor proteins Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon ? (TRIF) or myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88) and CX3CR1 knock-out (KO) mice were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia at ..
  55. Ishii K, Kawagoe T, Koyama S, Matsui K, Kumar H, Kawai T, et al. TANK-binding kinase-1 delineates innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. Nature. 2008;451:725-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that TBK1 is a key signalling molecule for DNA-vaccine-induced immunogenicity, by differentially controlling DNA-activated innate immune signalling through haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells. ..
  56. Gavin A, Hoebe K, Duong B, Ota T, Martin C, Beutler B, et al. Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses in the absence of toll-like receptor signaling. Science. 2006;314:1936-8 pubmed
    ..This may have important implications in the use and development of vaccine adjuvants...
  57. Keck S, Muller I, Fejer G, Savic I, Tchaptchet S, Nielsen P, et al. Absence of TRIF signaling in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine mast cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:5478-88 pubmed publisher
    In macrophages, two signaling pathways, dependent on MyD88 or TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-? (TRIF) signaling, emanate from the LPS receptor TLR4/MD-2...
  58. Hoebe K, Janssen E, Kim S, Alexopoulou L, Flavell R, Han J, et al. Upregulation of costimulatory molecules induced by lipopolysaccharide and double-stranded RNA occurs by Trif-dependent and Trif-independent pathways. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1223-9 pubmed
    ..b>Trif, an adapter protein that transduces signals from Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR3, permits the induction of ..
  59. Cai S, Batra S, Shen L, Wakamatsu N, Jeyaseelan S. Both TRIF- and MyD88-dependent signaling contribute to host defense against pulmonary Klebsiella infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:6629-38 pubmed publisher
    Klebsiella pneumoniae causes extensive lung damage. TLR signaling involves adaptors TRIF and MyD88. However, the relative contribution of TRIF and MyD88 signaling in host defense against pulmonary K...
  60. Stetson D, Medzhitov R. Recognition of cytosolic DNA activates an IRF3-dependent innate immune response. Immunity. 2006;24:93-103 pubmed
    ..These findings define an innate immune response to DNA linked to type I interferon production. ..
  61. Ruckdeschel K, Pfaffinger G, Haase R, Sing A, Weighardt H, Hacker G, et al. Signaling of apoptosis through TLRs critically involves toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta, but not MyD88, in bacteria-infected murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2004;173:3320-8 pubmed
    ..Experiments using murine macrophages defective for MyD88 or Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) revealed that deficiency of TRIF, but not of MyD88, provides protection against Yersinia-mediated cell death...
  62. Sharma S, Deoliveira R, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, et al. Innate immune recognition of an AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Immunity. 2011;35:194-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations implicate AT-rich DNA sensing via STING, TBK1 and IRF3-IRF7 in P. falciparum malaria. ..